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1.
Angiogenesis ; 24(3): 505-517, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1032491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease associated with endotheliitis and microthrombosis. OBJECTIVES: To correlate endothelial dysfunction to in-hospital mortality in a bi-centric cohort of COVID-19 adult patients. METHODS: Consecutive ambulatory and hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were enrolled. A panel of endothelial biomarkers and von Willebrand factor (VWF) multimers were measured in each patient ≤ 48 h following admission. RESULTS: Study enrolled 208 COVID-19 patients of whom 23 were mild outpatients and 189 patients hospitalized after admission. Most of endothelial biomarkers tested were found increased in the 89 critical patients transferred to intensive care unit. However, only von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag) scaled according to clinical severity, with levels significantly higher in critical patients (median 507%, IQR 428-596) compared to non-critical patients (288%, 230-350, p < 0.0001) or COVID-19 outpatients (144%, 133-198, p = 0.007). Moreover, VWF high molecular weight multimers (HMWM) were significantly higher in critical patients (median ratio 1.18, IQR 0.86-1.09) compared to non-critical patients (0.96, 1.04-1.39, p < 0.001). Among all endothelial biomarkers measured, ROC curve analysis identified a VWF:Ag cut-off of 423% as the best predictor for in-hospital mortality. The accuracy of VWF:Ag was further confirmed in a Kaplan-Meier estimator analysis and a Cox proportional Hazard model adjusted on age, BMI, C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels. CONCLUSION: VWF:Ag is a relevant predictive factor for in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients. More than a biomarker, we hypothesize that VWF, including excess of HMWM forms, drives microthrombosis in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/chemistry , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Weight , Paris/epidemiology , Proportional Hazards Models , Protein Multimerization , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , von Willebrand Factor/chemistry
2.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110030, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612684

ABSTRACT

Novel Coronavirus (SARS CoV-2), the etiological agent for the highly contagious Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has threatened global health and economy infecting around 5.8 million people and causing over 359,200 deaths (as of 28th May 2020, https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/). The clinical manifestations of infected patients generally range from asymptomatic or mild to severe illness, or even death. The ability of the virus to evade the host immune response have been major reasons for high morbidity and mortality. One of the important clinical observations under conditions of critical illness show increased risk of developing disseminated intravascular coagulation. Molecular mechanisms of how SARS CoV-2 induces such conditions still remain unclear. This report describes the presence of two unique motifs in the SARS CoV-2 nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N-protein) that can potentially interact with fibrinogen and possibly prothrombin. This is based on an established function of secretory proteins in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-coagulase, Efb (Extracellular fibrinogen binding) and vWBP (von Willebrand factor Binding Protein), which are known to regulate the blood clotting cascade and the functions of host immune response. It is hypothesized that having protein interaction motifs that are homologous to these S. aureus proteins, the N-protein of this virus can mimic their functions, which may in turn play a crucial role in formation of blood clots in the host and help the virus evade host immune response. However, this hypothesis needs to be tested in vitro. Considering the overwhelming increase in the incidence of SARS CoV-2 infection globally, this information may be useful for further investigation and could help in deducing new therapeutic strategies to combat advanced stages of this disease.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Fibrinogen/chemistry , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Amino Acid Motifs , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Immune System , Models, Theoretical , Peptides/chemistry , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Protein Binding , Protein Domains , Staphylococcus aureus/enzymology , von Willebrand Factor/chemistry
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