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1.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(8): 823-842, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639090

ABSTRACT

Biological evolution of the microbiome continually drives the emergence of human viral pathogens, a subset of which attack the nervous system. The sheer number of pathogens that have appeared, along with their abundance in the environment, demand our attention. For the most part, our innate and adaptive immune systems have successfully protected us from infection; however, in the past 5 decades, through pathogen mutation and ecosystem disruption, a dozen viruses emerged to cause significant neurologic disease. Most of these pathogens have come from sylvatic reservoirs having made the energetically difficult, and fortuitously rare, jump into humans. But the human microbiome is also replete with agents already adapted to the host that need only minor mutations to create neurotropic/toxic agents. While each host/virus symbiosis is unique, this review examines virologic and immunologic principles that govern the pathogenesis of different viral CNS infections that were described in the past 50 years (Influenza, West Nile Virus, Zika, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Hendra/Nipah, Enterovirus-A71/-D68, Human parechovirus, HIV, and SARS-CoV). Knowledge of these pathogens provides us the opportunity to respond and mitigate infection while at the same time prepare for inevitable arrival of unknown agents.


Subject(s)
Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Birds , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/prevention & control , Ecosystem , Humans , Influenza in Birds/epidemiology , Influenza in Birds/prevention & control , Influenza in Birds/transmission , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/transmission , West Nile Fever/epidemiology , West Nile Fever/prevention & control , West Nile Fever/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus Infection/transmission , Zoonoses/prevention & control
2.
mSphere ; 5(4)2020 07 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639765

ABSTRACT

Nipah disease is listed as one of the WHO priority diseases that pose the greatest public health risk due to their epidemic potential. More than 200 experts from around the world convened in Singapore last year to mark the 20th anniversary of the first Nipah virus outbreaks in Malaysia and Singapore. Most of these experts are now involved in responding to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, members of the Organizing Committee of the 2019 Nipah Virus International Conference review highlights from the Nipah@20 Conference and reflect on key lessons learned from Nipah that could be applied to the understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic and to preparedness against future emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) of pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Henipavirus Infections , Nipah Virus/pathogenicity , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Congresses as Topic , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Henipavirus Infections/diagnosis , Henipavirus Infections/prevention & control , Henipavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Zoonoses/epidemiology
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 86, 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-637965

ABSTRACT

Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases represent a public health challenge of international concern. They include a large group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which are of zoonotic nature. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), another emerging zoonotic disease, has just increased the stakes exponentially. Most NTDs are subject to the impact of some of the very same human-related activities triggering other emerging and re-emerging diseases, including COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bird flu and swine flu. It is conceivable that COVID-19 will exacerbate the NTDs, as it will divert much needed financial and human resources. There is considerable concern that recent progress achieved with control and elimination efforts will be reverted. Future potential strategies will need to reconsider the determinants of health in NTDs in order to galvanize efforts and come up with a comprehensive, well defined programme that will set the stage for an effective multi-sectorial approach. In this Commentary, we propose areas of potential synergies between the COVID-19 pandemic control efforts, other health and non-health sector initiatives and NTD control and elimination programmes.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Neglected Diseases/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tropical Medicine/methods , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Intersectoral Collaboration , Neglected Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Resource Allocation , Tropical Medicine/trends , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
5.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 633-641, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611702

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Coronaviruses are known to cross barrier species and infect new ones. In the past twenty years, we witnessed the emergence of three different coronaviruses, the latest one being the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) responsible for the COVID-19 (covid disease 19) pandemic. Coronaviruses are enveloped virus with a long positive sense RNA genome. Like all viruses, they hijack the cellular machinery to replicate and produce new virions. There is no approved vaccine or specific antiviral molecule against coronaviruses but with the urgency to treat COVID-19, several candidate therapies are currently investigated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epidemics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
6.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 633-641, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607023

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Coronaviruses are known to cross barrier species and infect new ones. In the past twenty years, we witnessed the emergence of three different coronaviruses, the latest one being the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) responsible for the COVID-19 (covid disease 19) pandemic. Coronaviruses are enveloped virus with a long positive sense RNA genome. Like all viruses, they hijack the cellular machinery to replicate and produce new virions. There is no approved vaccine or specific antiviral molecule against coronaviruses but with the urgency to treat COVID-19, several candidate therapies are currently investigated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epidemics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
7.
Vopr Virusol ; 65(2): 62-70, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593172

ABSTRACT

Since the early 2000s, three novel zooanthroponous coronaviruses (Betacoronavirus) have emerged. The first outbreak of infection (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV virus occurred in the fall of 2002 in China (Guangdong Province). A second outbreak (MERS) associated with the new MERS-CoV virus appeared in Saudi Arabia in autumn 2012. The third epidemic, which turned into a COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, emerged in China (Hubei Province) in the autumn 2019. This review focuses on ecological and genetic aspects that lead to the emergence of new human zoanthroponous coronaviruses. The main mechanism of adaptation of zoonotic betacoronaviruses to humans is to changes in the receptor-binding domain of surface protein (S), as a result of which it gains the ability to bind human cellular receptors of epithelial cells in respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. This process is caused by the high genetic diversity and variability combined with frequent recombination, during virus circulation in their natural reservoir - bats (Microchiroptera, Chiroptera). Appearance of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 (subgenus Sarbecovirus), and MERS (subgenus Merbecovirus) viruses is a result of evolutionary events occurring in bat populations with further transfer of viruses to the human directly or through the intermediate vertebrate hosts, ecologically connected with bats. This review is based on the report at the meeting «Coronavirus - a global challenge to science¼ of the Scientific Council «Life Science¼ of the Russian Academy of Science: Lvov D.K., Alkhovsky S.V., Burtseva E.I. COVID-19 pandemic sources: origin, biology and genetics of coronaviruses of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV (Conference hall of Presidium of RAS, 14 Leninsky Prospect, Moscow, Russia. April 16, 2020).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ecology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reassortant Viruses/classification , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/pathogenicity , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
8.
Indian J Public Health ; 64(Supplement): S135-S138, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-550046

ABSTRACT

Pandemics like COVID-19 warrant an urgent implementation of the one health surveillance (OHS) system to the focus on multisectoral, multidisciplinary, multi-institutional, and multispecialty coordination, in all aspects of the response to outbreaks that might involve humans, animals, and their environment. The Indian system so far has evolved in conducting surveillance and monitoring of parameters within the domain of human health, animal health, and the environment, but in silos. This commentary piece provides an opinion to boost the existing surveillance activities for early detection and ways to develop an integrated OHS to prevent future COVID-19 like pandemics in India. It also attempts to provide possible solutions at the interface of human-animal-environment, from the simpler to the complex system integration with the principles of one health.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Environment , Humans , India/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
10.
Hastings Cent Rep ; 50(3): 73-74, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619919

ABSTRACT

The authors argue that in preventing and controlling the pandemic of Covid-19, we should have taken an offensive or proactive strategy rather than a defensive or reactionary one because the former type of approach can bring about more health benefits and fewer harms than can the latter. The offensive or proactive approach consists of two parts: The first part is to preemptively establish a barrier between a novel virus and humans in order to prevent the spillover of the virus into humans, and the second part is that, when a spillover fails to be prevented, we should take public interventions, such as contact tracing, social distancing, and quarantine and isolation, as early as when there are several dozens or one hundred or more cases that manifest symptoms with an unknown etiology in order to prevent an epidemic that is still limited to relatively small groups from developing into an outbreak.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Bioethical Issues , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Humans
11.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 32(4): 145-153, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-457277

ABSTRACT

A cluster of cases of pneumonia of unknown etiology emerged in Wuhan, China, at the end of December 2019. The cluster was largely associated with a seafood and animal market. A novel Betacoronavirus was quickly identified as the causative agent, and it is shown to be related genetically to SARS-CoV and other bat-borne SARS-related Betacoronaviruses. The number of cases increased rapidly and spread to other provinces in China, as well as to another four countries. To help control the spread of the virus, a "cordon sanitaire" was instituted for Wuhan on January 23, 2020, and subsequently extended to other cities in Hubei Province, and the outbreak declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the Director General of the World Health Organization on January 30, 2020. The virus was named SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee for the Taxonomy of Viruses, and the disease it causes was named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization. This article described the evolution of the outbreak, and the known properties of the novel virus, SARS-CoV-2 and the clinical disease it causes, and the major public health measures being used to help control it's spread. These measures include social distancing, intensive surveillance and quarantining of cases, contact tracing and isolation, cancellation of mass gatherings, and community containment. The virus is the third zoonotic coronavirus, after SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but appears to be the only one with pandemic potential. However, a number of important properties of the virus are still not well understood, and there is an urgent need to learn more about its transmission dynamics, its spectrum of clinical severity, its wildlife origin, and its genetic stability. In addition, more research is needed on possible interventions, particularly therapeutic and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , World Health Organization , Zoonoses/epidemiology
12.
mBio ; 11(3)2020 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-428675

ABSTRACT

With great apprehension, the world is now watching the birth of a novel pandemic already causing tremendous suffering, death, and disruption of normal life. Uncertainty and dread are exacerbated by the belief that what we are experiencing is new and mysterious. However, deadly pandemics and disease emergences are not new phenomena: they have been challenging human existence throughout recorded history. Some have killed sizeable percentages of humanity, but humans have always searched for, and often found, ways of mitigating their deadly effects. We here review the ancient and modern histories of such diseases, discuss factors associated with their emergences, and attempt to identify lessons that will help us meet the current challenge.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/history , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Communicable Disease Control/history , Conservation of Natural Resources , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , History, 15th Century , History, 16th Century , History, 17th Century , History, 18th Century , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , History, Ancient , History, Medieval , Humans , International Cooperation , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Public Health/history , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission
13.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 834-838, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-390185

ABSTRACT

Nearly four months have passed since the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the rapidly spreading Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, there have been more than 2.3 million confirmed cases and more than 160,000 deaths globally caused by COVID-19. Chinese health authorities, where the virus emerged, have taken prompt strict public health measures to control and prevent the spread of the outbreak. In Saudi Arabia, unprecedented precautionary strict measures were applied to prevent virus entry to the country or to mitigate its impact when it arrives. Here, we review the response of Saudi Arabia to COVID-19 pandemic and how did the experience learned from the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemic since 2012 has helped the country to be better prepared for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss the country readiness, improvement in research and development, and the unprecedented rapid precautionary measures that have been taken by the Saudi government thus far.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Travel , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
14.
Life Sci ; 254: 117765, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-348588

ABSTRACT

The ongoing wreaking global outbreak of the novel human beta coronavirus (CoV) pathogen was presumed to be from a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China, belongs to the Coronaviridae family in the Nidovirales order. The virus is highly contagious with potential human-human transmission which was named as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread across six continents and emerged as a global pandemic in short span with alarming levels of spread and severity. This virus associated symptoms and infectious respiratory illness is designated as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 possesses enveloped club-like spike protein projections with positive-sense large RNA genome and has a unique replication strategy. This virus was believed to have zoonotic origin with genetical identity to bat and pangolin CoV. In the current review, we introduce a general overview about the human CoVs and the associated diseases, the origin, structure, replication and key clinical events that occur in the COVID-19 pathogenicity. Furthermore, we focused on possible therapeutic options such as repurposing drugs including antimalarials, antivirals, antiparasitic drugs, and anti-HIV drugs, as well as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines as potential treatment options. Also we have summarized the latest research progress on the usage of stem cell therapy, human convalescent serum, interferon's, in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology
15.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(5): e1008536, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-342820

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that has caused a worldwide pandemic of the human respiratory illness COVID-19, resulting in a severe threat to public health and safety. Analysis of the genetic tree suggests that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the same Betacoronavirus group as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Although the route for viral transmission remains a mystery, SARS-CoV-2 may have originated in an animal reservoir, likely that of bat. The clinical features of COVID-19, such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue, are similar to those of many acute respiratory infections. There is currently no specific treatment for COVID-19, but antiviral therapy combined with supportive care is the main strategy. Here, we summarize recent progress in understanding the epidemiological, virological, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and discuss potential targets with existing drugs for the treatment of this emerging zoonotic disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Genome, Viral , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
17.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(6): 4827-4833, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-277073

ABSTRACT

Pangolins, or scaly anteaters, have recently been flagshiped as one of the most illegally traded mammals, and as a corollary, as potential intermediate hosts at the origin of the COVID-19 pandemic. In order to improve the traceability of their trade, we developed 20 polymorphic microsatellite loci for the white-bellied pangolin (Phataginus tricuspis), the species most frequently found on African bushmeat markets. We genotyped 24 white-bellied pangolins from the Douala market, Cameroon, originating from the Ebo forest c. 75 km north-east of Douala. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 12 (mean = 6.95), and mean observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.592 (0.208-0.875) and 0.671 (0.469-0.836), respectively. Genetic diversity was higher than that cross-estimated from microsatellite loci developed for other species of pangolins. Two loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and two loci showed linkage disequilibrium. Genetic variance (PCoA) was increased with the addition of 13 pangolins of unknown origin, possibly suggesting that the Douala market is fed from differentiated source populations of white-bellied pangolins. Each of the 37 individuals had a unique multilocus genotype. The unbiased probability of identity (uPI) and the probability of identity among siblings (PIsibs) were both very low (uPI = 8.443 e-21; PIsibs = 1.011 e-07). Only five microsatellite loci were needed to reach the conservative value of PIsibs < 0.01, overall indicating a powerful discriminating power of our combined loci. These 20 newly developed microsatellite loci might prove useful in tracing the local-to-global trade of the white-bellied pangolin, and will hopefully contribute to the DNA-assisted implementation of future conservation strategies at reasonable costs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Eutheria/genetics , Microsatellite Repeats , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Zoonoses/transmission , Alleles , Animals , Cameroon/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Eutheria/virology , Female , Genetic Loci , Genetic Markers , Genotype , Humans , Linkage Disequilibrium , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology
19.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-108853

ABSTRACT

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans, and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, however, its resemblance to SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing-related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infections. In this review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Disease Outbreaks , Genetic Variation , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/pathology
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108693, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-101621

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic caused by the novel human coronavirus, referrred to as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), not only is having a great impact on the health care systems and economies in all continents but it is also causing radical changes of common habits and life styles. The novel coronavirus (CoV) recognises, with high probability, a zoonotic origin but the role of animals in the SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology is still largely unknown. However, CoVs have been known in animals since several decades, so that veterinary coronavirologists have a great expertise on how to face CoV infections in animals, which could represent a model for SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. In the present paper, we provide an up-to-date review of the literature currently available on animal CoVs, focusing on the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the emergence of novel CoV strains with different antigenic, biologic and/or pathogenetic features. A full comprehension of the mechanisms driving the evolution of animal CoVs will help better understand the emergence, spreading, and evolution of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronaviridae/classification , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronaviridae/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
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