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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1154626, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245328

ABSTRACT

Recently, a large number of experimenters have found that the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease may be related to the gut microbiome and proposed the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Studies have shown that Toll-like receptors, especially Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), are key mediators of gut homeostasis. In addition to their established role in innate immunity throughout the body, research is increasingly showing that the Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways shape the development and function of the gut and enteric nervous system. Notably, Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 are dysregulated in Parkinson's disease patients and may therefore be identified as the core of early gut dysfunction in Parkinson's disease. To better understand the contribution of Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 dysfunction in the gut to early α-synuclein aggregation, we discussed the structural function of Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 and signal transduction of Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 in Parkinson's disease by reviewing clinical, animal models, and in vitro studies. We also present a conceptual model of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, in which microbial dysbiosis alters the gut barrier as well as the Toll-like receptor 2 and Toll-like receptor 4 signaling pathways, ultimately leading to a positive feedback loop for chronic gut dysfunction, promoting α-synuclein aggregation in the gut and vagus nerve.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , Animals , Parkinson Disease/pathology , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 2/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , Brain-Gut Axis , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
2.
J Neurosci Res ; 101(6): 952-975, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2315263

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. The hallmarks are the presence of Lewy bodies composed mainly of aggregated α-synuclein and immune activation and inflammation in the brain. The neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 with induction of cytokine storm and neuroinflammation can contribute to the development of PD. Interestingly, overexpression of α-synuclein in PD patients may limit SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons; however, on the other hand, this virus can speed up the α-synuclein aggregation. The review aims to discuss the potential link between COVID-19 and the risk of PD, highlighting the need for further studies to authenticate the potential association. We have also overviewed the influence of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the PD course and management. In this context, we presented the prospects for controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and related PD cases that, beyond global vaccination and novel anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents, may include the development of graphene-based nanoscale platforms offering antiviral and anti-amyloid strategies against PD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Humans , alpha-Synuclein/pharmacology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Dopaminergic Neurons
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(6)2023 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270639

ABSTRACT

Dopamine (DA) is a key neurotransmitter in the basal ganglia, implicated in the control of movement and motivation. Alteration of DA levels is central in Parkinson's disease (PD), a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and non-motor manifestations and deposition of alpha-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates. Previous studies have hypothesized a link between PD and viral infections. Indeed, different cases of parkinsonism have been reported following COVID-19. However, whether SARS-CoV-2 may trigger a neurodegenerative process is still a matter of debate. Interestingly, evidence of brain inflammation has been described in postmortem samples of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2, which suggests immune-mediated mechanisms triggering the neurological sequelae. In this review, we discuss the role of proinflammatory molecules such as cytokines, chemokines, and oxygen reactive species in modulating DA homeostasis. Moreover, we review the existing literature on the possible mechanistic interplay between SARS-CoV-2-mediated neuroinflammation and nigrostriatal DAergic impairment, and the cross-talk with aberrant α-syn metabolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Humans , Dopamine/metabolism , Neuroinflammatory Diseases , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
4.
J Neuroimmunol ; 376: 578047, 2023 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2262604

ABSTRACT

Alpha-synuclein is a neuronal protein with unclear function but is associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease and other synucleinopathies. In this review, we discuss the emerging functional role of alpha-synuclein in support of the unique immune responses in the nervous system. Recent data now show that alpha-synuclein functions to support interferon signaling within neurons and is released from neurons to support chemoattraction and activation of local glial cells and infiltrating immune cells. Inflammatory activation and interferon signaling also induce post-translational modifications of alpha-synuclein that are commonly associated with Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Taken together, emerging data implicate complex interactions between alpha-synuclein and host immune responses that may contribute to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Additional study of the function of alpha-synuclein in the brain's immune response may provide disease-modifying therapeutic targets for Parkinson's disease in the future.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , alpha-Synuclein , Humans , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism
5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2022: 3012778, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2020490

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a human coronavirus (HCoV) that has created a pandemic situation worldwide as COVID-19. This virus can invade human cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor-based mechanisms, affecting the human respiratory tract. However, several reports of neurological symptoms suggest a neuroinvasive development of coronavirus. SARS-CoV-2 can damage the brain via several routes, along with direct neural cell infection with the coronavirus. The chronic inflammatory reactions surge the brain with proinflammatory elements, damaging the neural cells, causing brain ischemia associated with other health issues. SARS-CoV-2 exhibited neuropsychiatric and neurological manifestations, including cognitive impairment, depression, dizziness, delirium, and disturbed sleep. These symptoms show nervous tissue damage that enhances the occurrence of neurodegenerative disorders and aids dementia. SARS-CoV-2 has been seen in brain necropsy and isolated from the cerebrospinal fluid of COVID-19 patients. The associated inflammatory reaction in some COVID-19 patients has increased proinflammatory cytokines, which have been investigated as a prognostic factor. Therefore, the immunogenic changes observed in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's patients include their pathogenetic role. Inflammatory events have been an important pathophysiological feature of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. The neuroinflammation observed in AD has exacerbated the Aß burden and tau hyperphosphorylation. The resident microglia and other immune cells are responsible for the enhanced burden of Aß and subsequently mediate tau phosphorylation and ultimately disease progression. Similarly, neuroinflammation also plays a key role in the progression of PD. Several studies have demonstrated an interplay between neuroinflammation and pathogenic mechanisms of PD. The dynamic proinflammation stage guides the accumulation of α-synuclein and neurodegenerative progression. Besides, few viruses may have a role as stimulators and generate a cross-autoimmune response for α-synuclein. Hence, neurological complications in patients suffering from COVID-19 cannot be ruled out. In this review article, our primary focus is on discussing the neuroinvasive effect of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, its impact on the blood-brain barrier, and ultimately its impact on the people affected with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Alzheimer Disease/complications , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Parkinson Disease/complications , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein
6.
Int Rev Neurobiol ; 165: 91-102, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007356

ABSTRACT

Olfactory impairment is a common symptom in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the disease caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. While other viruses, such as influenza viruses, may affect the ability to smell, loss of olfactory function is often smoother and associated to various degrees of nasal symptoms. In COVID-19, smell loss may appear also in absence of other symptoms, frequently with a sudden onset. However, despite great clinical interest in COVID-19 olfactory alterations, very little is known concerning the mechanisms underlying these phenomena. Moreover, olfactory dysfunction is observed in neurological conditions like Parkinson's disease (PD) and can precede motor onset by many years, suggesting that viral infections, like COVID-19, and regional inflammatory responses may trigger defective protein aggregation and subsequent neurodegeneration, potentially linking COVID-19 olfactory impairment to neurodegeneration. In the following chapter, we report the neurobiological and neuropathological underpinnings of olfactory impairments encountered in COVID-19 and discuss the implications of these findings in the context of neurodegenerative disorders, with particular regard to PD and alpha-synuclein pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Olfaction Disorders , Parkinson Disease , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Neurodegenerative Diseases/complications , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Parkinson Disease/complications , Protein Aggregates , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , alpha-Synuclein
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(17)2022 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006043

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease after Alzheimer's disease, globally. Dopaminergic neuron degeneration in substantia nigra pars compacta and aggregation of misfolded alpha-synuclein are the PD hallmarks, accompanied by motor and non-motor symptoms. Several viruses have been linked to the appearance of a post-infection parkinsonian phenotype. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, has evolved from a novel pneumonia to a multifaceted syndrome with multiple clinical manifestations, among which neurological sequalae appear insidious and potentially long-lasting. Exosomes are extracellular nanovesicles bearing a complex cargo of active biomolecules and playing crucial roles in intercellular communication under pathophysiological conditions. Exosomes constitute a reliable route for misfolded protein transmission, contributing to PD pathogenesis and diagnosis. Herein, we summarize recent evidence suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 infection shares numerous clinical manifestations and inflammatory and molecular pathways with PD. We carry on hypothesizing that these similarities may be reflected in exosomal cargo modulated by the virus in correlation with disease severity. Travelling from the periphery to the brain, SARS-CoV-2-related exosomal cargo contains SARS-CoV-2 RNA, viral proteins, inflammatory mediators, and modified host proteins that could operate as promoters of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory cascades, potentially leading to a future parkinsonism and PD development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurodegenerative Diseases , Parkinson Disease , Parkinsonian Disorders , COVID-19/complications , Cell Communication , Humans , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Parkinsonian Disorders/etiology , Parkinsonian Disorders/pathology , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994079

ABSTRACT

We present a case report on an older woman with unspecific symptoms and predominant long-term gastrointestinal disturbances, acute overall health deterioration with loss of autonomy for daily activities, and cognitive impairment. Autopsy revealed the presence of alpha-synuclein deposits spread into intestinal mucosa lesions, enteric plexuses, pelvic and retroperitoneal nerves and ganglia, and other organs as well as Lewy pathology in the central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, we isolated norovirus from the patient, indicating active infection in the colon and detected colocalization of norovirus and alpha-synuclein in different regions of the patient's brain. In view of this, we report a concomitant norovirus infection with synthesis of alpha-synuclein in the gastrointestinal mucosa and Lewy pathology in the CNS, which might support Braak's hypothesis about the pathogenic mechanisms underlying synucleinopathies.


Subject(s)
Caliciviridae Infections , Cognitive Dysfunction , Lewy Body Disease , Norovirus , Aged , Brain/metabolism , Caliciviridae Infections/complications , Caliciviridae Infections/pathology , Cognitive Dysfunction/pathology , Female , Humans , Lewy Body Disease/pathology , Norovirus/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
10.
N Engl J Med ; 387(5): 408-420, 2022 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Aggregated α-synuclein plays an important role in Parkinson's disease pathogenesis. Cinpanemab, a human-derived monoclonal antibody that binds to α-synuclein, is being evaluated as a disease-modifying treatment for Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a 52-week, multicenter, double-blind, phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1:2:2 ratio, participants with early Parkinson's disease to receive intravenous infusions of placebo (control) or cinpanemab at a dose of 250 mg, 1250 mg, or 3500 mg every 4 weeks, followed by an active-treatment dose-blinded extension period for up to 112 weeks. The primary end points were the changes from baseline in the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) total score (range, 0 to 236, with higher scores indicating worse performance) at weeks 52 and 72. Secondary end points included MDS-UPDRS subscale scores and striatal binding as assessed on dopamine transporter single-photon-emission computed tomography (DaT-SPECT). RESULTS: Of the 357 enrolled participants, 100 were assigned to the control group, 55 to the 250-mg cinpanemab group, 102 to the 1250-mg group, and 100 to the 3500-mg group. The trial was stopped after the week 72 interim analysis owing to lack of efficacy. The change to week 52 in the MDS-UPDRS score was 10.8 points in the control group, 10.5 points in the 250-mg group, 11.3 points in the 1250-mg group, and 10.9 points in the 3500-mg group (adjusted mean difference vs. control, -0.3 points [95% confidence interval {CI}, -4.9 to 4.3], P = 0.90; 0.5 points [95% CI, -3.3 to 4.3], P = 0.80; and 0.1 point [95% CI, -3.8 to 4.0], P = 0.97, respectively). The adjusted mean difference at 72 weeks between participants who received cinpanemab through 72 weeks and the pooled group of those who started cinpanemab at 52 weeks was -0.9 points (95% CI, -5.6 to 3.8) for the 250-mg dose, 0.6 points (95% CI, -3.3 to 4.4) for the 1250-mg dose, and -0.8 points (95% CI, -4.6 to 3.0) for the 3500-mg dose. Results for secondary end points were similar to those for the primary end points. DaT-SPECT imaging at week 52 showed no differences between the control group and any cinpanemab group. The most common adverse events with cinpanemab were headache, nasopharyngitis, and falls. CONCLUSIONS: In participants with early Parkinson's disease, the effects of cinpanemab on clinical measures of disease progression and changes in DaT-SPECT imaging did not differ from those of placebo over a 52-week period. (Funded by Biogen; SPARK ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03318523.).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antiparkinson Agents , Parkinson Disease , alpha-Synuclein , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiparkinson Agents/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome , alpha-Synuclein/immunology
11.
J Phys Chem B ; 126(20): 3648-3658, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947182

ABSTRACT

Aggregates of α-synuclein are thought to be the disease-causing agent in Parkinson's disease. Various case studies have hinted at a correlation between COVID-19 and the onset of Parkinson's disease. For this reason, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study whether amyloidogenic regions in SARS-COV-2 proteins can initiate and modulate aggregation of α-synuclein. As an example, we choose the nine-residue fragment SFYVYSRVK (SK9), located on the C-terminal of the envelope protein of SARS-COV-2. We probe how the presence of SK9 affects the conformational ensemble of α-synuclein monomers and the stability of two resolved fibril polymorphs. We find that the viral protein fragment SK9 may alter α-synuclein amyloid formation by shifting the ensemble toward aggregation-prone and preferentially rod-like fibril seeding conformations. However, SK9 has only a small effect on the stability of pre-existing or newly formed fibrils. A potential mechanism and key residues for potential virus-induced amyloid formation are described.


Subject(s)
Amyloidogenic Proteins , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Parkinson Disease , Peptide Fragments , alpha-Synuclein , Amyloidogenic Proteins/chemistry , Amyloidogenic Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/chemistry , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
12.
J Neural Transm (Vienna) ; 129(5-6): 557-562, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1894646

ABSTRACT

Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurological disorder marked by characteristic poverty and dysfunction in movement. There are many mechanisms and factors which have been postulated to be associated with the neurodegenerative pathway(s) resulting in distinctive loss of neurons in the substantia nigra. Subsequently, the neuropathology is more widespread and exhibited in other areas of the brain, and enteric nervous system. Aggregates of misfolded α-synuclein or Lewy bodies are the hallmark of the illness and appear to be central in the whole cascade of cell destruction. There are many processes implicated in neuronal destruction including: oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, an imbalance in protein homeostasis and neuroinflammation. Interesting, inflammation induced by pathogens (including, bacteria and viruses) has been associated in the pathogenesis of the disease. Bacteria such as Helicobacter pylori and Helicobacter suis appear to colonise the gut, and elicit systemic immune responses, which is them transmitted via the gut-axis to the brain, where cytotoxic cytokines induce neuroinflammation and cell death. This conforms to the bottom-top hypothesis proposed by Braak. The gut is also implicated in two other theories postulated in the development and progression of the disorder, namely, the top-down and the threshold. There is a possibility that these theories may be inter-linked and operate together to certain degree. Ultimately specific trigger factors or conditions may govern the occurrences of these processes in genetically predisposed individuals. Nevertheless, the importance of pathogen-related gut infections cannot be overlooked, since it can result in dysbiosis of gut microbes, which may orchestrate α-synuclein pathology and eventually cell destruction.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease , alpha-Synuclein , Humans , Lewy Bodies/metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Substantia Nigra/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
13.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810316

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 causes acute respiratory disease, but many patients also experience neurological complications. Neuropathological changes with pronounced neuroinflammation have been described in individuals after lethal COVID-19, as well as in the CSF of hospitalized patients with neurological complications. To assess whether neuropathological changes can occur after a SARS-CoV-2 infection, leading to mild-to-moderate disease, we investigated the brains of four rhesus and four cynomolgus macaques after pulmonary disease and without overt clinical symptoms. Postmortem analysis demonstrated the infiltration of T-cells and activated microglia in the parenchyma of all infected animals, even in the absence of viral antigen or RNA. Moreover, intracellular α-synuclein aggregates were found in the brains of both macaque species. The heterogeneity of these manifestations in the brains indicates the virus' neuropathological potential and should be considered a warning for long-term health risks, following SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , alpha-Synuclein , Animals , Encephalitis/metabolism , Encephalitis/virology , Macaca mulatta/virology , Protein Aggregates , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
14.
EBioMedicine ; 79: 103999, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796985

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological symptoms such as cognitive decline and depression contribute substantially to post-COVID-19 syndrome, defined as lasting symptoms several weeks after initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. The pathogenesis is still elusive, which hampers appropriate treatment. Neuroinflammatory responses and neurodegenerative processes may occur in absence of overt neuroinvasion. METHODS: Here we determined whether intranasal SARS-CoV-2 infection in male and female syrian golden hamsters results in persistent brain pathology. Brains 3 (symptomatic) or 14 days (viral clearance) post infection versus mock (n = 10 each) were immunohistochemically analyzed for viral protein, neuroinflammatory response and accumulation of tau, hyperphosphorylated tau and alpha-synuclein protein. FINDINGS: Viral protein in the nasal cavity led to pronounced microglia activation in the olfactory bulb beyond viral clearance. Cortical but not hippocampal neurons accumulated hyperphosphorylated tau and alpha-synuclein, in the absence of overt inflammation and neurodegeneration. Importantly, not all brain regions were affected, which is in line with selective vulnerability. INTERPRETATION: Thus, despite the absence of virus in brain, neurons develop signatures of proteinopathies that may contribute to progressive neuronal dysfunction. Further in depth analysis of this important mechanism is required. FUNDING: Federal Ministry of Health (BMG; ZMV I 1-2520COR501), Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF 01KI1723G), Ministry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony in Germany (14 - 76103-184 CORONA-15/20), German Research Foundation (DFG; 398066876/GRK 2485/1), Luxemburgish National Research Fund (FNR, Project Reference: 15686728, EU SC1-PHE-CORONAVIRUS-2020 MANCO, no > 101003651).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Brain , COVID-19/complications , Cricetinae , Female , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Neurons , Viral Proteins , alpha-Synuclein , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(7)2022 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776249

ABSTRACT

The quantity of high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is represented as the serum HDL-C concentration (mg/dL), while the HDL quality manifests as the diverse features of protein and lipid content, extent of oxidation, and extent of glycation. The HDL functionality represents several performance metrics of HDL, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cholesterol efflux activities. The quantity and quality of HDL can change during one's lifetime, depending on infection, disease, and lifestyle, such as dietary habits, exercise, and smoking. The quantity of HDL can change according to age and gender, such as puberty, middle-aged symptoms, climacteric, and the menopause. HDL-C can decrease during disease states, such as acute infection, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune disease, while it can be increased by regular aerobic exercise and healthy food consumption. Generally, high HDL-C at the normal level is associated with good HDL quality and functionality. Nevertheless, high HDL quantity is not always accompanied by good HDL quality or functionality. The HDL quality concerns the morphology of the HDL, such as particle size, shape, and number. The HDL quality also depends on the composition of the HDL, such as apolipoproteins (apoA-I, apoA-II, apoC-III, serum amyloid A, and α-synuclein), cholesterol, and triglyceride. The HDL quality is also associated with the extent of HDL modification, such as glycation and oxidation, resulting in the multimerization of apoA-I, and the aggregation leads to amyloidogenesis. The HDL quality frequently determines the HDL functionality, which depends on the attached antioxidant enzyme activity, such as the paraoxonase and cholesterol efflux activity. Conventional HDL functionality is regression, the removal of cholesterol from atherosclerotic lesions, and the removal of oxidized species in low-density lipoproteins (LDL). Recently, HDL functionality was reported to expand the removal of ß-amyloid plaque and inhibit α-synuclein aggregation in the brain to attenuate Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, respectively. More recently, HDL functionality has been associated with the susceptibility and recovery ability of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by inhibiting the activity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The appearance of dysfunctional HDL is frequently associated with many acute infectious diseases and chronic aging-related diseases. An HDL can be a suitable biomarker to diagnose many diseases and their progression by monitoring the changes in its quantity and quality in terms of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory abilities. An HDL can be a protein drug used for the removal of plaque and as a delivery vehicle for non-soluble drugs and genes. A dysfunctional HDL has poor HDL quality, such as a lower apoA-I content, lower antioxidant ability, smaller size, and ambiguous shape. The current review analyzes the recent advances in HDL quantity, quality, and functionality, depending on the health and disease state during one's lifetime.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lipoproteins, HDL , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antioxidants/metabolism , Apolipoprotein A-I/metabolism , Cholesterol/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL , Female , Humans , Lipoproteins, HDL/metabolism , Lipoproteins, LDL/metabolism , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(6)2022 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753508

ABSTRACT

Growing cases of patients reported have shown a potential relationship between (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) SARS-CoV-2 infection and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is unclear whether there is a molecular link between these two diseases. Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn), an aggregation-prone protein, is considered a crucial factor in PD pathology. In this study, bioinformatics analysis confirmed favorable binding affinity between α-Syn and SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein and nucleocapsid (N) protein, and direct interactions were further verified in HEK293 cells. The expression of α-Syn was upregulated and its aggregation was accelerated by S protein and N protein. It was noticed that SARS-CoV-2 proteins caused Lewy-like pathology in the presence of α-Syn overexpression. By confirming that SARS-CoV-2 proteins directly interact with α-Syn, our study offered new insights into the mechanism underlying the development of PD on the background of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Lewy Bodies/metabolism , Parkinson Disease/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
17.
Chemistry ; 28(9): e202104182, 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750334

ABSTRACT

Given the emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which particularly threatens older people with comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and dementia, understanding the relationship between Covid-19 and other diseases is an important factor for treatment. Possible targets for medical intervention include G-quadruplexes (G4Qs) and their protein interaction partners. We investigated the stability and conformational space of the RG-1 RNA-G-quadruplex of the SARS-CoV-2 N-gene in the presence of salts, cosolutes, crowders and intrinsically disordered peptides, focusing on α-Synuclein and the human islet amyloid polypeptide, which are involved in Parkinson's disease (PD) and type-II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), respectively. We found that the conformational dynamics of the RG-1 G4Q is strongly affected by the various solution conditions. Further, the amyloidogenic peptides were found to strongly modulate the conformational equilibrium of the RG-1. Considerable changes are observed with respect to their interaction with human telomeric G4Qs, which adopt different topologies. These results may therefore shed more light on the relationship between PD as well as T2DM and the SARS-CoV-2 disease and their molecular underpinnings. Since dysregulation of G4Q formation by rationally designed targeting compounds affects the control of cellular processes, this study should contribute to the development of specific ligands for intervention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Humans , Islet Amyloid Polypeptide/metabolism , Peptides , RNA, Viral , alpha-Synuclein/chemistry
18.
ACS Chem Neurosci ; 13(1): 143-150, 2022 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637498

ABSTRACT

First cases that point at a correlation between SARS-CoV-2 infections and the development of Parkinson's disease (PD) have been reported. Currently, it is unclear if there is also a direct causal link between these diseases. To obtain first insights into a possible molecular relation between viral infections and the aggregation of α-synuclein protein into amyloid fibrils characteristic for PD, we investigated the effect of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 proteins on α-synuclein aggregation. We show, in test tube experiments, that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-protein) has no effect on α-synuclein aggregation, while SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (N-protein) considerably speeds up the aggregation process. We observe the formation of multiprotein complexes and eventually amyloid fibrils. Microinjection of N-protein in SH-SY5Y cells disturbed the α-synuclein proteostasis and increased cell death. Our results point toward direct interactions between the N-protein of SARS-CoV-2 and α-synuclein as molecular basis for the observed correlation between SARS-CoV-2 infections and Parkinsonism.


Subject(s)
Amyloid , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein , Amyloid/metabolism , COVID-19 , Humans , Phosphoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism
19.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(9): 152-156, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485583

ABSTRACT

The article provides an overview of the data on the impact of Parkinson's disease on the risk of infection and the course of COVID-19, and also assesses the possible pathogenetic relationship between the SARS-CoV-2 virus, COVID-19 and PD. By penetrating the central nervous system, SARS-CoV-2 can cause not only neurological symptoms, but also exacerbate the course of an existing neurological disease. The impact of Parkinson's disease on the risk of infection and the course of COVID-19 is controversial. However, a number of authors support the opinion that PD is an anti-risk factor for the development of COVID-19, which is associated both with the pathogenesis of the disease and with the used antiparkinsonian drugs, in particular amantadines. There are no clear data indicating higher risk of infection and higher severity of COVID-19 in patients with PD. On the contrary, experimental and clinical data suggest a possible modifying role of α-synuclein and antiparkinsonian drugs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Parkinson Disease , Antiparkinson Agents/adverse effects , Humans , Parkinson Disease/complications , Parkinson Disease/drug therapy , Parkinson Disease/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , alpha-Synuclein
20.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403544

ABSTRACT

The risk of Parkinson's disease increases with age. However, the etiology of the illness remains obscure. It appears highly likely that the neurodegenerative processes involve an array of elements that influence each other. In addition, genetic, endogenous, or exogenous toxins need to be considered as viable partners to the cellular degeneration. There is compelling evidence that indicate the key involvement of modified α-synuclein (Lewy bodies) at the very core of the pathogenesis of the disease. The accumulation of misfolded α-synuclein may be a consequence of some genetic defect or/and a failure of the protein clearance system. Importantly, α-synuclein pathology appears to be a common denominator for many cellular deleterious events such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, dopamine synaptic dysregulation, iron dyshomeostasis, and neuroinflammation. These factors probably employ a common apoptotic/or autophagic route in the final stages to execute cell death. The misfolded α-synuclein inclusions skillfully trigger or navigate these processes and thus amplify the dopamine neuron fatalities. Although the process of neuroinflammation may represent a secondary event, nevertheless, it executes a fundamental role in neurodegeneration. Some viral infections produce parkinsonism and exhibit similar characteristic neuropathological changes such as a modest brain dopamine deficit and α-synuclein pathology. Thus, viral infections may heighten the risk of developing PD. Alternatively, α-synuclein pathology may induce a dysfunctional immune system. Thus, sporadic Parkinson's disease is caused by multifactorial trigger factors and metabolic disturbances, which need to be considered for the development of potential drugs in the disorder.


Subject(s)
Parkinson Disease/metabolism , Substantia Nigra/metabolism , alpha-Synuclein/metabolism , Animals , Dopaminergic Neurons/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Parkinson Disease/genetics , Parkinson Disease/pathology , Risk Factors
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