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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 72(23): 613-620, 2023 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243279

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of wild poliovirus (WPV) cases has declined by >99.9%, and WPV serotypes 2 and 3 have been declared eradicated (1). By the end of 2022, WPV type 1 (WPV1) transmission remained endemic only in Afghanistan and Pakistan (2,3). However, during 2021-2022, Malawi and Mozambique reported nine WPV1 cases that were genetically linked to Pakistan (4,5), and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) outbreaks were detected in 42 countries (6). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity allowing reversion to neurovirulence and can cause paralysis. Polioviruses are detected primarily through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP), and poliovirus is confirmed through stool specimen testing. Environmental surveillance, the systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus, supplements AFP surveillance. Both surveillance systems were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic's effects on public health activities during 2020 (7,8) but improved in 2021 (9). This report updates previous reports (7,9) to describe surveillance performance during 2021-2022 in 34 priority countries.* In 2022, a total of 26 (76.5%) priority countries met the two key AFP surveillance performance indicator targets nationally compared with 24 (70.6%) countries in 2021; however, substantial gaps remain in subnational areas. Environmental surveillance expanded to 725 sites in priority countries, a 31.1% increase from the 553 sites reported in 2021. High-quality surveillance is critical to rapidly detect poliovirus transmission and enable prompt poliovirus outbreak response to stop circulation. Frequent monitoring of surveillance guides improvements to achieve progress toward polio eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Enterovirus , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Humans , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins , Disease Eradication , Population Surveillance , Global Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliovirus/genetics , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Immunization Programs
2.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 22(6): 621-632, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271813

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a poor prognosis, related, in part, to frequent late-stage diagnosis. Improved implementation of effective HCC surveillance is critical to reduce HCC mortality. AREAS COVERED: We performed a targeted literature review to identify intervention targets for improving HCC surveillance effectiveness, including enriched risk stratification tools, improved surveillance tools with higher accuracy for early HCC detection, and increasing surveillance adherence. EXPERT OPINION: HCC surveillance has been demonstrated to be efficacious in several cohort studies but has lower surveillance effectiveness in clinical practice. HCC surveillance is currently recommended in all patients with cirrhosis, and improved risk stratification using clinical risk scores, genetic scores, and novel biomarkers are important to move from a 'one-size-fits-all' strategy to one more aligned with values of precision medicine. Current surveillance modalities, ultrasound, and AFP, miss over one-third of HCC at an early stage and are associated with potential surveillance harms, underscoring a need for alternative surveillance strategies with higher accuracy. MRI- and biomarker-based surveillance strategies have promising early data in phase II studies but require validation in phase III cohorts before routine use in practice. Finally, surveillance is underused in clinical practice, highlighting a need for intervention strategies to increase utilization.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Biomarkers , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Early Detection of Cancer , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography , alpha-Fetoproteins
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(15): 538-544, 2022 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1789730

ABSTRACT

Since the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) was established in 1988, the number of reported poliomyelitis cases worldwide has declined by approximately 99.99%. By the end of 2021, wild poliovirus (WPV) remained endemic in only two countries (Pakistan and Afghanistan). However, a WPV type 1 (WPV1) case with paralysis onset in 2021, was reported by Malawi a year after the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region (AFR) was certified as WPV-free and circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV) cases were reported from 31 countries during 2020-2021 (1,2). cVDPVs are oral poliovirus vaccine-derived viruses that can emerge after prolonged circulation in populations with low immunity and cause paralysis. The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is through surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among persons aged <15 years, with confirmation through stool specimen testing by WHO-accredited laboratories, supplemented by systematic sampling of sewage and testing for the presence of poliovirus (environmental surveillance). The COVID-19 pandemic caused disruptions in polio vaccination and surveillance activities across WHO regions in 2020; during January-September 2020, the number of reported cases of AFP declined and the interval between stool collection and receipt by laboratories increased compared with the same period in 2019 (3). This report summarizes surveillance performance indicators for 2020 and 2021 in 43 priority countries* and updates previous reports (4). In 2021, a total of 32 (74%) priority countries† met two key surveillance performance indicator targets nationally, an improvement from 2020 when only 23 (53%) met both targets; however, substantial national and subnational gaps persist. High-performing poliovirus surveillance is critical to tracking poliovirus transmission. Frequent monitoring of surveillance indicators could help identify gaps, guide improvements, and enhance the overall sensitivity and timelines of poliovirus detection to successfully achieve polio eradication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Poliomyelitis , Poliovirus , Disease Eradication , Global Health , Humans , Immunization Programs , Pandemics , Paralysis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/diagnosis , Poliomyelitis/epidemiology , Poliomyelitis/prevention & control , Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral , Population Surveillance , alpha-Fetoproteins
4.
Bioengineered ; 12(1): 4054-4069, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1348035

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019, there exist quite a few studies on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and SARS-CoV-2 infection, while little is known about ACE2 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The detailed mechanism among ACE2 and HCC still remains unclear, which needs to be further investigated. In the current study with a total of 6,926 samples, ACE2 expression was downregulated in HCC compared with non-HCC samples (standardized mean difference = -0.41). With the area under the curve of summary receiver operating characteristic = 0.82, ACE2 expression showed a better ability to differentiate HCC from non-HCC. The mRNA expression of ACE2 was related to the age, alpha-fetoprotein levels and cirrhosis of HCC patients, and it was identified as a protected factor for HCC patients via Kaplan-Meier survival, Cox regression analyses. The potential molecular mechanism of ACE2 may be relevant to catabolic and cell division. In all, decreasing ACE2 expression can be seen in HCC, and its protective role for HCC patients and underlying mechanisms were explored in the study.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/genetics , Liver Cirrhosis/genetics , Liver Neoplasms/genetics , Neoplasm Proteins/genetics , Receptors, Virus/genetics , alpha-Fetoproteins/genetics , Age Factors , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/virology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/mortality , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology , Databases, Genetic , Datasets as Topic , Female , Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic , Humans , Liver Cirrhosis/diagnosis , Liver Cirrhosis/mortality , Liver Cirrhosis/pathology , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/mortality , Liver Neoplasms/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Proteins/classification , Neoplasm Proteins/metabolism , Protective Factors , Protein Interaction Mapping , ROC Curve , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Survival Analysis , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism
5.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 19(8): 1520-1530, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317650

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is expected to have a long-lasting impact on the approach to care for patients at risk for and with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) due to the risks from potential exposure and resource reallocation. The goal of this document is to provide recommendations on HCC surveillance and monitoring, including strategies to limit unnecessary exposure while continuing to provide high-quality care for patients. Publications and guidelines pertaining to the management of HCC during COVID-19 were reviewed for recommendations related to surveillance and monitoring practices, and any available guidance was referenced to support the authors' recommendations when applicable. Existing HCC risk stratification models should be utilized to prioritize imaging resources to those patients at highest risk of incident HCC and recurrence following therapy though surveillance can likely continue as before in settings where COVID-19 prevalence is low and adequate protections are in place. Waitlisted patients who will benefit from urgent LT should be prioritized for surveillance whereas it would be reasonable to extend surveillance interval by a short period in HCC patients with lower risk tumor features and those more than 2 years since their last treatment. For patients eligible for systemic therapy, the treatment regimen should be dictated by the risk of COVID-19 associated with route of administration, monitoring and treatment of adverse events, within the context of relative treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , Liver Neoplasms , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnosis , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/epidemiology , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/therapy , Humans , Liver Neoplasms/diagnosis , Liver Neoplasms/epidemiology , Liver Neoplasms/therapy , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Fetoproteins
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5405-5408, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208994

ABSTRACT

The new type of coronavirus could cause severe acute respiratory syndrome and injuries in other systems as well. Multiple organ damage can occur rapidly in patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Previous studies have shown that many laboratory biomarkers were not within the normal ranges in COVID-19 patients. We aimed to summarize laboratory parameters and the tumor markers in COVID-19 patients. This is a retrospective cohort study conducted on 53 women between the ages of 19-85 years infected with COVID-19 at a training and research hospital between May 2020 and August 2020. Of the 53 women, 16 (30.2%) had leukopenia. The mean C-reactive protein level was 18.42 ± 59.33 mg/L. The mean procalcitonin level was 0.1 ± 0.21 µg/L. The liver function tests were within normal limits. The mean creatinine level was 0.58 ± 0.37 mg/dl. Elevated levels of α-fetoprotein (AFP) in 1 patient, elevated levels of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 2 patients, elevated levels of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) in 4 patients, elevated levels of CA19-9 in 2 patients, and elevated levels of CA15-3 in 2 patients were detected. One of 4 patients who were taken to the intensive care unit had elevated levels of AFP. In addition, 2 of 4 patients who were taken to the intensive care unit had elevated levels of CA125 and CA15-3. Except for AFP, levels of all tumor markers of the patient who died were high. We found that COVID-19 had no effect on tumor markers (CA125, CA19-9, CA15-3, AFP, and CEA).


Subject(s)
CA-125 Antigen/blood , CA-19-9 Antigen/blood , COVID-19/blood , Carcinoembryonic Antigen/blood , Leukopenia/blood , Mucin-1/blood , Pandemics , alpha-Fetoproteins/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Ferritins/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Leukopenia/diagnosis , Leukopenia/virology , Lymphocytes/virology , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/virology , Procalcitonin/blood , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Troponin/blood , Turkey/epidemiology
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