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1.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1299, 2023 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264553

ABSTRACT

mRNA-based vaccines dramatically reduce the occurrence and severity of COVID-19, but are associated with rare vaccine-related adverse effects. These toxicities, coupled with observations that SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with autoantibody development, raise questions whether COVID-19 vaccines may also promote the development of autoantibodies, particularly in autoimmune patients. Here we used Rapid Extracellular Antigen Profiling to characterize self- and viral-directed humoral responses after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in 145 healthy individuals, 38 patients with autoimmune diseases, and 8 patients with mRNA vaccine-associated myocarditis. We confirm that most individuals generated robust virus-specific antibody responses post vaccination, but that the quality of this response is impaired in autoimmune patients on certain modes of immunosuppression. Autoantibody dynamics are remarkably stable in all vaccinated patients compared to COVID-19 patients that exhibit an increased prevalence of new autoantibody reactivities. Patients with vaccine-associated myocarditis do not have increased autoantibody reactivities relative to controls. In summary, our findings indicate that mRNA vaccines decouple SARS-CoV-2 immunity from autoantibody responses observed during acute COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunity, Humoral , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines , Humans , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Autoimmunity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Myocarditis/immunology , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/therapeutic use , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
2.
Nat Commun ; 14(1): 1541, 2023 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273491

ABSTRACT

Several studies have reported associations between COVID-19 vaccination and risk of cardiac diseases, especially in young people; the impact on mortality, however, remains unclear. We use national, linked electronic health data in England to assess the impact of COVID-19 vaccination and positive SARS-CoV-2 tests on the risk of cardiac and all-cause mortality in young people (12 to 29 years) using a self-controlled case series design. Here, we show there is no significant increase in cardiac or all-cause mortality in the 12 weeks following COVID-19 vaccination compared to more than 12 weeks after any dose. However, we find an increase in cardiac death in women after a first dose of non mRNA vaccines. A positive SARS-CoV-2 test is associated with increased cardiac and all-cause mortality among people vaccinated or unvaccinated at time of testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Electronic Health Records , England/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Heart Diseases/mortality , Incidence , mRNA Vaccines/administration & dosage , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Vaccination/adverse effects , Child , Hospitalization
3.
Med Arch ; 76(3): 215-220, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056055

ABSTRACT

Background: The advent of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has created unprecedented situations, both in terms of health and socio-economic level, worldwide. The emergence of vaccines against this highly contagious virus has raised hopes for its effective inhibition. The efficacy of vaccines, in more than a year of their application in clinical practice, is indisputable, both in terms of reducing serious hospitalizations and deaths, especially in high-risk populations. As with any new medication, the quest and investigation for side effects are reasonable. Myocarditis is one of the extremely rare side effects reported in mRNA vaccines, especially in young males. Case presentation: We present two cases of myocarditis that occurred in our hospital in a short time between them and compare them point by point to identify similarities and differences in order to draw conclusions about the severity of this side effect and its outcome. Conclusion: The benefits of vaccination against Covid-19 outweigh possible untoward effects and especially myocarditis. Health workers must close monitor the vaccinated patients for possible future cardiovascular complications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Humans , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , Myocarditis/chemically induced , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/adverse effects
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(1): e920-e923, 2022 Aug 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008524

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 messenger RNA vaccine-induced humoral response and reactogenicity profile are described in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. Findings showed that 75.0% (by Simoa assay) or 80.0% (by Roche assay) of the HSCT cohort had a positive antibody response on series completion, compared with 100% in the healthy cohort.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , mRNA Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 75(Supplement_1): S18-S23, 2022 Aug 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2001242

ABSTRACT

Systems vaccinology approaches have introduced novel tools for the evaluation of the safety profile of novel vaccine antigens by developing biomarkers of vaccine reactogenicity associated with potential adverse events. The use of such approaches may prove extremely advantageous in the context of a global pandemic where accelerated approval of new vaccine formulations for all ages is essential for the containment of the epidemic. The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had devastating effects on global health, but the emergency authorization of mRNA vaccines significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2-associated morbidity and mortality. Despite their favorable safety profile in adult populations, recent reports have raised concerns about an association of the mRNA-based vaccines with acute myocarditis, predominantly among male adolescents and young adults following the second vaccine dose. Here, we review data on myocarditis epidemiology following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination and describe potential mechanisms involved that may explain the sex- and age-related differences, focusing on mRNA immune reactivity. The case of vaccine-associated myocarditis highlights the need to incorporate precision vaccinology approaches for the development of safe and effective vaccines for everyone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , mRNA Vaccines , Adolescent , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Male , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccinology , Viral Vaccines , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(30): 971-976, 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1964793

ABSTRACT

The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all persons aged ≥5 years receive 1 booster dose of a COVID-19 vaccine after completion of their primary series.* On March 29, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) authorized a second mRNA booster dose ≥4 months after receipt of a first booster dose for adults aged ≥50 years and persons aged ≥12 years with moderate to severe immunocompromise (1,2). To characterize the safety of a second mRNA booster dose among persons aged ≥50 years, CDC reviewed adverse events and health impact assessments reported to v-safe and the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) after receipt of a second mRNA booster dose during March 29-July 10, 2022. V-safe is a voluntary smartphone-based U.S. active surveillance system that monitors adverse events occurring after COVID-19 vaccination. VAERS is a U.S. passive surveillance system for monitoring adverse events after vaccination, managed by CDC and FDA (3). During March 29-July 10, 2022, approximately 16.8 million persons in the United States aged ≥50 years received a fourth dose.† Among 286,380 v-safe registrants aged ≥50 years who reported receiving a second booster of an mRNA vaccine, 86.9% received vaccines from the same manufacturer for all 4 doses (i.e., homologous vaccination). Among registrants who reported homologous vaccination, injection site and systemic reactions were less frequent after the second booster dose than after the first booster dose. VAERS received 8,515 reports of adverse events after second mRNA booster doses among adults aged ≥50 years, including 8,073 (94.8%) nonserious and 442 (5.1%) serious events. CDC recommends that health care providers and patients be advised that local and systemic reactions are expected after a second booster dose, and that serious adverse events are uncommon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Middle Aged , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
9.
Clin Exp Dermatol ; 47(11): 2022-2024, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1961536

ABSTRACT

We present a rare case of eosinophilic pustular folliculitis due to mRNA-based vaccines for COVID-19. Histology of the biopsy specimen was very interesting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Folliculitis , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Folliculitis/chemically induced , Folliculitis/pathology , Vaccination , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
10.
Ann Fam Med ; 20(20 Suppl 1)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962965

ABSTRACT

Context: Tertiary care hospital provided onsite COVID-19 vaccine roll out as a work benefit for all care team members with medically supervised waiting period at the time of the distribution of the first round of the novel mRNA COVID-19 vaccines. Little was known about the immediate hypersensivity reactions or what might predispose to cross reactivity. Objective: We developed a working protocol to continuously track the vaccines administered, the patient history of allergy and hypersensistivity, the reactions observed and the care plan developed (determination of allergy to mRNA vaccines or normal vaccine response). Continuous process improvement allowed us to change protocols as the CDC developed guidance. Every patient was observed for at least 15 minutes and every reaction was reviewed by a physician supervising the waiting area. We aimed to determine if there were predictors of adverse, immediate reaction to the vaccine and to assess prevalence of risk factors (history of allergy to polyethylene Glycol or polysorbate; allergy to other injectable medication or vaccines; hypersensitivity to multiple substances). Study Design: Cohort study of all employees who received a first mRNA COVID-19 vaccine between December 16 and January 7th. Descriptive statistics were developed with demographic and medical history recorded, reactions noted and treatment given. Setting or Dataset: Tertiary care hospital in urban area. Population Studied: Employees who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Intervention/Instrument: Clinical records from employee vaccine clinic. Outcome Measures: Record of immediate response, determination of allergy. Results: We served over 7000 individuals with approximately 10% having a history of anaphylactic reaction. We had fewer with history of anaphylaxis to medications or vaccines. We delivered these vaccines safely, and observed three cases of immediate anaphylaxis on first dose of mRNA and over 50 cases of immediate allergic hypersensitivity. We did not see any patterns that predicted these reactions (gender, age or medical history). Expected Outcomes: We used this data to inform our employee health vaccination campaign and to inform the health system as strategies and safety protocols for vaccination of the population were developed.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 Vaccines , mRNA Vaccines , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Humans , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 876966, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952821

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The year 2020 saw the emergence of novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which became a great threat to public health worldwide. The exponential spread of the disease with millions of lives lost worldwide saw the emergence of an accelerated vaccine development with emergency approval from well-known regulatory bodies such as the US Food and Drug Administration, followed by widespread vaccine deployment despite a paucity in safety profile data. This issue becomes even more pronounced when it involves expectant mothers considering the possible undesirable effect toward the unborn child. Method: This was a retrospective cohort study which was conducted at six general hospitals in the state of Penang, Malaysia. All the pregnant employees who have consented to take the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine and participate in this study were monitored from the time of their first vaccination and up to 28 days after they delivered their babies. Results: All the participants had adequate maximum vertical pocket (MVP) and no obvious anomalies or detection of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were detected during the second trimester. However, one subject was reported to have miscarried during the second trimester. The reported mean neonate birth weight was 3.0 kg with the mean Apgar score of 8.8 and 9.8 at 1 and 5 min, respectively. Approximately seven (5.8%) neonates were reported to be small for their gestational age. Another three (2.5%) neonates were reported to have anomalies. Conclusion: As a whole, the inference that can be made from this study is that mRNA COVID-19 vaccine appears to be safe in pregnant women regardless of the trimester as the findings did not show obvious safety warning signs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnant Women , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Hospitals, General , Humans , Malaysia , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
12.
J Immunother Cancer ; 10(7)2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950234

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are crucial for protection from future COVID-19 infections, limiting disease severity, and control of viral transmission. While patients with the most common type of hematologic malignancy, B cell lymphoma, often develop insufficient antibody responses to messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines, vaccine-induced T cells would have the potential to 'rescue' protective immunity in patients with B cell lymphoma. Here we report the case of a patient with B cell lymphoma with profound B cell depletion after initial chemoimmunotherapy who received a total of six doses of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. The patient developed vaccine-induced anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies only after the fifth and sixth doses of the vaccine once his B cells had started to recover. Remarkably, even in the context of severe treatment-induced suppression of the humoral immune system, the patient was able to mount virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ responses that were much stronger than what would be expected in healthy subjects after two to three doses of a COVID-19 mRNA vaccine and which were even able to target the Omicron 'immune escape' variant of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. These findings not only have important implications for anti-COVID-19 vaccination strategies but also for future antitumor vaccines in patients with cancer with profound treatment-induced immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Lymphoma, B-Cell , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes , Vaccines, Synthetic , Viral Vaccines , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
14.
Heart Fail Rev ; 27(6): 2033-2043, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1942219

ABSTRACT

Clinical course and outcomes of myocarditis after COVID-19 vaccination remain variable. We retrospectively collected data on patients > 12 years old from 01/01/2021 to 12/30/2021 who received COVID-19 messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination and were diagnosed with myocarditis within 60 days of vaccination. Myocarditis cases were based on case definitions by authors. We report on 238 patients of whom most were male (n = 208; 87.1%). The mean age was 27.4 ± 16 (range 12-80) years. Females presented at older ages (41.3 ± 21.5 years) than men 25.7 ± 14 years (p = 0.001). In patients > 20 years of age, the mean duration from vaccination to symptoms was 4.8 days ± 5.5 days, but in < 20, it was 3.0 ± 3.3 days (p = 0.04). Myocarditis occurred most commonly after the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine (n = 183; 76.45) and after the second dose (n = 182; 80%). Symptoms started 3.95 ± 4.5 days after vaccination. The commonest symptom was chest pain (n = 221; 93%). Patients were treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n = 105; 58.3%), colchicine (n = 38; 21.1%), or glucocorticoids (n = 23; 12.7%). About 30% of the patients had left ventricular ejection fraction but more than half recovered the on repeat imaging. Abnormal cardiac MRIs were common; 168 patients (96% of 175 patients that had MRI) had late gadolinium enhancement, while 120 patients (68.5%) had myocardial edema. Heart failure guideline-directed medical therapy use was common (n = 27; 15%). Eleven patients had cardiogenic shock; and 4 patients required mechanical circulatory support. Five patients (1.7%) died; of these, 3 patients had endomyocardial biopsy/autopsy-confirmed myocarditis. Most cases of COVID-19 vaccine myocarditis are mild. Females presented at older ages than men and duration from vaccination to symptoms was longer in patients > 20 years. Cardiogenic shock requiring mechanical circulatory support was seen and mortality was low. Future studies are needed to better evaluate risk factors, and long-term outcomes of COVID-19 mRNA vaccine myocarditis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , Shock, Cardiogenic/therapy , Stroke Volume , Vaccination/adverse effects , Ventricular Function, Left
16.
BMJ ; 378: e070483, 2022 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1932664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of adverse events associated with heterologous primary (two dose) and booster (three dose) vaccine schedules for covid-19 with Oxford-AstraZeneca's ChAdOx1-S priming followed by mRNA vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech's BNT162b2 or Moderna's mRNA-1273) as compared with homologous mRNA vaccine schedules for covid-19. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, 1 January 2021 to 26 March 2022. PARTICIPANTS: Adults aged 18-65 years who received a heterologous vaccine schedule of priming with ChAdOx1-S and one or two mRNA booster doses (with either the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine) were compared with adults who received a homologous BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine schedule (ie, two dose v two dose, and three dose v three dose schedule). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The incidence of hospital contacts for a range of adverse cardiovascular and haemostatic events within 28 days after the second or third vaccine dose, comparing heterologous versus homologous vaccine schedules. Secondary outcomes included additional prioritised adverse events of special interest. Poisson regression was used to estimate incidence rate ratios with adjustment for selected covariates. RESULTS: Individuals who had had a heterologous primary vaccine (n=137 495) or a homologous vaccine (n=2 688 142) were identified, in addition to those who had had a heterologous booster (n=129 770) or a homologous booster (n=2 197 213). Adjusted incidence rate ratios of adverse cardiovascular and haemostatic events within 28 days for the heterologous primary and booster vaccine schedules in comparison with the homologous mRNA vaccine schedules were 1.22 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.91) and 1.00 (0.58 to 1.72) for ischaemic cardiac events, 0.74 (0.40 to 1.34) and 0.72 (0.37 to 1.42) for cerebrovascular events, 1.12 (0.13 to 9.58) and 4.74 (0.94 to 24.01) for arterial thromboembolisms, 0.79 (0.45 to 1.38) and 1.09 (0.60 to 1.98) for venous thromboembolisms, 0.84 (0.18 to 3.96) and 1.04 (0.60 to 4.55) for myocarditis or pericarditis, 0.97 (0.45 to 2.10) and 0.89 (0.21 to 3.77) for thrombocytopenia and coagulative disorders, and 1.39 (1.01 to 1.91) and 1.02 (0.70 to 1.47) for other bleeding events, respectively. No associations with any of the outcomes were found when restricting to serious adverse events defined as stay in hospital for more than 24 h. CONCLUSION: Heterologous primary and booster covid-19 vaccine schedules of ChAdOx1-S priming and mRNA booster doses as both second and third doses were not associated with increased risk of serious adverse events compared with homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. These results are reassuring but given the rarity of some of the adverse events, associations cannot be excluded.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hemostatics , Thromboembolism , mRNA Vaccines , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273/adverse effects , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine/adverse effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , RNA, Messenger , Thromboembolism/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects
18.
N Engl J Med ; 387(2): 109-119, 2022 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900734

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infants younger than 6 months of age are at high risk for complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and are not eligible for vaccination. Transplacental transfer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after maternal Covid-19 vaccination may confer protection against Covid-19 in infants. METHODS: We used a case-control test-negative design to assess the effectiveness of maternal vaccination during pregnancy against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants younger than 6 months of age. Between July 1, 2021, and March 8, 2022, we enrolled infants hospitalized for Covid-19 (case infants) and infants hospitalized without Covid-19 (control infants) at 30 hospitals in 22 states. We estimated vaccine effectiveness by comparing the odds of full maternal vaccination (two doses of mRNA vaccine) among case infants and control infants during circulation of the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant (July 1, 2021, to December 18, 2021) and the B.1.1.259 (omicron) variant (December 19, 2021, to March 8, 2022). RESULTS: A total of 537 case infants (181 of whom had been admitted to a hospital during the delta period and 356 during the omicron period; median age, 2 months) and 512 control infants were enrolled and included in the analyses; 16% of the case infants and 29% of the control infants had been born to mothers who had been fully vaccinated against Covid-19 during pregnancy. Among the case infants, 113 (21%) received intensive care (64 [12%] received mechanical ventilation or vasoactive infusions). Two case infants died from Covid-19; neither infant's mother had been vaccinated during pregnancy. The effectiveness of maternal vaccination against hospitalization for Covid-19 among infants was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 33 to 65) overall, 80% (95% CI, 60 to 90) during the delta period, and 38% (95% CI, 8 to 58) during the omicron period. Effectiveness was 69% (95% CI, 50 to 80) when maternal vaccination occurred after 20 weeks of pregnancy and 38% (95% CI, 3 to 60) during the first 20 weeks of pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal vaccination with two doses of mRNA vaccine was associated with a reduced risk of hospitalization for Covid-19, including for critical illness, among infants younger than 6 months of age. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , mRNA Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Mothers , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines/adverse effects , mRNA Vaccines/therapeutic use
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