Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 4 de 4
Filter
1.
J Immunotoxicol ; 18(1): 23-29, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593522

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 of 2019 (COVID-19) causes a pandemic that has been diagnosed in more than 70 million people worldwide. Mild-to-moderate COVID-19 symptoms include coughing, fever, myalgia, shortness of breath, and acute inflammatory lung injury (ALI). In contrast, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure occur in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19. ARDS is mediated, at least in part, by a dysregulated inflammatory response due to excessive levels of circulating cytokines, a condition known as the "cytokine-storm syndrome." Currently, there are FDA-approved therapies that attenuate the dysregulated inflammation that occurs in COVID-19 patients, such as dexamethasone or other corticosteroids and IL-6 inhibitors, including sarilumab, tocilizumab, and siltuximab. However, the efficacy of these treatments have been shown to be inconsistent. Compounds that activate the vagus nerve-mediated cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, such as the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, GTS-21, attenuate ARDS/inflammatory lung injury by decreasing the extracellular levels of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the airways and the circulation. It is possible that HMGB1 may be an important mediator of the "cytokine-storm syndrome." Notably, high plasma levels of HMGB1 have been reported in patients diagnosed with severe COVID-19, and there is a significant negative correlation between HMGB1 plasma levels and clinical outcomes. Nicotine can activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, which attenuates the up-regulation and the excessive release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines. Therefore, we hypothesize that low molecular weight compounds that activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory reflex, such as nicotine or GTS-21, may represent a potential therapeutic approach to attenuate the dysregulated inflammatory responses in patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Benzylidene Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cholinergic Agents/pharmacology , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nicotine/metabolism , Pyridines/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tobacco Use Disorder/drug therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Cigarette Smoking/adverse effects , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , HMGB1 Protein/blood , Humans , Pandemics , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/agonists
2.
Immunol Lett ; 224: 28-29, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-548688

ABSTRACT

Statistical surveys of COVID-19 patients indicate, against all common logic, that people who smoke are less prone to the infection and/or exhibit less severe respiratory symptoms than non-smokers. This suggests that nicotine may have some preventive or modulatory effect on the inflammatory response in the lungs. Because it is known that the response to, and resolution of the SARS-CoV-2 infection depends mainly on the lung macrophages, we discuss the recent scientific findings, which may explain why and how nicotine may modulate lung macrophage response during COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/immunology , Lung/drug effects , Nicotine/administration & dosage , Nicotinic Agonists/administration & dosage , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Smokers , Administration, Inhalation , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/diagnosis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/virology , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protective Factors , Receptors, Nicotinic/drug effects , Receptors, Nicotinic/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/agonists , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/immunology
3.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1359, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-619393

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a new coronavirus that has caused a worldwide pandemic. It causes severe acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19), which is fatal in many cases, and is characterized by a cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Great efforts are currently being made to block the signal transduction pathway of pro-inflammatory cytokines in order to control this "cytokine storm" and rescue severely affected patients. Consequently, possible treatments for cytokine-mediated hyperinflammation, preferably within approved safe therapies, are urgently being researched to reduce rising mortality. One approach to inhibit proinflammatory cytokine release is to activate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAchR). Nicotine, an exogenous α7nAchR agonist, is clinically used in ulcerative colitis to counteract inflammation. We have found epidemiological evidence, based on recent clinical SARS-CoV-2 studies in China, that suggest that smokers are statistically less likely to be hospitalized. In conclusion, our hypothesis proposes that nicotine could constitute a novel potential CRS therapy in severe SARS-CoV-2 patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Nicotine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Cigarette Smoking , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Severity of Illness Index , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/agonists
4.
Neurochem Int ; 138: 104779, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436706

ABSTRACT

The brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed in pre-synaptic nerve terminals regulate neurotransmitter release. However, there is no evidence for the expression of nAChRs in synaptic vesicles, which deliver neurotransmitter to synaptic cleft. The aim of this paper was to investigate the presence of nAChRs in synaptic vesicles purified from the rat brain and to study their possible involvement in vesicles life cycle. According to dynamic light scattering analysis, the antibody against extracellular domain (1-208) of α7 nAChR subunit inhibited synaptic vesicles clustering. Sandwich ELISA with nAChR subunit-specific antibodies demonstrated the presence of α4ß2, α7 and α7ß2nAChR subtypes in synaptic vesicles and showed that α7 and ß2 nAChR subunits are co-localized with synaptic vesicle glycoprotein 2A (SV2A). Pre-incubation with either α7-selective agonist PNU282987 or nicotine did not affect synaptic vesicles clustering but delayed their Ca2+-dependent fusion with the plasma membranes. In contrast, nicotine but not PNU282987 stimulated acidification of isolated synaptic vesicles, indicating that α4ß2 but not α7-containing nAChRs are involved in regulation of proton influx and neurotransmitter refilling. Treatment of rats with levetiracetam, a specific modulator of SV2A, increased the content of α7 nAChRs in synaptic vesicles accompanied by increased clustering but decreased Ca2+-dependent fusion. These data for the first time demonstrate the presence of nAChRs in synaptic vesicles and suggest an active involvement of cholinergic regulation in neurotransmitter release. Synaptic vesicles may be an additional target of nicotine inhaled upon smoking and of α7-specific drugs widely discussed as anti-inflammatory and pro-cognitive tools.


Subject(s)
Brain/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Membrane Fusion/physiology , Synaptic Vesicles/metabolism , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/metabolism , Animals , Brain/drug effects , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Female , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Male , Membrane Fusion/drug effects , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Nicotinic Agonists/pharmacology , Nicotinic Antagonists/pharmacology , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Synaptic Vesicles/drug effects , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/agonists , alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL