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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765945

ABSTRACT

Accurate host identification is paramount to understand disease epidemiology and to apply appropriate control measures. This is especially important for multi-host pathogens such as the rabies virus, a major and almost invariably fatal zoonosis that has mobilized unanimous engagement at an international level towards the final goal of zero human deaths due to canine rabies. Currently, diagnostic laboratories implement a standardized identification using taxonomic keys. However, this method is challenged by high and undiscovered biodiversity, decomposition of carcasses and subjective misevaluation, as has been attested to by findings from a cohort of 242 archived specimens collected across Sub-Saharan Africa and submitted for rabies diagnosis. We applied two simple and cheap methods targeting the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I to confirm the initial classification. We therefore suggest prioritizing a standardized protocol that includes, as a first step, the implementation of taxonomic keys at a family or subfamily level, followed by the molecular characterization of the host species.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Rabies virus , Rabies , Africa South of the Sahara , Animals , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Humans , Laboratories , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
2.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265508, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745307

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic diseases are projected to be a serious public threat in the coming decades. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that Jordan prioritize their list of zoonoses, partially in response to the influx of Syrian refugees. We write this paper to expand the One Health framework by situating zoonotic diseases in peacebuilding and development theories in order to prioritize zoonotic diseases in Jordan. We employ an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach to create a modified version of the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization (OHZDP) tool. We use an integrative literature review to develop a list of zoonoses to be prioritized. We expand the One Health framework by arguing health inequity is a form of violence, and thus promotion of health equity is a form of peacebuilding. We undertake thematic and statistical analyses to assess the 12 previously published OHZDP tools to evaluate necessity for change to the process given COVID-19 and the refugee situation in Jordan. In these analyses we use drivers of health indicators as measurements for peacebuilding and development, given these drivers are related to health inequities, to guide weighting of the criteria in our tool for Jordan. We apply our modified OHZDP tool to prioritize our disease list. We find it necessary to give socioeconomic factors greater consideration and to distribute weighting more evenly among all criteria within the tool when prioritizing zoonotic diseases in better reflect the Jordanian context and incorporate the refugee population. We find the priority zoonoses within Jordan to be bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, and COVID-19, with most having a disproportionately negative impact on refugees. In Jordan's case, zoonotic diseases represent an area where promoting social equity for individuals is essential to the larger society. In this sense managing zoonoses is an area uniquely suited for peacebuilding.


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts/prevention & control , Health Priorities , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Cost of Illness , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Patient Acuity , Refugees , Socioeconomic Factors , Zoonoses/prevention & control
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707746

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights the importance of possible animal-to-human (zoonotic) and human-to-animal (zooanthroponotic) transmission and potential spread within animal species. A range of animal species have been verified for SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, either in vitro or in vivo. However, the molecular bases of such a broad host spectrum for the SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive. Here, we structurally and genetically analysed the interaction between the spike protein, with a particular focus on receptor binding domains (RBDs), of SARS-CoV-2 and its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for all conceivably susceptible groups of animals to gauge the structural bases of the SARS-CoV-2 host spectrum. We describe our findings in the context of existing animal infection-based models to provide a foundation on the possible virus persistence in animals and their implications in the future eradication of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Host Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1632393

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic epidemics and pandemics have become frequent. From HIV/AIDS through COVID-19, they demonstrate that pandemics are social processes as well as health occurrences. The roots of these pandemics lie in changes in the socioeconomic interface between humanity and non-human host species that facilitate interspecies transmission. The degree to which zoonoses spread has been increased by the greater speed and extent of modern transportation and trade. Pre-existing sociopolitical and economic structures and conflicts in societies also affect pathogen propagation. As an epidemic develops, it can itself become a social and political factor, and change and interact with pre-existing sociobehavioral norms and institutional structures. This paper uses a "Big Events" approach to frame these processes. Based on this framework, we discuss how social readiness surveys implemented both before and during an outbreak might help public health predict how overall systems might react to an epidemic and/or to disease control measures, and thus might inform interventions to mitigate potential adverse outcomes or possibly preventing outbreaks from developing into epidemics. We conclude by considering what "pathways measures", in addition to those we and others have already developed, might usefully be developed and validated to assist outbreak and epidemic disease responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(2)2022 01 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625410

ABSTRACT

Climate change can have a complex impact that also influences human and animal health. For example, climate change alters the conditions for pathogens and vectors of zoonotic diseases. Signs of this are the increasing spread of the West Nile and Usutu viruses and the establishment of new vector species, such as specific mosquito and tick species, in Europe and other parts of the world. With these changes come new challenges for maintaining human and animal health. This paper reports on an analysis of the literature focused on a bibliometric analysis of the Scopus database and VOSviewer software for creating visualization maps which identifies the zoonotic health risks for humans and animals caused by climate change. The sources retained for the analysis totaled 428 and different thresholds (N) were established for each item varying from N 5 to 10. The main findings are as follows: First, published documents increased in 2009-2015 peaking in 2020. Second, the primary sources have changed since 2018, partly attributable to the increase in human health concerns due to human-to-human transmission. Third, the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia, Italy, and Germany perform most zoonosis research. For instance, sixty documents and only 17 countries analyzed for co-authorship analysis met the threshold led by the USA; the top four author keywords were "climate change", "zoonosis", "epidemiology", and "one health;" the USA, the UK, Germany, and Spain led the link strength (inter-collaboration); the author keywords showed that 37 out of the 1023 keywords met the threshold, and the authors' keyword's largest node of the bibliometric map contains the following: infectious diseases, emerging diseases, disease ecology, one health, surveillance, transmission, and wildlife. Finally, zoonotic diseases, which were documented in the literature in the past, have evolved, especially during the years 2010-2015, as evidenced by the sharp augmentation of publications addressing ad-hoc events and peaking in 2020 with the COVID-19 outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Climate Change , Animals , Bibliometrics , Humans , Mosquito Vectors , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
7.
BMJ Glob Health ; 7(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1612993

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been reported that strict non-pharmaceutical measures can significantly reduce the incidence and mortality of respiratory and intestinal infectious diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic, but there are limited reports on the impact in terms of the rates of zoonotic diseases. METHODS: We extracted the incidence and mortality data of eight notifiable infectious zoonotic diseases from the website of the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China for the period of January 2015 to April 2021. RESULTS: First, the overall incidence of zoonotic diseases decreased from 0.3714 per 100 000 in 2015-2019 to 0.2756 in 2020 (25.79% reduction, p<0.001); however, a dramatic increase in activity was seen in 2021 compared with 2020 (0.4478 per 100 000 in 2021, 62.47% increase, p<0.001). Anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis and hydatid disease exhibited significant upward trends in 2021. Second, analysed further by stages, the monthly incidence in the routine stage (from May to December 2020) was much higher than that in the emergency stage of the COVID-19 (from January to April 2020) (55.33% increase, p<0.001). We also found that the monthly observed incidence was significantly lower than the predicted incidence of a 10.29% reduction in the emergency stage. Third, no differences were seen in mortality between 2021 and 2020, while a significant decline was found in 2020 compared with the previous 5 years (72.70%, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Strict containment and feasible suppression strategies during the 2020 period of the COVID-19 pandemic had positive impacts on the overall incidence of zoonotic diseases in China. However, anthrax, brucellosis, leptospirosis and hydatid diseases might increase with the relaxation of non-pharmacological interventions in 2021.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , China/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
8.
Curr Opin Virol ; 52: 258-264, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1611679

ABSTRACT

The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome-coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the second of three zoonotic coronaviruses to infect humans since 2002, causing severe pneumonia. Unlike SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2, the causes of the severe acute respiratory syndrome and Covid-19, respectively, MERS-CoV is enzootic in dromedary camels, a domestic/companion animal present across Africa, the Middle East and Central or South Asia and is sporadically transmitted to humans. However, it does not transmit readily from human to human except in hospital and household settings. Human MERS disease is reported only from the Arabian Peninsula (and only since 2012 even though the virus was detected in camels from at least the early 1990's) and in travelers from this region. Remarkably, no zoonotic MERS disease has been detected in Africa or Asia, even in areas of high density of MERS-CoV infected dromedaries. Here, we review aspects of MERS biology and epidemiology that might contribute to this lack of correlation between sites of camel infection and human zoonotic disease. Since MERS-CoV or MERS-like CoV have pandemic potential, further investigations into this disparity is critical, to forestall pandemics caused by this virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Animals , Camelus , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
10.
Glob Chang Biol ; 28(5): 1705-1724, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566286

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a stark reminder of the devastating consequences of pathogen spillover from wildlife to human hosts, particularly in densely populated urban centers. Prevention of future zoonotic disease is contingent on informed surveillance for known and novel threats across diverse human-wildlife interfaces. Cities are a key venue for potential spillover events because of the presence of zoonotic pathogens transmitted by hosts and vectors living in close proximity to dense human settlements. Effectively identifying and managing zoonotic hazards requires understanding the socio-ecological processes driving hazard distribution and pathogen prevalence in dynamic and heterogeneous urban landscapes. Despite increasing awareness of the human health impacts of zoonotic hazards, the integration of an eco-epidemiological perspective into public health management plans remains limited. Here we discuss how landscape patterns, abiotic conditions, and biotic interactions influence zoonotic hazards across highly urbanized cities (HUCs) in temperate climates to promote their efficient and effective management by a multi-sectoral coalition of public health stakeholders. We describe how to interpret both direct and indirect ecological processes, incorporate spatial scale, and evaluate networks of connectivity specific to different zoonotic hazards to promote biologically-informed and targeted decision-making. Using New York City, USA as a case study, we identify major zoonotic threats, apply knowledge of relevant ecological factors, and highlight opportunities and challenges for research and intervention. We aim to broaden the toolbox of urban public health stakeholders by providing ecologically-informed, practical guidance for the evaluation and management of zoonotic hazards.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , Cities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
13.
Parasitol Res ; 120(12): 4073-4074, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530318
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259706, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is vulnerable to zoonotic disease transmission due to a large agricultural work force, sizable domestic livestock population, and a highly biodiverse ecology. To better address this threat, representatives from the human, animal, and environmental health sectors in China held a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization (OHZDP) workshop in May 2019 to develop a list of priority zoonotic diseases for multisectoral, One Health collaboration. METHODS: Representatives used the OHZDP Process, developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC), to prioritize zoonotic diseases for China. Representatives defined the criteria used for prioritization and determined questions and weights for each individual criterion. A review of English and Chinese literature was conducted prior to the workshop to collect disease specific information on prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from China and the Western Pacific Region for zoonotic diseases considered for prioritization. RESULTS: Thirty zoonotic diseases were evaluated for prioritization. Criteria selected included: 1) disease hazard/severity (case fatality rate) in humans, 2) epidemic scale and intensity (in humans and animals) in China, 3) economic impact, 4) prevention and control, and 5) social impact. Disease specific information was obtained from 792 articles (637 in English and 155 in Chinese) and subject matter experts for the prioritization process. Following discussion of the OHZDP Tool output among disease experts, five priority zoonotic diseases were identified for China: avian influenza, echinococcosis, rabies, plague, and brucellosis. CONCLUSION: Representatives agreed on a list of five priority zoonotic diseases that can serve as a foundation to strengthen One Health collaboration for disease prevention and control in China; this list was developed prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. Next steps focused on establishing a multisectoral, One Health coordination mechanism, improving multisectoral linkages in laboratory testing and surveillance platforms, creating multisectoral preparedness and response plans, and increasing workforce capacity.


Subject(s)
Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , China , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
16.
Geroscience ; 43(5): 2305-2320, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525584

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the highly contagious respiratory pathogen SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), has already claimed close to three million lives. SARS-CoV-2 is a zoonotic disease: it emerged from a bat reservoir and it can infect a number of agricultural and companion animal species. SARS-CoV-2 can cause respiratory and intestinal infections, and potentially systemic multi-organ disease, in both humans and animals. The risk for severe illness and death with COVID-19 significantly increases with age, with older adults at highest risk. To combat the pandemic and protect the most susceptible group of older adults, understanding the human-animal interface and its relevance to disease transmission is vitally important. Currently high infection numbers are being sustained via human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Yet, identifying potential animal reservoirs and potential vectors of the disease will contribute to stronger risk assessment strategies. In this review, the current information about SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals and the potential spread of SARS-CoV-2 to humans through contact with domestic animals (including dogs, cats, ferrets, hamsters), agricultural animals (e.g., farmed minks), laboratory animals, wild animals (e.g., deer mice), and zoo animals (felines, non-human primates) are discussed with a special focus on reducing mortality in older adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aged , Animals , Cats , Dogs , Ferrets , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology
17.
Elife ; 102021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513080

ABSTRACT

Researchers worldwide are repeatedly warning us against future zoonotic diseases resulting from humankind's insurgence into natural ecosystems. The same zoonotic pathogens that cause severe infections in a human host frequently fail to produce any disease outcome in their natural hosts. What precise features of the immune system enable natural reservoirs to carry these pathogens so efficiently? To understand these effects, we highlight the importance of tracing the evolutionary basis of pathogen tolerance in reservoir hosts, while drawing implications from their diverse physiological and life-history traits, and ecological contexts of host-pathogen interactions. Long-term co-evolution might allow reservoir hosts to modulate immunity and evolve tolerance to zoonotic pathogens, increasing their circulation and infectious period. Such processes can also create a genetically diverse pathogen pool by allowing more mutations and genetic exchanges between circulating strains, thereby harboring rare alive-on-arrival variants with extended infectivity to new hosts (i.e., spillover). Finally, we end by underscoring the indispensability of a large multidisciplinary empirical framework to explore the proposed link between evolved tolerance, pathogen prevalence, and spillover in the wild.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Disease Reservoirs , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Virulence , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/immunology
18.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259017, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511821

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Anthrax is the highest-ranked priority zoonotic disease in Kenya with about ten human cases annually. Anthrax outbreak was reported in Kisumu East Sub County after some villagers slaughtered and ate beef from a cow suspected to have died of anthrax. We aimed at establishing the magnitude of the outbreak, described associated factors, and assessed community knowledge, attitude, and practices on anthrax. METHODS: We reviewed human and animal records, conducted case search and contact tracing using standard case definitions in the period from July 1through to July 28, 2019. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess community knowledge, attitude, and practices towards anthrax. The household selection was done using multistage sampling. We cleaned and analyzed data in Ms. Excel and Epi Info. Descriptive statistics were carried out for continuous and categorical variables while analytical statistics for the association between dependent and independent variables were calculated. RESULTS: Out of 53 persons exposed through consumption or contact with suspicious beef, 23 cases (confirmed: 1, probable: 4, suspected: 18) were reviewed. The proportion of females was 52.17% (12/23), median age 13.5 years and range 45 years. The attack rate was 43.4% (23/53) and the case fatality rate was 4.35% (1/23). Knowledge level, determined by dividing those considered to be 'having good knowledge' on anthrax (numerator) by the total number of respondents (denominator) in the population regarding cause, transmission, symptoms and prevention was 51% for human anthrax and 52% for animal anthrax. Having good knowledge on anthrax was associated with rural residence [OR = 5.5 (95% CI 2.1-14.4; p<0.001)], having seen a case of anthrax [OR = 6.2 (95% CI 2.8-14.2; p<0.001)] and among those who present cattle for vaccination [OR = 2.6 (95% CI 1.2-5.6; p = 0.02)]. About 23.2% (26/112) would slaughter and sell beef to neighbors while 63.4% (71/112) would bury or burn the carcass. Nearly 93.8% (105/112) believed vaccination prevents anthrax. However, 5.4% (62/112) present livestock for vaccination. CONCLUSION: Most anthrax exposures were through meat consumption. Poor knowledge of the disease might hamper prevention and control efforts.


Subject(s)
Anthrax/epidemiology , Bacillus anthracis/pathogenicity , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Anthrax/microbiology , Anthrax/psychology , Cattle , Female , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Livestock/microbiology , Male , Meat Products/microbiology , Middle Aged , Red Meat/microbiology , Risk Factors , Vaccination , Young Adult , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/microbiology
19.
Vaccine ; 39(49): 7119-7122, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510388

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has already affected millions worldwide. The emergence of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants may pose a significant threat to our efforts in controlling the pandemic. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on the efficacy of available vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics is currently being investigated. SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated to be originated from animals due to cross-species jumping and raises zoonotic concerns due to the potential for reintroduction into the human populations via interspecies transmission between humans and animals. Natural SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in domestic animals (dog, cat, and ferret), captive animals (tiger, lion, snow leopard, puma, otter, and gorilla), and wild and farmed minks. Vaccination of domestic animals can prevent the possible introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into the feral population and subsequent transmission to wildlife. Although the need to vaccinate susceptible animal species, such as cats, minks, and great apes, might seem irrational from a public health standpoint, the successful elimination of SARS-CoV-2 will only be possible by controlling the transmission in all susceptible animal species. This is necessary to prevent the re-emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cats , Dogs , Ferrets , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
20.
PLoS Biol ; 19(4): e3001135, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508487

ABSTRACT

Identifying the animal reservoirs from which zoonotic viruses will likely emerge is central to understanding the determinants of disease emergence. Accordingly, there has been an increase in studies attempting zoonotic "risk assessment." Herein, we demonstrate that the virological data on which these analyses are conducted are incomplete, biased, and rapidly changing with ongoing virus discovery. Together, these shortcomings suggest that attempts to assess zoonotic risk using available virological data are likely to be inaccurate and largely only identify those host taxa that have been studied most extensively. We suggest that virus surveillance at the human-animal interface may be more productive.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Virus Diseases , Zoonoses/etiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , Biodiversity , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Monitoring/standards , Host Specificity/genetics , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Metagenomics/organization & administration , Metagenomics/standards , Phylogeny , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Selection Bias , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
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