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2.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707746

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multiple variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights the importance of possible animal-to-human (zoonotic) and human-to-animal (zooanthroponotic) transmission and potential spread within animal species. A range of animal species have been verified for SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility, either in vitro or in vivo. However, the molecular bases of such a broad host spectrum for the SARS-CoV-2 remains elusive. Here, we structurally and genetically analysed the interaction between the spike protein, with a particular focus on receptor binding domains (RBDs), of SARS-CoV-2 and its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) for all conceivably susceptible groups of animals to gauge the structural bases of the SARS-CoV-2 host spectrum. We describe our findings in the context of existing animal infection-based models to provide a foundation on the possible virus persistence in animals and their implications in the future eradication of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Host Specificity , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Phylogeny , Receptors, Virus , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(6)2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1655775

ABSTRACT

Many animal species are susceptible to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and could act as reservoirs; however, transmission in free-living animals has not been documented. White-tailed deer, the predominant cervid in North America, are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, and experimentally infected fawns can transmit the virus. To test the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 is circulating in deer, 283 retropharyngeal lymph node (RPLN) samples collected from 151 free-living and 132 captive deer in Iowa from April 2020 through January of 2021 were assayed for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA. Ninety-four of the 283 (33.2%) deer samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA as assessed by RT-PCR. Notably, following the November 2020 peak of human cases in Iowa, and coinciding with the onset of winter and the peak deer hunting season, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 80 of 97 (82.5%) RPLN samples collected over a 7-wk period. Whole genome sequencing of all 94 positive RPLN samples identified 12 SARS-CoV-2 lineages, with B.1.2 (n = 51; 54.5%) and B.1.311 (n = 19; 20%) accounting for ∼75% of all samples. The geographic distribution and nesting of clusters of deer and human lineages strongly suggest multiple human-to-deer transmission events followed by subsequent deer-to-deer spread. These discoveries have important implications for the long-term persistence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Our findings highlight an urgent need for a robust and proactive "One Health" approach to obtain enhanced understanding of the ecology, molecular evolution, and dissemination of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Deer/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
4.
Lancet ; 398(10316): 2109-2124, 2021 12 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1598178

ABSTRACT

Understanding the spread of SARS-CoV-2, how and when evidence emerged, and the timing of local, national, regional, and global responses is essential to establish how an outbreak became a pandemic and to prepare for future health threats. With that aim, the Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness and Response has developed a chronology of events, actions, and recommendations, from December, 2019, when the first cases of COVID-19 were identified in China, to the end of March, 2020, by which time the outbreak had spread extensively worldwide and had been characterised as a pandemic. Datapoints are based on two literature reviews, WHO documents and correspondence, submissions to the Panel, and an expert verification process. The retrospective analysis of the chronology shows a dedicated initial response by WHO and some national governments, but also aspects of the response that could have been quicker, including outbreak notifications under the International Health Regulations (IHR), presumption and confirmation of human-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2, declaration of a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, and, most importantly, the public health response of many national governments. The chronology also shows that some countries, largely those with previous experience with similar outbreaks, reacted quickly, even ahead of WHO alerts, and were more successful in initially containing the virus. Mapping actions against IHR obligations, the chronology shows where efficiency and accountability could be improved at local, national, and international levels to more quickly alert and contain health threats in the future. In particular, these improvements include necessary reforms to international law and governance for pandemic preparedness and response, including the IHR and a potential framework convention on pandemic preparedness and response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Global Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Humans , Information Dissemination , International Cooperation , International Health Regulations , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors , World Health Organization , Zoonoses/virology
5.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(12): 1483-1492, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1550288

ABSTRACT

Better methods to predict and prevent the emergence of zoonotic viruses could support future efforts to reduce the risk of epidemics. We propose a network science framework for understanding and predicting human and animal susceptibility to viral infections. Related approaches have so far helped to identify basic biological rules that govern cross-species transmission and structure the global virome. We highlight ways to make modelling both accurate and actionable, and discuss the barriers that prevent researchers from translating viral ecology into public health policies that could prevent future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Humans , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Viruses/genetics , Zoonoses/physiopathology , Zoonoses/virology
6.
PLoS Biol ; 19(4): e3001135, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1508487

ABSTRACT

Identifying the animal reservoirs from which zoonotic viruses will likely emerge is central to understanding the determinants of disease emergence. Accordingly, there has been an increase in studies attempting zoonotic "risk assessment." Herein, we demonstrate that the virological data on which these analyses are conducted are incomplete, biased, and rapidly changing with ongoing virus discovery. Together, these shortcomings suggest that attempts to assess zoonotic risk using available virological data are likely to be inaccurate and largely only identify those host taxa that have been studied most extensively. We suggest that virus surveillance at the human-animal interface may be more productive.


Subject(s)
Environmental Monitoring , Virus Diseases , Zoonoses/etiology , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Animals , Biodiversity , Disease Reservoirs/classification , Disease Reservoirs/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Environmental Monitoring/standards , Host Specificity/genetics , Humans , Metagenomics/methods , Metagenomics/organization & administration , Metagenomics/standards , Phylogeny , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Selection Bias , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/etiology , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/transmission , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/isolation & purification , Viruses/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21075, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493212

ABSTRACT

Bats are potential natural reservoirs for emerging viruses, causing deadly human diseases, such as COVID-19, MERS, SARS, Nipah, Hendra, and Ebola infections. The fundamental mechanisms by which bats are considered "living bioreactors" for emerging viruses are not fully understood. Some studies suggest that tolerance to viruses is linked to suppressing antiviral immune and inflammatory responses due to DNA damage by energy generated to fly. Our study reveals that bats' gut bacteria could also be involved in the host and its microbiota's DNA damage. We performed screening of lactic acid bacteria and bacilli isolated from bats' feces for mutagenic and oxidative activity by lux-biosensors. The pro-mutagenic activity was determined when expression of recA increased with the appearance of double-strand breaks in the cell DNA, while an increase of katG expression in the presence of hydroxyl radicals indicated antioxidant activity. We identified that most of the isolated bacteria have pro-mutagenic and antioxidant properties at the same time. This study reveals new insights into bat gut microbiota's potential involvement in antiviral response and opens new frontiers in preventing emerging diseases originating from bats.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Mutagens , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Antiviral Agents , Bacillus , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , DNA , DNA Damage , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Feces , Immune System , Inflammation , Lactic Acid/metabolism , Mass Spectrometry , Mutagenesis , Oxidative Stress , Rec A Recombinases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/virology
8.
Infect Genet Evol ; 95: 104812, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461688

ABSTRACT

While the COVID-19 pandemic continues to spread with currently more than 117 million cumulated cases and 2.6 million deaths worldwide as per March 2021, its origin is still debated. Although several hypotheses have been proposed, there is still no clear explanation about how its causative agent, SARS-CoV-2, emerged in human populations. Today, scientifically-valid facts that deserve to be debated still coexist with unverified statements blurring thus the knowledge on the origin of COVID-19. Our retrospective analysis of scientific data supports the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2 is indeed a naturally occurring virus. However, the spillover model considered today as the main explanation to zoonotic emergence does not match the virus dynamics and somehow misguided the way researches were conducted. We conclude this review by proposing a change of paradigm and model and introduce the circulation model for explaining the various aspects of the dynamic of SARS-CoV-2 emergence in humans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera/virology , Eutheria/virology , Humans , Models, Genetic , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Stochastic Processes , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(10): e3001422, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456048
10.
Viruses ; 13(7)2021 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1445747

ABSTRACT

Pandemics are a consequence of a series of processes that span scales from viral biology at 10-9 m to global transmission at 106 m. The pathogen passes from one host species to another through a sequence of events that starts with an infected reservoir host and entails interspecific contact, innate immune responses, receptor protein structure within the potential host, and the global spread of the novel pathogen through the naive host population. Each event presents a potential barrier to the onward passage of the virus and should be characterized with an integrated transdisciplinary approach. Epidemic control is based on the prevention of exposure, infection, and disease. However, the ultimate pandemic prevention is prevention of the spillover event itself. Here, we focus on the potential for preventing the spillover of henipaviruses, a group of viruses derived from bats that frequently cross species barriers, incur high human mortality, and are transmitted among humans via stuttering chains. We outline the transdisciplinary approach needed to prevent the spillover process and, therefore, future pandemics.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Global Health , Henipavirus Infections/prevention & control , Henipavirus/pathogenicity , Pandemics/prevention & control , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Henipavirus Infections/epidemiology , Henipavirus Infections/immunology , Henipavirus Infections/transmission , Host Specificity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Nipah Virus/pathogenicity , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission
11.
PLoS Biol ; 19(9): e3001390, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440977

ABSTRACT

Determining which animal viruses may be capable of infecting humans is currently intractable at the time of their discovery, precluding prioritization of high-risk viruses for early investigation and outbreak preparedness. Given the increasing use of genomics in virus discovery and the otherwise sparse knowledge of the biology of newly discovered viruses, we developed machine learning models that identify candidate zoonoses solely using signatures of host range encoded in viral genomes. Within a dataset of 861 viral species with known zoonotic status, our approach outperformed models based on the phylogenetic relatedness of viruses to known human-infecting viruses (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.773), distinguishing high-risk viruses within families that contain a minority of human-infecting species and identifying putatively undetected or so far unrealized zoonoses. Analyses of the underpinnings of model predictions suggested the existence of generalizable features of viral genomes that are independent of virus taxonomic relationships and that may preadapt viruses to infect humans. Our model reduced a second set of 645 animal-associated viruses that were excluded from training to 272 high and 41 very high-risk candidate zoonoses and showed significantly elevated predicted zoonotic risk in viruses from nonhuman primates, but not other mammalian or avian host groups. A second application showed that our models could have identified Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a relatively high-risk coronavirus strain and that this prediction required no prior knowledge of zoonotic Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses. Genome-based zoonotic risk assessment provides a rapid, low-cost approach to enable evidence-driven virus surveillance and increases the feasibility of downstream biological and ecological characterization of viruses.


Subject(s)
Forecasting/methods , Host Specificity/genetics , Zoonoses/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Machine Learning , Models, Theoretical , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viruses/classification , Viruses/genetics , Zoonoses/classification , Zoonoses/virology
12.
Vopr Virusol ; 66(4): 259-268, 2021 09 17.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431292

ABSTRACT

The virologists' attention to bats (Сhiroptera) changed in the late 20th century as the concept of emerging infections grew in popularity. Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of publications on bat viruses has increased profoundly.History of the problem; biodiversity of Chiroptera and related viruses; medical and veterinary significance of some viral genera and subgenera (Lyssavirus, Henipavirus, Marburgvirus, Ebolavirus, Sarbecovirus, Merbecovirus), as well as problems of bat protection, are addressed in a concise form. Literature search was carried out in electronic databases, mainly for the period of 2000-2021. Publications in Russian that are poorly represented in English-language reviews are also included. The purpose of the review is to substantiate the importance of an interdisciplinary approach in the context of increased interest in the study of viral infections in bats. This review was written for researchers who have not previously dealt with this problem.Since the beginning of this century, the number of known virus species associated with bats has increased by an order of magnitude (>200). The families Rhabdoviridae, Coronaviridae, Paramyxoviridae are in the first ranks according to the number of findings, and the highest diversity of viruses has been established for the families Vespertilionidae, Pteropodidae, Molossidae. Interdisciplinary cooperation positively influences the efficiency, biological safety and practical significance of the ongoing research. The best results were achieved by multidisciplinary teams with good cross-training in several specialties. Many papers emphasize the need to balance health and conservation interests.The analysis of scientific publications indicates a change in research approaches in this area: from collecting individual facts within the framework of narrow specialties to a comprehensive assessment of new knowledge from ecological, evolutionary and socio-economic positions. Results of the research emphasize the need to maintain complex approaches addressing public health needs and environmental protection. The importance of bat-borne viral infections determines the necessity for correction and interdepartmental coordination of scientific research and surveillance of wildlife zoonoses in the Russian Federation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera/virology , Paramyxoviridae Infections , Paramyxoviridae , Rhabdoviridae Infections , Rhabdoviridae , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Paramyxoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/transmission , Rhabdoviridae Infections/epidemiology , Rhabdoviridae Infections/transmission , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
13.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1837): 20200358, 2021 11 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429384

ABSTRACT

In the light of the urgency raised by the COVID-19 pandemic, global investment in wildlife virology is likely to increase, and new surveillance programmes will identify hundreds of novel viruses that might someday pose a threat to humans. To support the extensive task of laboratory characterization, scientists may increasingly rely on data-driven rubrics or machine learning models that learn from known zoonoses to identify which animal pathogens could someday pose a threat to global health. We synthesize the findings of an interdisciplinary workshop on zoonotic risk technologies to answer the following questions. What are the prerequisites, in terms of open data, equity and interdisciplinary collaboration, to the development and application of those tools? What effect could the technology have on global health? Who would control that technology, who would have access to it and who would benefit from it? Would it improve pandemic prevention? Could it create new challenges? This article is part of the theme issue 'Infectious disease macroecology: parasite diversity and dynamics across the globe'.


Subject(s)
Disease Reservoirs/virology , Global Health , Pandemics/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Animals, Wild , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/veterinary , Ecology , Humans , Laboratories , Machine Learning , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses , Zoonoses/epidemiology
14.
mBio ; 12(5): e0194121, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398578

ABSTRACT

Bats are infamous reservoirs of deadly human viruses. While retroviruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), are among the most significant of virus families that have jumped from animals into humans, whether bat retroviruses have the potential to infect and cause disease in humans remains unknown. Recent reports of retroviruses circulating in bat populations builds on two decades of research describing the fossil records of retroviral sequences in bat genomes and of viral metagenomes extracted from bat samples. The impact of the global COVID-19 pandemic demands that we pay closer attention to viruses hosted by bats and their potential as a zoonotic threat. Here we review current knowledge of bat retroviruses and explore the question of whether they represent a threat to humans.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Retroviridae/pathogenicity , Animals , Zoonoses/virology
15.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.


Subject(s)
Animals, Wild/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Rural Population , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Animals , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Qualitative Research , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Young Adult , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
16.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389525

ABSTRACT

Our recent study identified seven key microRNAs (miR-8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p) similar between SARS-CoV-2 and the human genome, pointing at miR-related mechanisms in viral entry and the regulatory effects on host immunity. To identify the putative roles of these miRs in zoonosis, we assessed their conservation, compared with humans, in some key wild and domestic animal carriers of zoonotic viruses, including bat, pangolin, pig, cow, rat, and chicken. Out of the seven miRs under study, miR-3611 was the most strongly conserved across all species; miR-5197 was the most conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and rat; miR-1307 was most strongly conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and human; miR-3691-3p in pangolin, cow, and human; miR-3934-3p in pig and cow, followed by pangolin and bat; miR-1468 was most conserved in pangolin, pig, and bat; while miR-8066 was most conserved in pangolin and pig. In humans, miR-3611 and miR-1307 were most conserved, while miR-8066, miR-5197, miR-3334-3p and miR-1468 were least conserved, compared with pangolin, pig, cow, and bat. Furthermore, we identified that changes in the miR-5197 nucleotides between pangolin and human can generate three new miRs, with differing tissue distribution in the brain, lung, intestines, lymph nodes, and muscle, and with different downstream regulatory effects on KEGG pathways. This may be of considerable importance as miR-5197 is localized in the spike protein transcript area of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Our findings may indicate roles for these miRs in viral-host co-evolution in zoonotic hosts, particularly highlighting pangolin, bat, cow, and pig as putative zoonotic carriers, while highlighting the miRs' roles in KEGG pathways linked to viral pathogenicity and host responses in humans. This in silico study paves the way for investigations into the roles of miRs in zoonotic disease.


Subject(s)
Biological Coevolution , MicroRNAs/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chickens , Gene Regulatory Networks , Genome/genetics , Host Specificity , Humans , Mammals , MicroRNAs/chemistry , MicroRNAs/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Sequence Alignment , Tissue Distribution , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
17.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 160-164, 2021 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385266

ABSTRACT

The emergence of alternate variants of SARS-CoV-2 due to ongoing adaptations in humans and following human-to-animal transmission has raised concern over the efficacy of vaccines against new variants. We describe human-to-animal transmission (zooanthroponosis) of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications for faunal virus persistence and vaccine-mediated immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/veterinary , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Immunity , Viral Vaccines/immunology
18.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376989

ABSTRACT

Rodents (order Rodentia), followed by bats (order Chiroptera), comprise the largest percentage of living mammals on earth. Thus, it is not surprising that these two orders account for many of the reservoirs of the zoonotic RNA viruses discovered to date. The spillover of these viruses from wildlife to human do not typically result in pandemics but rather geographically confined outbreaks of human infection and disease. While limited geographically, these viruses cause thousands of cases of human disease each year. In this review, we focus on three questions regarding zoonotic viruses that originate in bats and rodents. First, what biological strategies have evolved that allow RNA viruses to reside in bats and rodents? Second, what are the environmental and ecological causes that drive viral spillover? Third, how does virus spillover occur from bats and rodents to humans?


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Rodentia/virology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Zoonoses/transmission
20.
Cell ; 184(19): 4848-4856, 2021 09 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363914

ABSTRACT

Since the first reports of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, there has been intense interest in understanding how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in the human population. Recent debate has coalesced around two competing ideas: a "laboratory escape" scenario and zoonotic emergence. Here, we critically review the current scientific evidence that may help clarify the origin of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Animals , Biological Evolution , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Laboratories , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Zoonoses/virology
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