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1.
Elife ; 92020 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-774702

ABSTRACT

Bats host virulent zoonotic viruses without experiencing disease. A mechanistic understanding of the impact of bats' virus hosting capacities, including uniquely constitutive immune pathways, on cellular-scale viral dynamics is needed to elucidate zoonotic emergence. We carried out virus infectivity assays on bat cell lines expressing induced and constitutive immune phenotypes, then developed a theoretical model of our in vitro system, which we fit to empirical data. Best fit models recapitulated expected immune phenotypes for representative cell lines, supporting robust antiviral defenses in bat cells that correlated with higher estimates for within-host viral propagation rates. In general, heightened immune responses limit pathogen-induced cellular morbidity, which can facilitate the establishment of rapidly-propagating persistent infections within-host. Rapidly-transmitting viruses that have evolved with bat immune systems will likely cause enhanced virulence following emergence into secondary hosts with immune systems that diverge from those unique to bats.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Viruses/growth & development , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Cell Line , Chiroptera/immunology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Kinetics , Models, Biological , Phenotype , Risk Assessment , Virulence , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/immunology , Viruses/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/immunology , Zoonoses/transmission
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4235, 2020 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738373

ABSTRACT

Bats are presumed reservoirs of diverse coronaviruses (CoVs) including progenitors of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19. However, the evolution and diversification of these coronaviruses remains poorly understood. Here we use a Bayesian statistical framework and a large sequence data set from bat-CoVs (including 630 novel CoV sequences) in China to study their macroevolution, cross-species transmission and dispersal. We find that host-switching occurs more frequently and across more distantly related host taxa in alpha- than beta-CoVs, and is more highly constrained by phylogenetic distance for beta-CoVs. We show that inter-family and -genus switching is most common in Rhinolophidae and the genus Rhinolophus. Our analyses identify the host taxa and geographic regions that define hotspots of CoV evolutionary diversity in China that could help target bat-CoV discovery for proactive zoonotic disease surveillance. Finally, we present a phylogenetic analysis suggesting a likely origin for SARS-CoV-2 in Rhinolophus spp. bats.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus/genetics , Evolution, Molecular , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Biodiversity , China , Chiroptera/classification , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/virology
3.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 08 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-736748

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic emphasizes the need to actively study the virome of unexplained respiratory diseases. We performed viral metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) analysis of 91 nasal-throat swabs from individuals working with animals and with acute respiratory diseases. Fifteen virus RT-PCR-positive samples were included as controls, while the other 76 samples were RT-PCR negative for a wide panel of respiratory pathogens. Eukaryotic viruses detected by mNGS were then screened by PCR (using primers based on mNGS-derived contigs) in all samples to compare viral detection by mNGS versus PCR and assess the utility of mNGS in routine diagnostics. mNGS identified expected human rhinoviruses, enteroviruses, influenza A virus, coronavirus OC43, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A in 13 of 15 (86.7%) positive control samples. Additionally, rotavirus, torque teno virus, human papillomavirus, human betaherpesvirus 7, cyclovirus, vientovirus, gemycircularvirus, and statovirus were identified through mNGS. Notably, complete genomes of novel cyclovirus, gemycircularvirus, and statovirus were genetically characterized. Using PCR screening, the novel cyclovirus was additionally detected in 5 and the novel gemycircularvirus in 12 of the remaining samples included for mNGS analysis. Our studies therefore provide pioneering data of the virome of acute-respiratory diseases from individuals at risk of zoonotic infections. The mNGS protocol/pipeline applied here is sensitive for the detection of a variety of viruses, including novel ones. More frequent detections of the novel viruses by PCR than by mNGS on the same samples suggests that PCR remains the most sensitive diagnostic test for viruses whose genomes are known. The detection of novel viruses expands our understanding of the respiratory virome of animal-exposed humans and warrant further studies.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/virology , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Metagenome , Metagenomics/methods , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Zoonoses/diagnosis
4.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108777, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733593

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause disease in a range of agricultural and companion animal species, and can be important causes of zoonotic infections. In humans, several coronaviruses circulate seasonally. Recently, a novel zoonotic CoV named SARS-CoV-2 emerged from a bat reservoir, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on felines, we review here the evidence for SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats, ferrets and dogs, describe the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the natural coronaviruses known to infect these species, and provide a rationale for the relative susceptibility of these species to SARS-CoV-2 through comparative analysis of the ACE-2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Cats/virology , Dogs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Zoonoses/virology
5.
Pathog Dis ; 78(6)2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729137

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a viral pneumonia, responsible for the recent pandemic, and originated from Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The causative agent of the outbreak was identified as coronavirus and designated as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS- CoV-2). Few years back, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS- CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) were reported to be highly pathogenic and caused severe infections in humans. In the current situation SARS-CoV-2 has become the third highly pathogenic coronavirus that is responsible for the present outbreak in human population. At the time of this review, there were more than 14 007 791 confirmed COVID-19 patients which associated with over 597 105 deaths in more then 216 countries across the globe (as reported by World Health Organization). In this review we have discussed about SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV and SARC-CoV-2, their reservoirs, role of spike proteins and immunogenicity. We have also covered the diagnosis, therapeutics and vaccine status of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Disease Reservoirs/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zoonoses/virology
6.
Viruses ; 12(8)2020 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696041

ABSTRACT

Zoonoses can constitute a threat for public health that can have a global importance, as seen with the current COVID-19 pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). Bats have been recognized as an important reservoir of zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs). In West Africa, where there is a high diversity of bat species, little is known on the circulation of CoVs in these hosts, especially at the interface with human populations. In this study, in Guinea, we tested a total of 319 bats belonging to 14 genera and six families of insectivorous and frugivorous bats across the country, for the presence of coronaviruses. We found CoVs in 35 (11%) of the tested bats-in three insectivorous bat species and five fruit bat species that were mostly captured close to human habitat. Positivity rates varied from 5.7% to 100%, depending on bat species. A wide diversity of alpha and beta coronaviruses was found across the country, including three sequences belonging to SarbeCoVs and MerbeCoVs subgenera known to harbor highly pathogenic human coronaviruses. Our findings suggest that CoVs are widely spread in West Africa and their circulation should be assessed to evaluate the risk of exposure of potential zoonotic CoVs to humans.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biodiversity , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Genome, Viral , Guinea , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/virology
8.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 408-411, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639885

ABSTRACT

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Primates/virology , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Zoonoses/virology
9.
Mol Biol Evol ; 37(9): 2463-2464, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638189

ABSTRACT

Identifying the origin of SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of the current COVID-19 pandemic, may help us to avoid future epidemics of coronavirus and other zoonoses. Several theories about the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2 have recently been proposed. Although Betacoronavirus found in Rhinolophus bats from China have been broadly implicated, their genetic dissimilarity to SARS-CoV-2 is so high that they are highly unlikely to be its direct ancestors. Thus, an intermediary host is suspected to link bat to human coronaviruses. Based on genomic CpG dinucleotide patterns in different coronaviruses from different hosts, it was suggested that SARS-CoV-2 might have evolved in a canid gastrointestinal tract prior to transmission to humans. However, similar CpG patterns are now reported in coronaviruses from other hosts, including bats themselves and pangolins. Therefore, reduced genomic CpG alone is not a highly predictive biomarker, suggesting a need for additional biomarkers to reveal intermediate hosts or tissues. The hunt for the zoonotic origin of SARS-CoV-2 continues.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , CpG Islands , Eutheria/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression , Mutation , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reassortant Viruses/classification , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/pathogenicity , Recombination, Genetic , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
10.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 633-641, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611702

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Coronaviruses are known to cross barrier species and infect new ones. In the past twenty years, we witnessed the emergence of three different coronaviruses, the latest one being the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) responsible for the COVID-19 (covid disease 19) pandemic. Coronaviruses are enveloped virus with a long positive sense RNA genome. Like all viruses, they hijack the cellular machinery to replicate and produce new virions. There is no approved vaccine or specific antiviral molecule against coronaviruses but with the urgency to treat COVID-19, several candidate therapies are currently investigated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epidemics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 247: 108777, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-611218

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) cause disease in a range of agricultural and companion animal species, and can be important causes of zoonotic infections. In humans, several coronaviruses circulate seasonally. Recently, a novel zoonotic CoV named SARS-CoV-2 emerged from a bat reservoir, resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic. With a focus on felines, we review here the evidence for SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats, ferrets and dogs, describe the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and the natural coronaviruses known to infect these species, and provide a rationale for the relative susceptibility of these species to SARS-CoV-2 through comparative analysis of the ACE-2 receptor.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases/virology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Pandemics/veterinary , Pneumonia, Viral/veterinary , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Cats/virology , Dogs/virology , Ferrets/virology , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Zoonoses/virology
12.
Med Sci (Paris) ; 36(6-7): 633-641, 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607023

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that infect mammals and birds. Coronaviruses are known to cross barrier species and infect new ones. In the past twenty years, we witnessed the emergence of three different coronaviruses, the latest one being the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) responsible for the COVID-19 (covid disease 19) pandemic. Coronaviruses are enveloped virus with a long positive sense RNA genome. Like all viruses, they hijack the cellular machinery to replicate and produce new virions. There is no approved vaccine or specific antiviral molecule against coronaviruses but with the urgency to treat COVID-19, several candidate therapies are currently investigated.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Epidemics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
13.
Rev Med Interne ; 41(6): 375-389, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601583

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection, named COVID-19, can lead to a dysregulated immune response and abnormal coagulation responsible for a viral sepsis. In this review, we specify physiopathological mechanisms of each phase of COVID-19 - viral, immune and pro-thrombotic - notably because they involve different treatment. Finally, we specify the physiopathological mechanisms of organ injury.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunization , Immunomodulation , Organ Specificity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/virology , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/physiology , Zoonoses/virology
14.
Nat Rev Microbiol ; 18(8): 461-471, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596755

ABSTRACT

Most viral pathogens in humans have animal origins and arose through cross-species transmission. Over the past 50 years, several viruses, including Ebola virus, Marburg virus, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory coronavirus (MERS-CoV) and SARS-CoV-2, have been linked back to various bat species. Despite decades of research into bats and the pathogens they carry, the fields of bat virus ecology and molecular biology are still nascent, with many questions largely unexplored, thus hindering our ability to anticipate and prepare for the next viral outbreak. In this Review, we discuss the latest advancements and understanding of bat-borne viruses, reflecting on current knowledge gaps and outlining the potential routes for future research as well as for outbreak response and prevention efforts.


Subject(s)
Biodiversity , Chiroptera/virology , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/virology , Virus Diseases/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Research/trends , Virus Diseases/prevention & control , Zoonoses/prevention & control , Zoonoses/transmission
15.
Sci Immunol ; 5(48)2020 06 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595199

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that first emerged in late 2019 is responsible for a pandemic of severe respiratory illness. People infected with this highly contagious virus can present with clinically inapparent, mild, or severe disease. Currently, the virus infection in individuals and at the population level is being monitored by PCR testing of symptomatic patients for the presence of viral RNA. There is an urgent need for SARS-CoV-2 serologic tests to identify all infected individuals, irrespective of clinical symptoms, to conduct surveillance and implement strategies to contain spread. As the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein is poorly conserved between SARS-CoVs and other pathogenic human coronaviruses, the RBD represents a promising antigen for detecting CoV-specific antibodies in people. Here we use a large panel of human sera (63 SARS-CoV-2 patients and 71 control subjects) and hyperimmune sera from animals exposed to zoonotic CoVs to evaluate RBD's performance as an antigen for reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. By day 9 after the onset of symptoms, the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 RBD antigen was highly sensitive (98%) and specific (100%) for antibodies induced by SARS-CoVs. We observed a strong correlation between levels of RBD binding antibodies and SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in patients. Our results, which reveal the early kinetics of SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses, support using the RBD antigen in serological diagnostic assays and RBD-specific antibody levels as a correlate of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in people.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Protein Domains/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Zoonoses/blood , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Kinetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , Rabbits , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , Serologic Tests , Zoonoses/virology
16.
Vopr Virusol ; 65(2): 62-70, 2020.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-593172

ABSTRACT

Since the early 2000s, three novel zooanthroponous coronaviruses (Betacoronavirus) have emerged. The first outbreak of infection (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV virus occurred in the fall of 2002 in China (Guangdong Province). A second outbreak (MERS) associated with the new MERS-CoV virus appeared in Saudi Arabia in autumn 2012. The third epidemic, which turned into a COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus, emerged in China (Hubei Province) in the autumn 2019. This review focuses on ecological and genetic aspects that lead to the emergence of new human zoanthroponous coronaviruses. The main mechanism of adaptation of zoonotic betacoronaviruses to humans is to changes in the receptor-binding domain of surface protein (S), as a result of which it gains the ability to bind human cellular receptors of epithelial cells in respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. This process is caused by the high genetic diversity and variability combined with frequent recombination, during virus circulation in their natural reservoir - bats (Microchiroptera, Chiroptera). Appearance of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 (subgenus Sarbecovirus), and MERS (subgenus Merbecovirus) viruses is a result of evolutionary events occurring in bat populations with further transfer of viruses to the human directly or through the intermediate vertebrate hosts, ecologically connected with bats. This review is based on the report at the meeting «Coronavirus - a global challenge to science¼ of the Scientific Council «Life Science¼ of the Russian Academy of Science: Lvov D.K., Alkhovsky S.V., Burtseva E.I. COVID-19 pandemic sources: origin, biology and genetics of coronaviruses of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, MERS-CoV (Conference hall of Presidium of RAS, 14 Leninsky Prospect, Moscow, Russia. April 16, 2020).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Ecology , Evolution, Molecular , Gene Expression , Mutation , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reassortant Viruses/classification , Reassortant Viruses/genetics , Reassortant Viruses/pathogenicity , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Zoonoses/transmission , Zoonoses/virology
17.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(6): 834-838, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-390185

ABSTRACT

Nearly four months have passed since the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which caused the rapidly spreading Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. To date, there have been more than 2.3 million confirmed cases and more than 160,000 deaths globally caused by COVID-19. Chinese health authorities, where the virus emerged, have taken prompt strict public health measures to control and prevent the spread of the outbreak. In Saudi Arabia, unprecedented precautionary strict measures were applied to prevent virus entry to the country or to mitigate its impact when it arrives. Here, we review the response of Saudi Arabia to COVID-19 pandemic and how did the experience learned from the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) epidemic since 2012 has helped the country to be better prepared for the current COVID-19 pandemic. We also discuss the country readiness, improvement in research and development, and the unprecedented rapid precautionary measures that have been taken by the Saudi government thus far.


Subject(s)
Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Animals , Betacoronavirus , Camelus/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Travel , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/virology
18.
Rev Med Interne ; 41(6): 375-389, 2020 Jun.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381844

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection, named COVID-19, can lead to a dysregulated immune response and abnormal coagulation responsible for a viral sepsis. In this review, we specify physiopathological mechanisms of each phase of COVID-19 - viral, immune and pro-thrombotic - notably because they involve different treatment. Finally, we specify the physiopathological mechanisms of organ injury.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunization , Immunomodulation , Organ Specificity , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Thrombosis/prevention & control , Thrombosis/virology , Viral Tropism , Virus Internalization , Virus Replication/physiology , Zoonoses/virology
19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 939, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380929

ABSTRACT

Zoonotic infections are an imminent threat to human health. Pangolins were recently identified as carriers and intermediate hosts of coronaviruses. Previous research has shown that infection with coronaviruses activates an innate immune response upon sensing of viral RNA by interferon-induced with helicase C domain 1 (IFIH1), also known as MDA5. Here, we performed a comparative genomics study of RNA sensor genes in three species of pangolins. DDX58/RIG-I, a sensor of cytoplasmic viral RNA and toll-like receptors (TLR) 3, 7, and 8, which bind RNA in endosomes, are conserved in pangolins. By contrast, IFIH1 a sensor of intracellular double-stranded RNA, has been inactivated by mutations in pangolins. Likewise, Z-DNA-binding protein (ZBP1), which senses both Z-DNA and Z-RNA, has been lost during the evolution of pangolins. These results suggest that the innate immune response to viruses differs significantly between pangolins and other mammals, including humans. We put forward the hypothesis that loss of IFIH1 and ZBP1 provided an evolutionary advantage by reducing inflammation-induced damage to host tissues and thereby contributed to a switch from resistance to tolerance of viral infections in pangolins.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Eutheria/virology , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferon-Induced Helicase, IFIH1/genetics , Animals , Coronavirus/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , Gene Deletion , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , RNA, Viral/immunology , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Zoonoses/virology
20.
Life Sci ; 254: 117765, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-348588

ABSTRACT

The ongoing wreaking global outbreak of the novel human beta coronavirus (CoV) pathogen was presumed to be from a seafood wholesale market in Wuhan, China, belongs to the Coronaviridae family in the Nidovirales order. The virus is highly contagious with potential human-human transmission which was named as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has spread across six continents and emerged as a global pandemic in short span with alarming levels of spread and severity. This virus associated symptoms and infectious respiratory illness is designated as coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). The SARS-CoV-2 possesses enveloped club-like spike protein projections with positive-sense large RNA genome and has a unique replication strategy. This virus was believed to have zoonotic origin with genetical identity to bat and pangolin CoV. In the current review, we introduce a general overview about the human CoVs and the associated diseases, the origin, structure, replication and key clinical events that occur in the COVID-19 pathogenicity. Furthermore, we focused on possible therapeutic options such as repurposing drugs including antimalarials, antivirals, antiparasitic drugs, and anti-HIV drugs, as well as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines as potential treatment options. Also we have summarized the latest research progress on the usage of stem cell therapy, human convalescent serum, interferon's, in the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/therapy , Zoonoses/virology
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