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1.
Int J Mol Med ; 49(3)2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643661

ABSTRACT

The pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS­CoV­2), responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID­19) has posed a major challenge for global health. In order to successfully combat SARS­CoV­2, the development of effective COVID­19 vaccines is crucial. In this context, recent studies have highlighted a high COVID­19 mortality rate in patients affected by ß­thalassemia, probably due to their co­existent immune deficiencies. In addition to a role in the severity of SARS­CoV­2 infection and in the mortality rate of COVID­19­infected patients with thalassemia, immunosuppression is expected to deeply affect the effectivity of anti­COVID­19 vaccines. In the context of the interplay between thalassemia­associated immunosuppression and the effectiveness of COVID­19 vaccines, the employment of immunomodulatory molecules is hypothesized. For instance, short­term treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (such as everolimus and sirolimus) has been found to improve responses to influenza vaccination in adults, with benefits possibly persisting for a year following treatment. Recently, sirolimus has been considered for the therapy of hemoglobinopathies (including ß­thalassemia). Sirolimus induces the expression of fetal hemoglobin (and this may contribute to the amelioration of the clinical parameters of patients with ß­thalassemia) and induces autophagy (thereby reducing the excessive levels of α­globin). It may also finally contribute to the mobilization of erythroid cells from the bone marrow (thereby reducing anemia). In the present study, the authors present the hypothesis that sirolimus treatment, in addition to its beneficial effects on erythroid­related parameters, may play a crucial role in sustaining the effects of COVID­19 vaccination in patients with ß­thalassemia. This hypothesis is based on several publications demonstrating the effects of sirolimus treatment on the immune system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , beta-Thalassemia/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Combined Modality Therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods , beta-Thalassemia/complications , beta-Thalassemia/immunology
2.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; 30(5): 1222-1227, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637290

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Corona virus disease (COVID-19) has been associated with a variety of ophthalmic manifestations including acute macular neuroretinopathy and paracentral middle maculopathy. Posterior segment manifestations after post COVID-19 vaccinations have been reported. CASE REPORT: A 25- year-old Asian Indian female developed sequential bilateral AMN following a single dose of COVISHIELD™ vaccine. On investigations she was found to have a ß thalassemia trait. Presentation started unilaterally and progressed to the other eye after a month. On clinical examination, the fundus was apparently normal in both eyes. Significant changes suggestive of AMN were seen on multimodal imaging of the posterior segment of the respective eye at the time of involvement which resolved spontaneously in due course. CONCLUSION: We report a temporal association of COVID-19 vaccination and AMN.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Macula Lutea , White Dot Syndromes , beta-Thalassemia , Adult , Female , Humans , Acute Disease , beta-Thalassemia/complications , beta-Thalassemia/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Multimodal Imaging , Tomography, Optical Coherence/methods , Vaccination , White Dot Syndromes/chemically induced
3.
Blood Cells Mol Dis ; 92: 102627, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520713

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Equipoise exists regarding sickle cell disease (SCD) as a risk factor for COVID-19 disease severity and variables that increase risk of COVID-19 severity in SCD. Given our health system's large SCD patient catchment, we analyzed our own experience in this regard. STUDY METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the clinical course and factors associated with need for hospitalization and ICU admission of SCD patients diagnosed with COVID-19 through the Northwell Health system from March 1 to Dec 31, 2020. RESULTS: Of 1098 patients with SCD, 3.3% were diagnosed with COVID-19. Overall rates of hospitalization, ICU admission, cohort mortality, and in-hospital mortality were 80%, 19%, 2.5%,and 3.1%, respectively. By multivariable analysis, hospitalization risk was decreased by 60% for every 1 g/dL increase in admission Hb. ICU admission risk was increased by 84% as a health care worker; increased by 45% for every 1000/uL increase in admission immature granulocyte count; and decreased by 17% with hydroxyurea use. DISCUSSION: High hospitalization rates are compatible with worsened severity upon COVID-19 infection in SCD compared to the general population. Patients should be placed on hydroxyurea to increase their Hb and perhaps lower their neutrophil counts. Health care workers with SCD may warrant special safety precautions.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Anemia, Sickle Cell/blood , Anemia, Sickle Cell/drug therapy , Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics , Child , Female , Genotype , Health Personnel , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Hydroxyurea/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units , Male , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sickle Cell Trait/complications , beta-Thalassemia/complications
5.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 29(1): 70-74, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317783

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Because of iron overload complications, thrombosis and infectious predisposition, patients with severe forms of thalassemia are likely to be at increased risk of COVID-19 complications. RESULTS: A national survey conducted during the year 2020 across the French reference centers for hemoglobinopathies identified 16 cases of COVID-19 confirmed by RT-PCR in beta-thalassemia patients. Their age ranged from 11 months to 60 years. 15 patients were transfusion-dependent and 6 were splenectomized. Concerning iron overload related complications, none had diabetes or cirrhosis and only one had experienced heart failure. All 4 pediatric patients were pauci-symptomatic during the viral episode. Three patients (41, 49 and 57 years old) developed COVID-19 pneumonia requiring oxygen therapy without the need for mechanical ventilation. Neutropenia (absolute neutrophils count <0.5 10 9/L) was observed in 2 patients receiving long-term treatment with hydroxycarbamide and deferiprone. No thrombosis event, organ failure or death occurred. All patients recovered. CONCLUSION: Severity of COVID-19 in this population of young and middle-aged patients appeared increased compared to the general population but remained mild to moderate as already described in the few series reported in the literature. Occurrence of adverse events related to chronic treatment administered in thalassemia disease may be favored by the infectious episode.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Iron Overload , Thalassemia , beta-Thalassemia , Child , Humans , Infant , Iron Overload/epidemiology , Iron Overload/etiology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , beta-Thalassemia/complications , beta-Thalassemia/therapy
7.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD003427, 2021 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135064

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of inherited disorders that result in haemoglobin abnormalities and other complications. Injury to the spleen, among other factors, contribute to persons with SCD being particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable. The 'Co-operative Study of Sickle Cell Disease' observed an incidence rate for pneumococcal septicaemia of 10 per 100 person-years in children under the age of three years. Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited use in this age group. Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimens may be advisable for this population. This is an update of a Cochrane Review which was first published in 2002, and previously updated, most recently in 2017.  OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of antibiotic prophylaxis against pneumococcus in children with SCD receiving antibiotic prophylaxis compared to those without in relation to: 1. incidence of Streptococcus pneumoniae infection; 2. mortality (as reported in the included studies); 3. drug-related adverse events (as reported in the included studies) to the individual and the community; 4. the impact of discontinuing at various ages on incidence of infection and mortality. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and also two clinical trials registries: ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO International Registry Platform (not in 2020 given access issues relating to Covid-19 pandemic). Additionally, we carried out hand searching of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of the most recent search: 25 January 2021. SELECTION CRITERIA: All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing prophylactic antibiotics to prevent pneumococcal infection in children with SCD with placebo, no treatment or a comparator drug. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane were used. Both authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality. The authors used the GRADE criteria to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: Six trials were identified by the searches, of which three trials were eligible for inclusion. A total of 880 children, who were between three months to five years of age at randomization were included. The included studies were conducted in centres in the USA and in Kingston, Jamaica. In trials that investigated initiation of penicillin on risk of pneumococcal infection, the odds ratio was 0.37 (95% confidence interval 0.16 to 0.86) (two trials, 457 children) (low-certainty evidence), while for withdrawal the odds ratio was 0.49 (95% confidence interval 0.09 to 2.71) (one trial, 400 children) (low-certainty evidence). Adverse drug effects were rare and minor. Rates of pneumococcal infection were found to be relatively low in children over the age of five years. Overall, the certainty of the evidence for all outcomes was judged to be low. The results from the risk of bias assessment undertaken identified two domains in which the risk of bias was considered to be high, these were incomplete outcome data (attrition bias) (two trials) and allocation concealment (selection bias) (one trial). Domains considered to have a low risk of bias for all three trials were selective reporting (reporting bias) and blinding (performance and detection bias). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The evidence examined was determined to be of low certainty and suggests that prophylactic penicillin significantly reduces risk of pneumococcal infection in children with homozygous SCD, and is associated with minimal adverse reactions. Further research may help to determine the ideal age to safely withdraw penicillin.


Subject(s)
Anemia, Sickle Cell/complications , Antibiotic Prophylaxis , Penicillins/therapeutic use , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Age Factors , Anemia, Sickle Cell/genetics , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/adverse effects , Bias , Child, Preschool , Hemoglobin SC Disease/complications , Homozygote , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Medication Adherence , Penicillins/adverse effects , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/mortality , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Streptococcus pneumoniae , beta-Thalassemia/complications
12.
Med Hypotheses ; 142: 109827, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-352336

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is a contagious acute respiratory infectious disease whose causative agent has been demonstrated to be a novel virus of the coronavirus family, SARSCoV-2. A recent PRE-print study has showed a heme attack on the 1-beta chain of hemoglobin by COVID19. Beta-thalassemia results of a default in the hemoglobin beta-chain synthesis. 1,5% global population are heterozygotes for this disease. In this study, by a multiple linear regression, we have analyzed the evolution of COVID-19 infection in three Italian regions (Puglia, Sardinia, Sicilia) with different beta-thalassemic prevalences, in order to search a link. The results have showed that betathalassemic heterozygote population prevalence is correlated to immunity against COVID-19, by a regression. This paper is only for academic discussion, the hypotheses and conclusions needs to be confirmed by further research.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , beta-Thalassemia/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Hemoglobins/analysis , Hemoglobins/chemistry , Heterozygote , Humans , Immune System , Immunization , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Prevalence , Regression Analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , beta-Thalassemia/complications , beta-Thalassemia/epidemiology
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