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1.
N Engl J Med ; 387(6): 514-524, 2022 Aug 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from carriage of a homozygous SERPINA1 "Z" mutation (proteinase inhibitor [PI] ZZ). The Z allele produces a mutant AAT protein called Z-AAT, which accumulates in hepatocytes and can lead to progressive liver disease and fibrosis. This open-label, phase 2 trial investigated the safety and efficacy of fazirsiran, an RNA interference therapeutic, in patients with liver disease associated with AAT deficiency. METHODS: We assigned adults with the PI ZZ genotype and liver fibrosis to receive fazirsiran at a dose of 200 mg (cohorts 1 [4 patients] and 2 [8 patients]) or 100 mg (cohort 1b [4 patients]) subcutaneously on day 1 and week 4 and then every 12 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline to week 24 (cohorts 1 and 1b) or week 48 (cohort 2) in liver Z-AAT concentrations, which were measured by means of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. RESULTS: All the patients had reduced accumulation of Z-AAT in the liver (median reduction, 83% at week 24 or 48). The nadir in serum was a reduction of approximately 90%, and treatment was also associated with a reduction in histologic globule burden (from a mean score of 7.4 [scores range from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating a greater globule burden] at baseline to 2.3 at week 24 or 48). All cohorts had reductions in liver enzyme concentrations. Fibrosis regression was observed in 7 of 15 patients and fibrosis progression in 2 of 15 patients after 24 or 48 weeks. There were no adverse events leading to trial or drug discontinuation. Four serious adverse events (viral myocarditis, diverticulitis, dyspnea, and vestibular neuronitis) resolved. CONCLUSIONS: In this small trial, fazirsiran was associated with a strong reduction of Z-AAT concentrations in the serum and liver and concurrent improvements in liver enzyme concentrations. (Funded by Arrowhead Pharmaceuticals; AROAAT-2002 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03946449.).


Subject(s)
Liver Cirrhosis , RNAi Therapeutics , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , alpha 1-Antitrypsin , Adult , Genotype , Hepatocytes/drug effects , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Liver/metabolism , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Liver Cirrhosis/etiology , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Mutation , RNAi Therapeutics/adverse effects , RNAi Therapeutics/methods , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/analysis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/blood , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/genetics , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/complications , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/genetics
3.
Pneumologie ; 76(7): 494-498, 2022 Jul.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900704

ABSTRACT

METHODS: In March 2021, a 19-item survey was sent to 420 patients with AATD who were being treated with AAT replacement therapy (prolastin) and who participated in the German AlphaCare patient program. RESULTS: The majority of the respondents (55.9%; 138) had been diagnosed with AATD ≥10 years prior to the survey and most (93.5%; 231) felt adequately informed about their disease through their physician, AlphaCare and Alpha1 Deutschland. The majority of respondents were concerned/very concerned about acquiring COVID-19. Only 1.2% of the respondents reported having been infected with SARS-CoV-2, less than the infection rate in the general population at that time (3.4%). Almost all of the respondents fully agreed/agreed that they had restricted their social contacts due to the pandemic. A substantial percentage of the responding patients fully agreed/agreed that they were concerned about being infected with COVID-19 during a visit at their doctor's office or clinic. Regarding AAT augmentation therapy, only 18 respondents reported discontinuing therapy during the pandemic, but most of these discontinuations were short-term - one was permanent. CONCLUSIONS: These survey results suggest that AATD patients are well-informed about the risks of COVID-19 with their condition and practised self-protection measures. This may have resulted in an COVID-19 infection rate lower than the general population. Although respondents were concerned about exposure to COVID-19 in their doctor's office or clinic, very few discontinued therapy even temporarily.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , Humans , Information Management , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha 1-Antitrypsin , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/diagnosis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/epidemiology
4.
Med (N Y) ; 3(4): 233-248.e6, 2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882364

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop a febrile pro-inflammatory cytokinemia with accelerated progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here we report the results of a phase 2, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous (IV) plasma-purified alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) for moderate to severe ARDS secondary to COVID-19 (EudraCT 2020-001391-15). Methods: Patients (n = 36) were randomized to receive weekly placebo, weekly AAT (Prolastin, Grifols, S.A.; 120 mg/kg), or AAT once followed by weekly placebo. The primary endpoint was the change in plasma interleukin (IL)-6 concentration at 1 week. In addition to assessing safety and tolerability, changes in plasma levels of IL-1ß, IL-8, IL-10, and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNFR1) and clinical outcomes were assessed as secondary endpoints. Findings: Treatment with IV AAT resulted in decreased inflammation and was safe and well tolerated. The study met its primary endpoint, with decreased circulating IL-6 concentrations at 1 week in the treatment group. This was in contrast to the placebo group, where IL-6 was increased. Similarly, plasma sTNFR1 was substantially decreased in the treatment group while remaining unchanged in patients receiving placebo. IV AAT did not definitively reduce levels of IL-1ß, IL-8, and IL-10. No difference in mortality or ventilator-free days was observed between groups, although a trend toward decreased time on ventilator was observed in AAT-treated patients. Conclusions: In patients with COVID-19 and moderate to severe ARDS, treatment with IV AAT was safe, feasible, and biochemically efficacious. The data support progression to a phase 3 trial and prompt further investigation of AAT as an anti-inflammatory therapeutic. Funding: ECSA-2020-009; Elaine Galwey Research Bursary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Interleukin-10/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/therapeutic use , Interleukin-8/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin/therapeutic use , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/drug therapy
5.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 16: 2983-2996, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511885

ABSTRACT

Alpha 1 Antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a hereditary condition characterized by low serum Alpha 1 Antitrypsin (AAT) levels and a predisposition towards early-onset emphysema. Infusion of AAT is the only disease-modifying therapy that can sufficiently raise plasma AAT levels above the putative protective threshold and reduce the decline in lung density loss. Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and registry studies support the clinical efficacy of AAT therapy in slowing the progression of AATD-related emphysema and improving survival outcomes. The COVID-19 pandemic has prompted physicians to develop additional strategies for delivering AAT therapy, which are not only more convenient for the patient, but are "COVID-19 friendly", thereby reducing the risk of exposing these vulnerable patients. Intravenous (IV) self-administration of AAT therapy is likely to be beneficial in certain subgroups of patients with AATD and can remove the need for weekly hospital visits, thereby improving independence and well-being. Increasing the awareness of self-administration in AATD through the development of formal guidelines and training programs is required among both physicians and patients and will play an essential role, especially post-COVID-19, in encouraging physicians to consider self-administration for AATD in suitable patients. This review summarizes the benefits of AAT therapy on the clinical endpoints of mortality and quality of life (QoL) and discusses the benefits of self-administration therapy compared with conventional therapy administered by a healthcare professional. In addition, this review highlights the challenges of providing AAT therapy during the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential considerations for its implementation thereafter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha 1-Antitrypsin , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/diagnosis , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/drug therapy , alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency/epidemiology
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