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1.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(6): 599-609, 2021 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1498473

ABSTRACT

Pneumonia is a major cause of global mortality in developed countries. The adequacy of the antibiotic treatment is essential for the good evolution of the patients. When selecting the antimicrobial, the severity of the patient, the characteristics of the antibiotics, and the profile of the patient to be treated should be considered. Recommendations for the selection of antibiotic treatment may differ between the patient who requires admission and the one who can be treated as outpatient. Beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides are the most widely used antimicrobials in this last circumstance. However, not all are the same in terms of efficacy, safety and ecological impact. This review delves into the aforementioned aspects to improve decision-making and offers concrete recommendations for the selection of antibiotic treatment. Likewise, it includes recommendations for performing sequential therapy. Finally, a brief review is made about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on this pathology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(22): e26253, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258821

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Pathophysiological changes are important risk factors for critically ill patients with pneumonia manifesting sub-therapeutic antibiotic exposures during empirical treatment. The effect of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on antibiotic dosing requirements is uncertain. We aimed to determine the effect of COVID-19 on ß-lactam pharmacokinetics (PK) and PK target attainment in critically ill patients with a personalized dosing strategy.Retrospective, single-center analysis of COVID-19 ± critically ill patients with pneumonia (community-acquired pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia) who received continuous infusion of a ß-lactam antibiotic with dosing personalized through dosing software and therapeutic drug monitoring. A therapeutic exposure was defined as serum concentration between (css) 4 to 8 times the EUCAST non-species related breakpoint).Data from 58 patients with pneumonia was analyzed. Nineteen patients were tested COVID-19-positive before the start of the antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia or hospital-acquired pneumonia. Therapeutic exposure was achieved in 71% of COVID-19 patients (68% considering all patients). All patients demonstrated css above the non-species-related breakpoint. Twenty percent exceeded css above the target range (24% of all patients). The median ß-lactam clearance was 49% compared to ß-lactam clearance in a standard patient without a significant difference regarding antibiotic, time of sampling or present COVID-19 infection. Median daily doses were 50% lower compared to standard bolus dosing.COVID-19 did not significantly affect ß-lactam pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients. Personalized ß-lactam dosing strategies were safe in critically ill patients and lead to high PK target attainment with less resources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , beta-Lactams/administration & dosage , beta-Lactams/pharmacokinetics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , Critical Illness , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Monitoring , Female , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Male , Metabolic Clearance Rate , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , beta-Lactams/economics , beta-Lactams/therapeutic use
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