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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008789, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765527

ABSTRACT

During the last century, emerging diseases have increased in number, posing a severe threat for human health. Zoonoses, in particular, represent the 60% of emerging diseases, and are a big challenge for public health due to the complexity of their dynamics. Mathematical models, by allowing an a priori analysis of dynamic systems and the simulation of different scenarios at once, may represent an efficient tool for the determination of factors and phenomena involved in zoonotic infection cycles, but are often underexploited in public health. In this context, we developed a deterministic mathematical model to compare the efficacy of different intervention strategies aimed at reducing environmental contamination by macroparasites, using raccoons (Procyon lotor) and their zoonotic parasite Bayilsascaris procyonis as a model system. The three intervention strategies simulated are raccoon depopulation, anthelmintic treatment of raccoons and faeces removal. Our results show that all these strategies are able to eliminate the parasite egg population from the environment, but they are effective only above specific threshold coverages. Host removal and anthelmintic treatment showed the fastest results in eliminating the egg population, but anthelmintic treatment requires a higher effort to reach an effective result compared to host removal. Our simulations show that mathematical models can help to shed light on the dynamics of communicable infectious diseases, and give specific guidelines to contain B. procyonis environmental contamination in native, as well as in new, areas of parasite emergence. In particular, the present study highlights that identifying in advance the appropriate treatment coverage is fundamental to achieve the desired results, allowing for the implementation of cost- and time-effective intervention strategies.


Subject(s)
Models, Theoretical , Parasitic Diseases/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , Humans , Parasites/physiology , Parasitic Diseases/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases/transmission , Public Health , Zoonoses/parasitology , Zoonoses/transmission
2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707746

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights the importance of possible animal-to-human (zoonotic) and human-to-animal (zooanthroponotic) transmission and potential spread within animal species. A range of animal species have been verified for SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, either in vitro or in vivo. However, the molecular bases of such a broad host spectrum for the SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive. Here, we structurally and genetically analysed the interaction between the spike protein, with a particular focus on receptor binding domains (RBDs), of SARS-CoV-2 and its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for all conceivably susceptible groups of animals to gauge the structural bases of the SARS-CoV-2 host spectrum. We describe our findings in the context of existing animal infection-based models to provide a foundation on the possible virus persistence in animals and their implications in the future eradication of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Host Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1687059

ABSTRACT

In the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, mRNA vaccines hold great promise because of their low risk of insertional mutagenesis, high potency, accelerated development cycles, and potential for low-cost manufacture. In past years, several mRNA vaccines have entered clinical trials and have shown promise for offering solutions to combat emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases such as rabies, Zika, and influenza. Recently, the successful application of mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 has further validated the platform and opened the floodgates to mRNA vaccine's potential in infectious disease prevention, especially in the veterinary field. In this review, we describe our current understanding of the mRNA vaccines and the technologies used for mRNA vaccine development. We also provide an overview of mRNA vaccines developed for animal infectious diseases and discuss directions and challenges for the future applications of this promising vaccine platform in the veterinary field.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases/virology , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , /immunology , Animals , Communicable Diseases/classification , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Humans , Vaccines, Synthetic/analysis , Vaccines, Synthetic/classification , Zoonoses/immunology , Zoonoses/transmission , /classification
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259706, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526685

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: China is vulnerable to zoonotic disease transmission due to a large agricultural work force, sizable domestic livestock population, and a highly biodiverse ecology. To better address this threat, representatives from the human, animal, and environmental health sectors in China held a One Health Zoonotic Disease Prioritization (OHZDP) workshop in May 2019 to develop a list of priority zoonotic diseases for multisectoral, One Health collaboration. METHODS: Representatives used the OHZDP Process, developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (US CDC), to prioritize zoonotic diseases for China. Representatives defined the criteria used for prioritization and determined questions and weights for each individual criterion. A review of English and Chinese literature was conducted prior to the workshop to collect disease specific information on prevalence, morbidity, mortality, and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) from China and the Western Pacific Region for zoonotic diseases considered for prioritization. RESULTS: Thirty zoonotic diseases were evaluated for prioritization. Criteria selected included: 1) disease hazard/severity (case fatality rate) in humans, 2) epidemic scale and intensity (in humans and animals) in China, 3) economic impact, 4) prevention and control, and 5) social impact. Disease specific information was obtained from 792 articles (637 in English and 155 in Chinese) and subject matter experts for the prioritization process. Following discussion of the OHZDP Tool output among disease experts, five priority zoonotic diseases were identified for China: avian influenza, echinococcosis, rabies, plague, and brucellosis. CONCLUSION: Representatives agreed on a list of five priority zoonotic diseases that can serve as a foundation to strengthen One Health collaboration for disease prevention and control in China; this list was developed prior to the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. Next steps focused on establishing a multisectoral, One Health coordination mechanism, improving multisectoral linkages in laboratory testing and surveillance platforms, creating multisectoral preparedness and response plans, and increasing workforce capacity.


Subject(s)
Consensus Development Conferences as Topic , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , China , Humans , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
6.
Elife ; 102021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513080

ABSTRACT

Researchers worldwide are repeatedly warning us against future zoonotic diseases resulting from humankind's insurgence into natural ecosystems. The same zoonotic pathogens that cause severe infections in a human host frequently fail to produce any disease outcome in their natural hosts. What precise features of the immune system enable natural reservoirs to carry these pathogens so efficiently? To understand these effects, we highlight the importance of tracing the evolutionary basis of pathogen tolerance in reservoir hosts, while drawing implications from their diverse physiological and life-history traits, and ecological contexts of host-pathogen interactions. Long-term co-evolution might allow reservoir hosts to modulate immunity and evolve tolerance to zoonotic pathogens, increasing their circulation and infectious period. Such processes can also create a genetically diverse pathogen pool by allowing more mutations and genetic exchanges between circulating strains, thereby harboring rare alive-on-arrival variants with extended infectivity to new hosts (i.e., spillover). Finally, we end by underscoring the indispensability of a large multidisciplinary empirical framework to explore the proposed link between evolved tolerance, pathogen prevalence, and spillover in the wild.


Subject(s)
Biological Evolution , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Disease Reservoirs , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Virulence , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/immunology
7.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e234, 2021 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492957

ABSTRACT

Poultry contact is a risk factor for zoonotic transmission of non-typhoidal Salmonella spp. Salmonella illness outbreaks in the United States are identified by PulseNet, the national laboratory network for enteric disease surveillance. During 2020, PulseNet observed a 25% decline in the number of Salmonella clinical isolates uploaded by state and local health departments. However, 1722 outbreak-associated Salmonella illnesses resulting from 12 Salmonella serotypes were linked to contact with privately owned poultry, an increase from all previous years. This report highlights the need for continued efforts to prevent backyard poultry-associated outbreaks of Salmonella as ownership increases in the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Poultry/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/epidemiology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Salmonella/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella Infections/transmission , Serogroup , United States/epidemiology , Zoonoses/microbiology , Zoonoses/transmission
8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 104812, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461688

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread with currently more than 117 million cumulated cases and 2.6 million deaths worldwide as per March 2021, its origin is still debated. Although several hypotheses have been proposed, there is still no clear explanation about how its causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, emerged in human populations. Today, scientifically-valid facts that deserve to be debated still coexist with unverified statements blurring thus the knowledge on the origin of COVID-19. Our retrospective analysis of scientific data supports the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 is indeed a naturally occurring virus. However, the spillover model considered today as the main explanation to zoonotic emergence does not match the virus dynamics and somehow misguided the way researches were conducted. We conclude this review by proposing a change of paradigm and model and introduce the circulation model for explaining the various aspects of the dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 emergence in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Eutheria/virology , Humans , Models, Genetic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stochastic Processes , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(10): e3001422, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456048
10.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1445747

ABSTRACT

Pandemics are a consequence of a series of processes that span scales from viral biology at 10-9 m to global transmission at 106 m. The pathogen passes from one host species to another through a sequence of events that starts with an infected reservoir host and entails interspecific contact, innate immune responses, receptor protein structure within the potential host, and the global spread of the novel pathogen through the naive host population. Each event presents a potential barrier to the onward passage of the virus and should be characterized with an integrated transdisciplinary approach. Epidemic control is based on the prevention of exposure, infection, and disease. However, the ultimate pandemic prevention is prevention of the spillover event itself. Here, we focus on the potential for preventing the spillover of henipaviruses, a group of viruses derived from bats that frequently cross species barriers, incur high human mortality, and are transmitted among humans via stuttering chains. We outline the transdisciplinary approach needed to prevent the spillover process and, therefore, future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Global Health , Henipavirus Infections/prevention & control , Henipavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Henipavirus Infections/epidemiology , Henipavirus Infections/immunology , Henipavirus Infections/transmission , Host Specificity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Nipah Virus/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission
11.
Science ; 373(6559): 1072-1077, 2021 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410871
12.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Rural Population , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Young Adult , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
13.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389525

ABSTRACT

Our recent study identified seven key microRNAs (miR-8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p) similar between SARS-CoV-2 and the human genome, pointing at miR-related mechanisms in viral entry and the regulatory effects on host immunity. To identify the putative roles of these miRs in zoonosis, we assessed their conservation, compared with humans, in some key wild and domestic animal carriers of zoonotic viruses, including bat, pangolin, pig, cow, rat, and chicken. Out of the seven miRs under study, miR-3611 was the most strongly conserved across all species; miR-5197 was the most conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and rat; miR-1307 was most strongly conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and human; miR-3691-3p in pangolin, cow, and human; miR-3934-3p in pig and cow, followed by pangolin and bat; miR-1468 was most conserved in pangolin, pig, and bat; while miR-8066 was most conserved in pangolin and pig. In humans, miR-3611 and miR-1307 were most conserved, while miR-8066, miR-5197, miR-3334-3p and miR-1468 were least conserved, compared with pangolin, pig, cow, and bat. Furthermore, we identified that changes in the miR-5197 nucleotides between pangolin and human can generate three new miRs, with differing tissue distribution in the brain, lung, intestines, lymph nodes, and muscle, and with different downstream regulatory effects on KEGG pathways. This may be of considerable importance as miR-5197 is localized in the spike protein transcript area of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Our findings may indicate roles for these miRs in viral-host co-evolution in zoonotic hosts, particularly highlighting pangolin, bat, cow, and pig as putative zoonotic carriers, while highlighting the miRs' roles in KEGG pathways linked to viral pathogenicity and host responses in humans. This in silico study paves the way for investigations into the roles of miRs in zoonotic disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Coevolution , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chickens , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genome/genetics , Host Specificity , Humans , Mammals , MicroRNAs/chemistry , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Alignment , Tissue Distribution , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
14.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 160-164, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385266

ABSTRACT

The emergence of alternate variants of SARS-CoV-2 due to ongoing adaptations in humans and following human-to-animal transmission has raised concern over the efficacy of vaccines against new variants. We describe human-to-animal transmission (zooanthroponosis) of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications for faunal virus persistence and vaccine-mediated immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Immunity , Viral Vaccines/immunology
15.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376989

ABSTRACT

Rodents (order Rodentia), followed by bats (order Chiroptera), comprise the largest percentage of living mammals on earth. Thus, it is not surprising that these two orders account for many of the reservoirs of the zoonotic RNA viruses discovered to date. The spillover of these viruses from wildlife to human do not typically result in pandemics but rather geographically confined outbreaks of human infection and disease. While limited geographically, these viruses cause thousands of cases of human disease each year. In this review, we focus on three questions regarding zoonotic viruses that originate in bats and rodents. First, what biological strategies have evolved that allow RNA viruses to reside in bats and rodents? Second, what are the environmental and ecological causes that drive viral spillover? Third, how does virus spillover occur from bats and rodents to humans?


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Rodentia/virology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Zoonoses/transmission
17.
mBio ; 12(4): e0194821, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337436

ABSTRACT

The origins of the calamitous SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are now the subject of vigorous discussion and debate between two competing hypotheses for how it entered the human population: (i) direct infection from a feral source, likely a bat and possibly with an intermediate mammalian host, and (ii) a lab accident whereby bat isolates infected a researcher, who then passed it to others. Here, we ask whether the tools of science can help resolve the origins question and conclude that while such studies can provide important information, these are unlikely to provide a definitive answer. Currently available data combined with historical precedent from other outbreaks and viewed through the prism of Occam's razor favor the feral source hypothesis, but science can provide only probabilities, not certainty.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Public Health Surveillance/methods , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Accidents, Occupational , Animals , Chiroptera/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254746, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327976

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence and transmission of zoonotic diseases are driven by complex interactions between health, environmental, and socio-political systems. Human movement is considered a significant and increasing factor in these processes, yet forced migration remains an understudied area of zoonotic research-due in part to the complexity of conducting interdisciplinary research in these settings. OBJECTIVES: We conducted a systematic review to identify and analyze theoretical frameworks and approaches used to study linkages between forced migration and zoonotic diseases. METHODS: We searched within eight electronic databases: ProQuest, SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed, PLoSOne, Science Direct, JSTOR, and Google Scholar, to identify a) research articles focusing on zoonoses considering forced migrants in their study populations, and b) forced migration literature which engaged with zoonotic disease. Both authors conducted a full-text review, evaluating the quality of literature reviews and primary data using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) model, while theoretical papers were evaluated for quality using a theory synthesis adapted from Bonell et al. (2013). Qualitative data were synthesized thematically according to the method suggested by Noblit and Hare (1988). RESULTS: Analyses of the 23 included articles showed the increasing use of interdisciplinary frameworks and approaches over time, the majority of which stemmed from political ecology. Approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health were increasingly popular, but were more often linked to program implementation and development than broader contextual research. The majority of research failed to acknowledge the heterogeneity of migrant populations, lacked contextual depth, and insufficient acknowledgments of migrant agency in responding to zoonotic threats. CONCLUSIONS: Addressing the emergence and spread of zoonoses in forced migration contexts requires more careful consideration and use of interdisciplinary research to integrate the contributions of social and natural science approaches. Robust interdisciplinary theoretical frameworks are an important step for better understanding the complex health, environment, and socio-political drivers of zoonotic diseases in forced migration. Lessons can be learned from the application of these approaches in other hard-to-reach or seldom-heard populations.


Subject(s)
Ecology , Human Migration , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Humans , Transients and Migrants , Zoonoses/epidemiology
19.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323824

ABSTRACT

Many of the world's most pressing issues, such as the emergence of zoonotic diseases, can only be addressed through interdisciplinary research. However, the findings of interdisciplinary research are susceptible to miscommunication among both professional and non-professional audiences due to differences in training, language, experience, and understanding. Such miscommunication contributes to the misunderstanding of key concepts or processes and hinders the development of effective research agendas and public policy. These misunderstandings can also provoke unnecessary fear in the public and have devastating effects for wildlife conservation. For example, inaccurate communication and subsequent misunderstanding of the potential associations between certain bats and zoonoses has led to persecution of diverse bats worldwide and even government calls to cull them. Here, we identify four types of miscommunication driven by the use of terminology regarding bats and the emergence of zoonotic diseases that we have categorized based on their root causes: (1) incorrect or overly broad use of terms; (2) terms that have unstable usage within a discipline, or different usages among disciplines; (3) terms that are used correctly but spark incorrect inferences about biological processes or significance in the audience; (4) incorrect inference drawn from the evidence presented. We illustrate each type of miscommunication with commonly misused or misinterpreted terms, providing a definition, caveats and common misconceptions, and suggest alternatives as appropriate. While we focus on terms specific to bats and disease ecology, we present a more general framework for addressing miscommunication that can be applied to other topics and disciplines to facilitate more effective research, problem-solving, and public policy.


Subject(s)
Communication , Information Dissemination/methods , Therapeutic Misconception/psychology , Animals , Chiroptera , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Conservation of Natural Resources , Disease Reservoirs , Humans , Language , Public Health , Public Policy/trends , Zoonoses/transmission
20.
Curr Biol ; 31(16): 3671-3677.e3, 2021 08 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300741

ABSTRACT

Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans.1,2 The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in a wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases.3-5 Yet there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data on mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade,6 we found that one-quarter (26.5%) of the mammals in wildlife trade harbor 75% of known zoonotic viruses, a level much higher than domesticated and non-traded mammals. The traded mammals also harbor distinct compositions of zoonotic viruses and different host reservoirs from non-traded and domesticated mammals. Furthermore, we highlight that primates, ungulates, carnivores, and bats represent significant zoonotic disease risks as they host 132 (58%) of 226 known zoonotic viruses in present wildlife trade, whereas species of bats, rodents, and marsupials represent significant zoonotic disease risks in future wildlife trade. Thus, the risk of carrying zoonotic diseases is not equal for all mammal species in wildlife trade. Overall, our findings strengthen the evidence that wildlife trade and zoonotic disease risks are strongly associated, and that mitigation measures should prioritize species with the highest risk of carrying zoonotic viruses. Curbing the sales of wildlife products and developing principles that support the sustainable and healthy trade of wildlife could be cost-effective investments given the potential risk and consequences of zoonotic outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Commerce , Mammals/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Sustainable Development , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology
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