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1.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765945

ABSTRACT

Accurate host identification is paramount to understand disease epidemiology and to apply appropriate control measures. This is especially important for multi-host pathogens such as the rabies virus, a major and almost invariably fatal zoonosis that has mobilized unanimous engagement at an international level towards the final goal of zero human deaths due to canine rabies. Currently, diagnostic laboratories implement a standardized identification using taxonomic keys. However, this method is challenged by high and undiscovered biodiversity, decomposition of carcasses and subjective misevaluation, as has been attested to by findings from a cohort of 242 archived specimens collected across Sub-Saharan Africa and submitted for rabies diagnosis. We applied two simple and cheap methods targeting the Cytochrome b and Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I to confirm the initial classification. We therefore suggest prioritizing a standardized protocol that includes, as a first step, the implementation of taxonomic keys at a family or subfamily level, followed by the molecular characterization of the host species.


Subject(s)
Dog Diseases , Rabies virus , Rabies , Africa South of the Sahara , Animals , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Humans , Laboratories , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , Rabies/veterinary , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008789, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765527

ABSTRACT

During the last century, emerging diseases have increased in number, posing a severe threat for human health. Zoonoses, in particular, represent the 60% of emerging diseases, and are a big challenge for public health due to the complexity of their dynamics. Mathematical models, by allowing an a priori analysis of dynamic systems and the simulation of different scenarios at once, may represent an efficient tool for the determination of factors and phenomena involved in zoonotic infection cycles, but are often underexploited in public health. In this context, we developed a deterministic mathematical model to compare the efficacy of different intervention strategies aimed at reducing environmental contamination by macroparasites, using raccoons (Procyon lotor) and their zoonotic parasite Bayilsascaris procyonis as a model system. The three intervention strategies simulated are raccoon depopulation, anthelmintic treatment of raccoons and faeces removal. Our results show that all these strategies are able to eliminate the parasite egg population from the environment, but they are effective only above specific threshold coverages. Host removal and anthelmintic treatment showed the fastest results in eliminating the egg population, but anthelmintic treatment requires a higher effort to reach an effective result compared to host removal. Our simulations show that mathematical models can help to shed light on the dynamics of communicable infectious diseases, and give specific guidelines to contain B. procyonis environmental contamination in native, as well as in new, areas of parasite emergence. In particular, the present study highlights that identifying in advance the appropriate treatment coverage is fundamental to achieve the desired results, allowing for the implementation of cost- and time-effective intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Models, Theoretical , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , Humans , Parasites/physiology , Parasitic Diseases/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases/transmission , Public Health , Zoonoses/parasitology , Zoonoses/transmission
3.
PLoS One ; 17(3): e0265508, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745307

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic diseases are projected to be a serious public threat in the coming decades. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended that Jordan prioritize their list of zoonoses, partially in response to the influx of Syrian refugees. We write this paper to expand the One Health framework by situating zoonotic diseases in peacebuilding and development theories in order to prioritize zoonotic diseases in Jordan. We employ an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach to create a modified version of the Center for Disease Control's (CDC) One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization (OHZDP) tool. We use an integrative literature review to develop a list of zoonoses to be prioritized. We expand the One Health framework by arguing health inequity is a form of violence, and thus promotion of health equity is a form of peacebuilding. We undertake thematic and statistical analyses to assess the 12 previously published OHZDP tools to evaluate necessity for change to the process given COVID-19 and the refugee situation in Jordan. In these analyses we use drivers of health indicators as measurements for peacebuilding and development, given these drivers are related to health inequities, to guide weighting of the criteria in our tool for Jordan. We apply our modified OHZDP tool to prioritize our disease list. We find it necessary to give socioeconomic factors greater consideration and to distribute weighting more evenly among all criteria within the tool when prioritizing zoonotic diseases in better reflect the Jordanian context and incorporate the refugee population. We find the priority zoonoses within Jordan to be bovine tuberculosis, brucellosis, and COVID-19, with most having a disproportionately negative impact on refugees. In Jordan's case, zoonotic diseases represent an area where promoting social equity for individuals is essential to the larger society. In this sense managing zoonoses is an area uniquely suited for peacebuilding.


Subject(s)
Armed Conflicts/prevention & control , Health Priorities , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Cost of Illness , Humans , Jordan/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Patient Acuity , Refugees , Socioeconomic Factors , Zoonoses/prevention & control
5.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687059

ABSTRACT

In the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, mRNA vaccines hold great promise because of their low risk of insertional mutagenesis, high potency, accelerated development cycles, and potential for low-cost manufacture. In past years, several mRNA vaccines have entered clinical trials and have shown promise for offering solutions to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as rabies, Zika, and influenza. Recently, the successful application of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 has further validated the platform and opened the floodgates to mRNA vaccine's potential in infectious disease prevention, especially in the veterinary field. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the mRNA vaccines and the technologies used for mRNA vaccine development. We also provide an overview of mRNA vaccines developed for animal infectious diseases and discuss directions and challenges for the future applications of this promising vaccine platform in the veterinary field.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , /immunology , Animals , Communicable Diseases/classification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic/analysis , Vaccines, Synthetic/classification , Zoonoses/immunology , Zoonoses/transmission , /classification
9.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259706, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is vulnerable to zoonotic disease transmission due to a large agricultural work force, sizable domestic livestock population, and a highly biodiverse ecology. To better address this threat, representatives from the human, animal, and environmental health sectors in China held a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization (OHZDP) workshop in May 2019 to develop a list of priority zoonotic diseases for multisectoral, One Health collaboration. METHODS: Representatives used the OHZDP Process, developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC), to prioritize zoonotic diseases for China. Representatives defined the criteria used for prioritization and determined questions and weights for each individual criterion. A review of English and Chinese literature was conducted prior to the workshop to collect disease specific information on prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from China and the Western Pacific Region for zoonotic diseases considered for prioritization. RESULTS: Thirty zoonotic diseases were evaluated for prioritization. Criteria selected included: 1) disease hazard/severity (case fatality rate) in humans, 2) epidemic scale and intensity (in humans and animals) in China, 3) economic impact, 4) prevention and control, and 5) social impact. Disease specific information was obtained from 792 articles (637 in English and 155 in Chinese) and subject matter experts for the prioritization process. Following discussion of the OHZDP Tool output among disease experts, five priority zoonotic diseases were identified for China: avian influenza, echinococcosis, rabies, plague, and brucellosis. CONCLUSION: Representatives agreed on a list of five priority zoonotic diseases that can serve as a foundation to strengthen One Health collaboration for disease prevention and control in China; this list was developed prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. Next steps focused on establishing a multisectoral, One Health coordination mechanism, improving multisectoral linkages in laboratory testing and surveillance platforms, creating multisectoral preparedness and response plans, and increasing workforce capacity.


Subject(s)
Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , China , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
10.
Vaccine ; 39(49): 7119-7122, 2021 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510388

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has already affected millions worldwide. The emergence of multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants may pose a significant threat to our efforts in controlling the pandemic. The impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on the efficacy of available vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics is currently being investigated. SARS-CoV-2 has been implicated to be originated from animals due to cross-species jumping and raises zoonotic concerns due to the potential for reintroduction into the human populations via interspecies transmission between humans and animals. Natural SARS-CoV-2 infections have been reported in domestic animals (dog, cat, and ferret), captive animals (tiger, lion, snow leopard, puma, otter, and gorilla), and wild and farmed minks. Vaccination of domestic animals can prevent the possible introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into the feral population and subsequent transmission to wildlife. Although the need to vaccinate susceptible animal species, such as cats, minks, and great apes, might seem irrational from a public health standpoint, the successful elimination of SARS-CoV-2 will only be possible by controlling the transmission in all susceptible animal species. This is necessary to prevent the re-emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Animals , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cats , Dogs , Ferrets , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
11.
PLoS Biol ; 19(4): e3001135, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508487

ABSTRACT

Identifying the animal reservoirs from which zoonotic viruses will likely emerge is central to understanding the determinants of disease emergence. Accordingly, there has been an increase in studies attempting zoonotic "risk assessment." Herein, we demonstrate that the virological data on which these analyses are conducted are incomplete, biased, and rapidly changing with ongoing virus discovery. Together, these shortcomings suggest that attempts to assess zoonotic risk using available virological data are likely to be inaccurate and largely only identify those host taxa that have been studied most extensively. We suggest that virus surveillance at the human-animal interface may be more productive.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Virus Diseases , Zoonoses/etiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , Biodiversity , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Monitoring/standards , Host Specificity/genetics , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Metagenomics/organization & administration , Metagenomics/standards , Phylogeny , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Selection Bias , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
13.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1517, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342813

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a strong policy impetus for the One Health cross-sectoral approach to address the complex challenge of zoonotic diseases, particularly in low/lower middle income countries (LMICs). Yet the implementation of this approach in LMIC contexts such as India has proven challenging, due partly to the relatively limited practical guidance and understanding on how to foster and sustain cross-sector collaborations. This study addresses this gap by exploring the facilitators of and barriers to successful convergence between the human, animal and environmental health sectors in India. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted using a detailed content review of national policy documents and in-depth semi-structured interview data on zoonotic disease management in India. In total, 29 policy documents were reviewed and 15 key informant interviews were undertaken with national and state level policymakers, disease managers and experts operating within the human-animal-environment interface of zoonotic disease control. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that there is limited policy visibility of zoonotic diseases, although global zoonoses, especially those identified to be of pandemic potential by international organisations (e.g. CDC, WHO and OIE) rather than local, high burden endemic diseases, have high recognition in the existing policy agenda setting. Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of cross-sectoral collaboration, a myriad of factors operated to either constrain or facilitate the success of cross-sectoral convergence at different stages (i.e. information-sharing, undertaking common activities and merging resources and infrastructure) of cross-sectoral action. Importantly, participants identified the lack of supportive policies, conflicting departmental priorities and limited institutional capacities as major barriers that hamper effective cross-sectoral collaboration on zoonotic disease control. Building on existing informal inter-personal relationships and collaboration platforms were suggested by participants as the way forward. CONCLUSION: Our findings point to the importance of strengthening existing national policy frameworks as a first step for leveraging cross-sectoral capacity for improved disease surveillance and interventions. This requires the contextual adaptation of the One Health approach in a manner that is sensitive to the underlying socio-political, institutional and cultural context that determines and shapes outcomes of cross-sector collaborative arrangements.


Subject(s)
One Health , Animals , Humans , India , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
14.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1445747

ABSTRACT

Pandemics are a consequence of a series of processes that span scales from viral biology at 10-9 m to global transmission at 106 m. The pathogen passes from one host species to another through a sequence of events that starts with an infected reservoir host and entails interspecific contact, innate immune responses, receptor protein structure within the potential host, and the global spread of the novel pathogen through the naive host population. Each event presents a potential barrier to the onward passage of the virus and should be characterized with an integrated transdisciplinary approach. Epidemic control is based on the prevention of exposure, infection, and disease. However, the ultimate pandemic prevention is prevention of the spillover event itself. Here, we focus on the potential for preventing the spillover of henipaviruses, a group of viruses derived from bats that frequently cross species barriers, incur high human mortality, and are transmitted among humans via stuttering chains. We outline the transdisciplinary approach needed to prevent the spillover process and, therefore, future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Global Health , Henipavirus Infections/prevention & control , Henipavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Henipavirus Infections/epidemiology , Henipavirus Infections/immunology , Henipavirus Infections/transmission , Host Specificity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Nipah Virus/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission
15.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200358, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429384

ABSTRACT

In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven rubrics or machine learning models that learn from known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions. What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges? This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , Ecology , Humans , Laboratories , Machine Learning , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses , Zoonoses/epidemiology
16.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 116(3): 197-200, 2022 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356714

ABSTRACT

This article examines the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on dog-mediated rabies, a neglected tropical disease that remains endemic in >65 countries. A globally agreed strategy for rabies elimination is underpinned by a One Health approach, coordinating human and animal health sectors and engaging communities. We present data on the scale and nature of COVID-19 disruption to rabies control programmes and the wider learning for One Health implementation. We argue that the global shift in health priorities caused by the pandemic, and consequent side-lining of animal health, will have broader ramifications for One Health implementation and preparedness for future emergent zoonoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dog Diseases , One Health , Rabies Vaccines , Rabies , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/epidemiology , Dog Diseases/prevention & control , Dogs , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Rabies/epidemiology , Rabies/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
18.
Curr Biol ; 31(16): 3671-3677.e3, 2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300741

ABSTRACT

Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans.1,2 The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in a wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases.3-5 Yet there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data on mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade,6 we found that one-quarter (26.5%) of the mammals in wildlife trade harbor 75% of known zoonotic viruses, a level much higher than domesticated and non-traded mammals. The traded mammals also harbor distinct compositions of zoonotic viruses and different host reservoirs from non-traded and domesticated mammals. Furthermore, we highlight that primates, ungulates, carnivores, and bats represent significant zoonotic disease risks as they host 132 (58%) of 226 known zoonotic viruses in present wildlife trade, whereas species of bats, rodents, and marsupials represent significant zoonotic disease risks in future wildlife trade. Thus, the risk of carrying zoonotic diseases is not equal for all mammal species in wildlife trade. Overall, our findings strengthen the evidence that wildlife trade and zoonotic disease risks are strongly associated, and that mitigation measures should prioritize species with the highest risk of carrying zoonotic viruses. Curbing the sales of wildlife products and developing principles that support the sustainable and healthy trade of wildlife could be cost-effective investments given the potential risk and consequences of zoonotic outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Commerce , Mammals/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Sustainable Development , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 577, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274542

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During outbreaks of emerging and re-emerging infections, the lack of effective drugs and vaccines increases reliance on non-pharmacologic public health interventions and behavior change to limit human-to-human transmission. Interventions that increase the speed with which infected individuals remove themselves from the susceptible population are paramount, particularly isolation and hospitalization. Ebola virus disease (EVD), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) are zoonotic viruses that have caused significant recent outbreaks with sustained human-to-human transmission. METHODS: This investigation quantified changing mean removal rates (MRR) and days from symptom onset to hospitalization (DSOH) of infected individuals from the population in seven different outbreaks of EVD, SARS, and MERS, to test for statistically significant differences in these metrics between outbreaks. RESULTS: We found that epidemic week and viral serial interval were correlated with the speed with which populations developed and maintained health behaviors in each outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight intrinsic population-level changes in isolation rates in multiple epidemics of three zoonotic infections with established human-to-human transmission and significant morbidity and mortality. These data are particularly useful for disease modelers seeking to forecast the spread of emerging pathogens.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Health Behavior , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Epidemics/prevention & control , Forecasting , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/prevention & control , Humans , Public Health , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 17(6): e1009583, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256050

ABSTRACT

The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic reveals a major gap in global biosecurity infrastructure: a lack of publicly available biological samples representative across space, time, and taxonomic diversity. The shortfall, in this case for vertebrates, prevents accurate and rapid identification and monitoring of emerging pathogens and their reservoir host(s) and precludes extended investigation of ecological, evolutionary, and environmental associations that lead to human infection or spillover. Natural history museum biorepositories form the backbone of a critically needed, decentralized, global network for zoonotic pathogen surveillance, yet this infrastructure remains marginally developed, underutilized, underfunded, and disconnected from public health initiatives. Proactive detection and mitigation for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) requires expanded biodiversity infrastructure and training (particularly in biodiverse and lower income countries) and new communication pipelines that connect biorepositories and biomedical communities. To this end, we highlight a novel adaptation of Project ECHO's virtual community of practice model: Museums and Emerging Pathogens in the Americas (MEPA). MEPA is a virtual network aimed at fostering communication, coordination, and collaborative problem-solving among pathogen researchers, public health officials, and biorepositories in the Americas. MEPA now acts as a model of effective international, interdisciplinary collaboration that can and should be replicated in other biodiversity hotspots. We encourage deposition of wildlife specimens and associated data with public biorepositories, regardless of original collection purpose, and urge biorepositories to embrace new specimen sources, types, and uses to maximize strategic growth and utility for EID research. Taxonomically, geographically, and temporally deep biorepository archives serve as the foundation of a proactive and increasingly predictive approach to zoonotic spillover, risk assessment, and threat mitigation.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Community Networks/organization & administration , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Animals , Animals, Wild , Biodiversity , Biological Specimen Banks/standards , Biological Specimen Banks/supply & distribution , Biological Specimen Banks/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/microbiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Community Networks/standards , Community Networks/supply & distribution , Community Networks/trends , Disaster Planning/methods , Disaster Planning/organization & administration , Disaster Planning/standards , Geography , Global Health/standards , Global Health/trends , Humans , Medical Countermeasures , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control
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