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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753628

ABSTRACT

Postprandial hypotension (PPH) is defined as a fall of ≥20 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or a SBP of <90 mmHg after having been >100 mmHg before the meal within two hours after a meal. The prevalence of PPH among persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. Ambulatory blood pressure measurement was performed in 158 persons with SCI, 109 men, median age was 59.1 years (min.:13.2; max.: 86.2). In total, 78 persons (49.4%) had PPH after 114 out of 449 meals (25.4%). The median change in SBP during PPH was -28 mmHg (min.: -87; max.: -15 mmHg) and 96% of the PPH episodes were asymptomatic. The occurrence of PPH was correlated to older age (p = 0.001), level of injury (p = 0.023), and complete SCI (p = 0.000), but not, gender or time since injury. Further studies are needed to elucidate if PPH contributes to the increased cardiovascular mortality in the SCI population.

2.
Brain Behav Immun ; 87: 11-17, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719332

ABSTRACT

The severe 2019 outbreak of novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which was first reported in Wuhan, would be expected to impact the mental health of local medical and nursing staff and thus lead them to seek help. However, those outcomes have yet to be established using epidemiological data. To explore the mental health status of medical and nursing staff and the efficacy, or lack thereof, of critically connecting psychological needs to receiving psychological care, we conducted a quantitative study. This is the first paper on the mental health of medical and nursing staff in Wuhan. Notably, among 994 medical and nursing staff working in Wuhan, 36.9% had subthreshold mental health disturbances (mean PHQ-9: 2.4), 34.4% had mild disturbances (mean PHQ-9: 5.4), 22.4% had moderate disturbances (mean PHQ-9: 9.0), and 6.2% had severe disturbance (mean PHQ-9: 15.1) in the immediate wake of the viral epidemic. The noted burden fell particularly heavily on young women. Of all participants, 36.3% had accessed psychological materials (such as books on mental health), 50.4% had accessed psychological resources available through media (such as online push messages on mental health self-help coping methods), and 17.5% had participated in counseling or psychotherapy. Trends in levels of psychological distress and factors such as exposure to infected people and psychological assistance were identified. Although staff accessed limited mental healthcare services, distressed staff nonetheless saw these services as important resources to alleviate acute mental health disturbances and improve their physical health perceptions. These findings emphasize the importance of being prepared to support frontline workers through mental health interventions at times of widespread crisis.


Subject(s)
Anxiety Disorders/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Depressive Disorder/psychology , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Depressive Disorder/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Mental Health Services , Middle Aged , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Patient Health Questionnaire , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Psychological Distress , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(3): 427-436, 2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1684536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions taking immunomodulatory/suppressive medications may have higher risk of novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chronic disease care has also changed for many patients, with uncertain downstream consequences. METHODS: We included participants with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions followed by specialists at Johns Hopkins. Participants completed periodic surveys querying comorbidities, disease-modifying medications, exposures, COVID-19 testing and outcomes, social behaviors, and disruptions to healthcare. We assessed whether COVID-19 risk is higher among those on immunomodulating or suppressive agents and characterized pandemic-associated changes to care and mental health. RESULTS: In total, 265 (5.6%) developed COVID-19 over 9 months of follow-up (April-December 2020). Patient characteristics (age, race, comorbidity, medications) were associated with differences in social distancing behaviors during the pandemic. Glucocorticoid exposure was associated with higher odds of COVID-19 in models incorporating behavior and other potential confounders (odds ratio [OR]: 1.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08, 1.89). Other medication classes were not associated with COVID-19 risk. Diabetes (OR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.73), cardiovascular disease (OR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.24, 2.28), and kidney disease (OR: 1.76; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.97) were associated with higher odds of COVID-19. Of the 2156 reporting pre-pandemic utilization of infusion, mental health or rehabilitative services, 975 (45.2%) reported disruptions therein, which disproportionately affected individuals experiencing changes to employment or income. CONCLUSIONS: Glucocorticoid exposure may increase risk of COVID-19 in people with autoimmune or inflammatory conditions. Disruption to healthcare and related services was common. Those with pandemic-related reduced income may be most vulnerable to care disruptions.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Autoimmune Diseases/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 59-65, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several vaccines are now available under emergency use authorization in the United States and have demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19. Vaccine impact on asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive, asymptomatic adult patients (n = 39 156) within a large US healthcare system who underwent 48 333 preprocedural SARS-CoV-2 molecular screening tests between 17 December 2020 and 8 February 2021. The primary exposure of interest was vaccination with ≥1 dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The primary outcome was relative risk (RR) of a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test among those asymptomatic persons who had received ≥1 dose of vaccine compared with persons who had not received vaccine during the same time period. RR was adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, patient residence relative to the hospital (local vs nonlocal), healthcare system regions, and repeated screenings among patients using mixed-effects log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Positive molecular tests in asymptomatic individuals were reported in 42 (1.4%) of 3006 tests and 1436 (3.2%) of 45 327 tests performed on vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, respectively (RR, .44; 95% CI, .33-.60; P < .0001). Compared with unvaccinated patients, risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among those >10 days after the first dose (RR, .21; 95% CI, .12-.37; P < .0001) and >0 days after the second dose (RR, .20; 95% CI, .09-.44; P < .0001) in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine showed a significant association with reduced risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured during preprocedural molecular screening. Results of this study demonstrate the impact of the vaccines on reduction in asymptomatic infections supplementing the randomized trial results on symptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
5.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 196-205, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621086

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a global health concern as outbreaks continue to occur. Since 1999, several countries have introduced universal vaccination (UV) of children against HAV according to approved two-dose schedules. Other countries have implemented one-dose UV programs since 2005; the long-term impact of this schedule is not yet known. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature search in four electronic databases for data published between January 2000 and July 2019 to assess evidence for one-dose and two-dose UV of children with non-live HAV vaccines and describe their global impact on incidence, mortality, and severity of hepatitis A, vaccine effectiveness, vaccine efficacy, and antibody persistence. RESULTS: Of 3739 records screened, 33 peer-reviewed articles and one conference abstract were included. Rapid declines in incidence of hepatitis A and related outcomes were observed in all age groups post-introduction of UV programs, which persisted for at least 14 years for two-dose and six years for one-dose programs according to respective study durations. Vaccine effectiveness was ≥95% over 3-5 years for two-dose programs. Vaccine efficacy was >98% over 0.1-7.5 years for one-dose vaccination. Antibody persistence in vaccinated individuals was documented for up to 15 years (≥90%) and ten years (≥74%) for two-dose and one-dose schedules, respectively. CONCLUSION: Experience with two-dose UV of children against HAV is extensive, demonstrating an impact on the incidence of hepatitis A and antibody persistence for at least 15 years in many countries globally. Because evidence is more limited for one-dose UV, we were unable to draw conclusions on immune response persistence beyond ten years or the need for booster doses later in life. Ongoing epidemiological monitoring is essential in countries implementing one-dose UV against HAV. Based on current evidence, two doses of non-live HAV vaccines are needed to ensure long-term protection.


Subject(s)
Hepatitis A Vaccines , Hepatitis A , Adolescent , Child , Hepatitis A/prevention & control , Hepatitis A Antibodies , Humans , Vaccination
6.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3230-3244, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An incremental number of cases of acute transverse myelitis (ATM) in individuals with ongoing or recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been reported. METHODS: A systematic review was performed of cases of ATM described in the context of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by screening both articles published and in preprint. RESULTS: Twenty cases were identified. There was a slight male predominance (60.0%) and the median age was 56 years. Neurological symptoms first manifested after a mean of 10.3 days from the first onset of classical, mostly respiratory symptoms of COVID-19. Overall, COVID-19 severity was relatively mild. Polymerase chain reaction of cerebrospinal fluid for SARS-CoV-2 was negative in all 14 cases examined. Cerebrospinal fluid findings reflected an inflammatory process in most instances (77.8%). Aquaporin-4 and myelin oligodendrocyte protein antibodies in serum (tested in 10 and nine cases, respectively) were negative. On magnetic resonance imaging, the spinal cord lesions spanned a mean of 9.8 vertebral segments, necrotic-hemorrhagic transformation was present in three cases and two individuals had additional acute motor axonal neuropathy. More than half of the patients received a second immunotherapy regimen. Over a limited follow-up period of several weeks, 90% of individuals recovered either partially or near fully. CONCLUSION: Although causality cannot readily be inferred, it is possible that cases of ATM occur para- or post-infectiously in COVID-19. All identified reports are anecdotal and case descriptions are heterogeneous. Whether the condition and the observed radiological characteristics are specific to SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be clarified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Myelitis, Transverse , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Stem Cell Investig ; 7: 11, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579497

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has presented with debilitating respiratory consequences especially more pronounced in high risk individuals. Individuals with underlying systemic diseases are more prone and vulnerable to suffer severe consequences of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity. The pathophysiological changes identified cytokine storm mechanism for out setting the series of adverse clinical conditions. Thereby, associating it with high mortality rates. This warrants urgent consideration of divergent modalities such as the cellular therapy. Cellular therapy (CT) is a new medical paradigm wherein cellular material is administered to patients for therapeutic purposes. In this regard, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have yielded the most promising results among stromal vascular fraction (SVF); placental cells; natural killer (NK) cell and platelet lysate respectively. Following the administration of the CT as per preferred route, these play pivotal role in modifying the microenvironment of the lung tissue with their distinct sets of mechanism. Evidences have shown how their immunomodulatory action repairs and prevents lung injury which in turn improvise the compliance of lungs. In this review article we have discussed these emerging novel approaches and their target step serving as a ray of hope to combat severe form of COVID-19. Currently these aren't approved for preventing or treating COVID-19 cases, however clinical trials are afoot to dispense the utmost understanding in terms of efficacy and safety concerns.

8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22790, 2021 02 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is one of the leading causes of pregnancy-related death. Prenatal health care providers can offer critical screening and support to pregnant people who experience IPV. During the COVID-19 shelter-in-place order, mobile apps may offer such people the opportunity to continue receiving screening and support services. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine cases of IPV that were reported on a prenatal care app before and during the implementation of COVID-19 shelter-in-place mandates. METHODS: The number of patients who underwent voluntary IPV screening and the incidence rate of IPV were determined by using a prenatal care app that was disseminated to patients from a single, large health care system. We compared the IPV screening frequencies and IPV incidence rates of patients who started using the app before the COVID-19 shelter-in-place order, to those of patients who started using the app during the shelter-in-place order. RESULTS: We found 552 patients who started using the app within 60 days prior to the enforcement of the shelter-in-place order, and 407 patients who used the app at the start of shelter-in-place enforcement until the order was lifted. The incidence rates of voluntary IPV screening for new app users during the two time periods were similar (before sheltering in place: 252/552, 46%; during sheltering in place: 163/407, 40%). The overall use of the IPV screening tool increased during the shelter-in-place order. A slight, nonsignificant increase in the incidence of physical, sexual, and psychological violence during the shelter-in-place order was found across all app users (P=.56). Notably, none of the patients who screened positively for IPV had mentions of IPV in their medical charts. CONCLUSIONS: App-based screening for IPV is feasible during times when in-person access to health care providers is limited. Our results suggest that the incidence of IPV slightly increased during the shelter-in-place order. App-based screening may also address the needs of those who are unwilling or unable to share their IPV experiences with their health care provider.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Emergency Shelter/methods , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Quality Improvement/standards , Remote Consultation/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Pilot Projects , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23795, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has been widely communicated that individuals with underlying health conditions are at higher risk of severe disease due to COVID-19 than healthy peers. As social distancing measures continue during the COVID-19 pandemic, experts encourage individuals with underlying conditions to engage in telehealth appointments to maintain continuity of care while minimizing risk exposure. To date, however, little information has been provided regarding telehealth uptake among this high-risk population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the telehealth use, resource needs, and information sources of individuals with chronic conditions during the COVID-19 pandemic. Secondary objectives include exploring differences in telehealth use by sociodemographic characteristics. METHODS: Data for this study were collected through an electronic survey distributed between May 12-14, 2020, to members of 26 online health communities for individuals with chronic disease. Descriptive statistics were run to explore telehealth use, support needs, and information sources, and z tests were run to assess differences in sociodemographic factors and information and support needs among those who did and did not use telehealth services. RESULTS: Among the 2210 respondents, 1073 (49%) reported engaging in telehealth in the past 4 months. Higher proportions of women engaged in telehealth than men (890/1781, 50% vs 181/424, 43%; P=.007), and a higher proportion of those earning household incomes of more than US $100,000 engaged in telehealth than those earning less than US $30,000 (195/370, 53% vs 241/530 45%; P=.003). Although 59% (133/244) of those younger than 40 years and 54% (263/486) of those aged 40-55 years used telehealth, aging populations were less likely to do so, with only 45% (677/1500) of individuals 56 years or older reporting telehealth use (P<.001 and P=.001, respectively). Patients with cystic fibrosis, lupus, and ankylosing spondylitis recorded the highest proportions of individuals using telehealth when compared to those with other diagnoses. Of the 2210 participants, 1333 (60%) participants either looked up information about the virus online or planned to in the future, and when asked what information or support would be most helpful right now, over half (1151/2210, 52%) responded "understanding how COVID-19 affects people with my health condition." CONCLUSIONS: Nearly half of the study sample reported participating in telehealth in the past 4 months. Future efforts to engage individuals with underlying medical conditions in telehealth should focus on outreach to men, members of lower-income households, and aging populations. These results may help inform and refine future health communications to further engage this at-risk population in telehealth as the pandemic continues.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Telemedicine/methods , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Internet , Learning Health System , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): 2031-2036, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited data on outcomes of moderate to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among patients treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone in a real-world setting. We sought to compare the effectiveness of standard of care (SOC) alone versus SOC plus remdesivir and dexamethasone. METHODS: Two population-based nationwide cohorts of individuals hospitalized with COVID-19 during February through December 2020 were studied. Death within 30 days and need of mechanical ventilation (MV) were compared by inverse probability of treatment weighted (ITPW) logistic regression analysis and shown as odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: The 30-days mortality rate of 1694 individuals treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone in addition to SOC was 12.6% compared to 19.7% for 1053 individuals receiving SOC alone. This corresponded to a weighted OR of 30-day mortality of 0.47 (95% CI: .38-.57) for patients treated with remdesivir and dexamethasone compared to patients receiving SOC alone. Similarly, progression to MV was reduced (OR 0.36; 95% CI: .29-.46). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19 during June through December that included remdesivir and dexamethasone was associated with reduced 30-day mortality and need of MV compared to treatment in February through May.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4082-e4089, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Leronlimab, a monoclonal antibody blocker of C-C chemokine receptor type 5 originally developed to treat human immunodeficiency virus infection, was administered as an open-label compassionate-use therapeutic for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Twenty-three hospitalized severe/critical COVID-19 patients received 700 mg leronlimab subcutaneously, repeated after 7 days in 17 of 23 patients still hospitalized. Eighteen of 23 received other experimental treatments, including convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, steroids, and/or tocilizumab. Five of 23 received leronlimab after blinded, placebo-controlled trials of remdesivir, sarilumab, selinexor, or tocilizumab. Outcomes and results were extracted from medical records. RESULTS: Mean age was 69.5 ±â€…14.9 years; 20 had significant comorbidities. At baseline, 22 were receiving supplemental oxygen (3 high flow, 7 mechanical ventilation). Blood showed markedly elevated inflammatory markers (ferritin, D-dimer, C-reactive protein) and an elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio. By day 30 after initial dosing, 17 were recovered, 2 were still hospitalized, and 4 had died. Of the 7 intubated at baseline, 4 were fully recovered off oxygen, 2 were still hospitalized, and 1 had died. CONCLUSIONS: Leronlimab appeared safe and well tolerated. The high recovery rate suggested benefit, and those with lower inflammatory markers had better outcomes. Some, but not all, patients appeared to have dramatic clinical responses, indicating that unknown factors may determine responsiveness to leronlimab. Routine inflammatory and cell prognostic markers did not markedly change immediately after treatment, although interleukin-6 tended to fall. In some persons, C-reactive protein clearly dropped only after the second leronlimab dose, suggesting that a higher loading dose might be more effective. Future controlled trials will be informative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/therapy , HIV Antibodies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
13.
BMJ Support Palliat Care ; 11(4): 440-443, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526512

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: When people are dying and unable to take oral medication, injectable medication is commonly used, usually administered by healthcare professionals. There may be delays to symptom relief due to travel to the person's home. In a randomised controlled trial (RCT) previously reported, nasal fentanyl (NF) or buccal midazolam (BM) were administered by lay carers in a hospice. OBJECTIVE: (1) To report experiences of lay carers who administered NF and BM for symptom control and (2) To use feedback to develop guidance informing a future definitive RCT to determine whether NF and BM administered by lay carers can lead to timely, improved symptom control for people dying at home and fewer 'emergency' community nursing visits than standard breakthrough medication administered by healthcare professionals. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semistructured interviews with lay carers who gave trial medication were conducted. Interview data were analysed using a stage by stage method to code and categorise transcripts. FINDINGS: The six themes were: (1) Participation-lay carers welcomed the opportunity to administer medication; (2) Ease of use-lay carers found preparations easy to use; (3) How things could have been done differently-lay carers would have liked access to trial drugs at home; (4) Training-lay carers were happy with the training they received; (5) Timing-lay carers liked the immediacy of trial drugs and (6) Evaluation-assessing symptom intensity and drug efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: Participation was acceptable to patients and lay carers, and beneficial for symptom relief. The findings will inform planning for a future community-based study.


Subject(s)
Caregivers , Midazolam , Fentanyl , Humans , Palliative Care , Qualitative Research
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(10): 1776-1783, 2021 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522132

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As a priority group, healthcare personnel (HCP) will be key to the success of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination programs. This study assessed HCP willingness to get vaccinated and identified specific concerns that would undermine vaccination efforts. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCP, including clinical and nonclinical staff, researchers, and trainees, between 23 November and 5 December 2020. The survey evaluated attitudes, beliefs, and willingness to get vaccinated. RESULTS: There were 5287 respondents with a mean (SD) age of 42.5 (13.56) years; 72.8% were female (n = 3842). Overall, 57.5 % of individuals expressed intent to receive COVID-19 vaccine; 80.4% were physicians and scientists representing the largest group. 33.6% of registered nurses, 31.6% of allied health professionals, and 32% of master's level clinicians were unsure they would take the vaccine (P < .001). Respondents who were older, male, White, or Asian were more likely to get vaccinated than other groups. Vaccine safety, potential adverse events, efficacy, and speed of vaccine development dominated concerns listed by participants. Fewer (54.0%) providers of direct care versus non-care providers (62.4%) and 52.0% of those who had provided care for COVID-19 patients (vs 60.6% of those who had not) indicated they would take the vaccine if offered (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: We observed that self-reported willingness to receive vaccination against COVID-19 differs by hospital roles, with physicians and research scientists showing the highest acceptance. These findings highlight important heterogeneity in personal attitudes among HCPs around COVID-19 vaccines and highlight a need for tailored communication strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Adult , Attitude , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities , Vaccination
15.
Chest ; 160(4): 1192-1199, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509657

ABSTRACT

Children with asthma grow to become adults with asthma. Adolescents are not simply older children and do not automatically transform into independent adults, nor do they become proficient in self-management of their condition overnight. Adolescence is a high-risk time for many people with asthma, with increased risk of asthma-related morbidity and mortality. Children with high-risk asthma attend hospital-based asthma clinics with their parents until they reach young adulthood, and parents usually take on the significant burden of disease management on behalf of their children. Once patients are transferred to adult medical teams, many will continue to have limited knowledge about their asthma, limited understanding of how to manage their symptoms and comorbidities, and limited comprehension of how and why to take their regular medication. Adolescence is a critical time of change during which young people yearn for autonomy. Effective transition gives young people the skills and knowledge necessary to manage their health independently and provides the substrate for autonomous care, the bed rock of long-term conditions. This review focuses on the challenges of adolescent health care and provides guidance on how to take a planned, patient-centered approach to ensure each transition is effective and safe.


Subject(s)
Asthma/therapy , Transition to Adult Care , Adolescent , Adolescent Health Services , Humans , Medication Adherence , Patient-Centered Care , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(5): 657-667, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510463

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are highly prevalent among men who have sex with men who use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which leads to antimicrobial consumption linked to the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. We aimed to assess use of an antiseptic mouthwash as an antibiotic sparing approach to prevent STIs. METHODS: We invited people using PrEP who had an STI in the past 24 months to participate in this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, AB/BA crossover superiority trial at the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp, Belgium. Using block randomisation (block size eight), participants were assigned (1:1) to first receive Listerine Cool Mint or a placebo mouthwash. They were required to use the study mouthwashes daily and before and after sex for 3 months each and to ask their sexual partners to use the mouthwash before and after sex. Participants were screened every 3 months for syphilis, chlamydia, and gonorrhoea at the oropharynx, anorectum, and urethra. The primary outcome was combined incidence of these STIs during each 3-month period, assessed in the intention-to-treat population, which included all participants who completed at least the first 3-month period. Safety was assessed as a secondary outcome. This trial is registered with Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03881007. FINDINGS: Between April 2, 2019, and March 13, 2020, 343 participants were enrolled: 172 in the Listerine followed by placebo (Listerine-placebo) group and 171 in the placebo followed by Listerine (placebo-Listerine) group. The trial was terminated prematurely because of the COVID-19 pandemic. 151 participants completed the entire study, and 89 completed only the first 3-month period. 31 participants withdrew consent, ten were lost to follow-up, and one acquired HIV. In the Listerine-placebo group, the STI incidence rate was 140·4 per 100 person-years during the Listerine period, and 102·6 per 100 person-years during the placebo period. In the placebo-Listerine arm, the STI incidence rate was 133·9 per 100 person-years during the placebo period, and 147·5 per 100 person-years during the Listerine period. We did not find that Listerine significantly reduced STI incidence (IRR 1·17, 95% CI 0·84-1·64). Numbers of adverse events were not significantly higher than at baseline and were similar while using Listerine and placebo. Four serious adverse events (one HIV-infection, one severe depression, one Ludwig's angina, and one testicular carcinoma) were not considered to be related to use of mouthwash. INTERPRETATION: Our findings do not support the use of Listerine Cool Mint as a way to prevent STI acquisition among high-risk populations. FUNDING: Belgian Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO 121·00).


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Mouthwashes , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control , Adult , Cross-Over Studies , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology
17.
Rechtsmedizin (Berl) ; 31(5): 418-426, 2021.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482197

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Several evaluations of deaths in persons of advanced age associated with SARS-CoV­2 can be found in the international literature. The aim of this work was the evaluation of deaths associated with SARS-CoV­2 of persons of younger or middle age (up to 50 years) at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg, Germany, with presentation of frequency, comorbidities and disease courses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 735 SARS-CoV-2-associated cases of decedents with registered addresses in Hamburg were evaluated in 2020 at the Institute of Legal Medicine in Hamburg, Germany, using various examination methods. The selection and performance of the respective methods was based on the consent given by the relatives. In addition, more autopsies of decedents with a registered address outside Hamburg and positive SARS-CoV­2 detection were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of the 735 decedents 9 with a registered Hamburg address and 3 of the deaths studied with an external registered address (n = 12; 7 men and 5 women) were aged 50 years or younger, with an average age of 39.8 years. Essentially, there were cardiovascular, neurological, and malignant pre-existing diseases, as well as obesity. The SARS-CoV­2 was detected post-mortem for the first time in two cases; these were found to have a virus-independent cause of death. Of the individuals 7 died from COVID-19 pneumonia, 3 individuals from the consequences of the necessary intensive medical treatment.Several studies have demonstrated an association between obesity and severe SARS-CoV-2-related disease progression, particularly in younger patients and this was confirmed in the legal medicine study population.

18.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048109, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We integrated an established participant-centred active vaccine safety surveillance system with a cloud-based pharmacy immunisation-recording program in order to measure adverse events following immunisation (AEFI) reported via the new surveillance system in pharmacies, compared with AEFI reported via an existing surveillance system in non-pharmacy sites (general practice and other clinics). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Individuals >10 years receiving influenza immunisations from 22 pharmacies and 90 non-pharmacy (general practice and other clinic) sites between March and October 2020 in Western Australia. Active vaccine safety surveillance was conducted using short message service and smartphone technology, via an opt-out system. OUTCOME MEASURES: Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the primary outcome: differences in proportions of AEFI between participants immunised in pharmacies compared with non-pharmacy sites, adjusting for confounders of age, sex and influenza vaccine brand. A subgroup analysis of participants over 65 years was also performed. RESULTS: Of 101 440 participants (6992 from pharmacies; 94 448 from non-pharmacy sites), 77 498 (76.4%) responded; 96.1% (n=74 448) within 24 hours. Overall, 4.8% (n=247) pharmacy participants reported any AEFI, compared with 6% (n=4356) non-pharmacy participants (adjusted OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.76 to 0.99; p=0.039). Similar proportions of AEFIs were reported in pharmacy (5.8%; n=31) and non-pharmacy participants (6; n=1617) aged over 65 years (adjusted OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.35; p=0.725). The most common AEFIs in pharmacy were: pain (2%; n=104), tiredness (1.9%; n=95) and headache (1.7%; n=88); and in non-pharmacy sites: pain (2.3%; n=1660), tiredness (1.9%; n=1362) and swelling (1.5%; n=1121). CONCLUSIONS: High and rapid response rates demonstrate good participant engagement with active surveillance in both pharmacy and non-pharmacy participants. Significantly fewer AEFIs reported after pharmacist immunisations compared with non-pharmacy immunisations, with no difference in older adults, may suggest different cohorts attend pharmacy versus non-pharmacy immunisers. The integrated pharmacy system is rapidly scalable across Australia with global potential.


Subject(s)
Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Pharmacies , Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Aged , Australia/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Seasons , Vaccination , Western Australia/epidemiology
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(1): e18611, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455400

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This systematic review protocol aims to examine the evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions for children and adolescents with, or at risk of developing mental disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs). METHODS: We will search Medline Ovid, EMBASE Ovid, PsycINFO Ovid, CINAHL, LILACS, BDENF and IBECS. We will include randomised and non-randomised controlled trials, economic modelling studies and economic evaluations. Participants are 6 to 18 year-old children and adolescents who live in a LAMIC and who present with, or are at high risk of developing, one or more of the conditions: depression, anxiety, behavioural disorders, eating disorders, psychosis, substance abuse, autism and intellectual disabilities as defined by the DSM-V. Interventions which address suicide, self-harm will also be included, if identified during the extraction process. We will include in person or e-health interventions which have some evidence of effectiveness (in relation to clinical and/or functional outcomes) and which have been delivered to young people in LAMICs. We will consider a wide range of delivery channels (e.g., in person, web-based or virtual, phone), different practitioners (healthcare practitioners, teachers, lay health care providers) and sectors (i.e., primary, secondary and tertiary health care, education, guardianship councils). In the pilot of screening procedures, 5% of all references will be screened by two reviewers. Divergences will be resolved by one expert in mental health research. Reviewers will be retrained afterwards to ensure reliability. The remaining 95% will be screened by one reviewer. Covidence web-based tool will be used to perform screening of references and full text paper, and data extraction. RESULTS: The protocol of this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at relevant conferences. The results will be presented descriptively and, if possible, meta-analysis will be conducted. Ethical approval is not needed for anonymised secondary data. CONCLUSION: the systematic review could help health specialists and other professionals to identify evidence-based strategies to deal with child and adolescents with mental health conditions.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/therapy , Child , Humans , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/economics , Systematic Reviews as Topic
20.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(8): 1073-1080, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456490

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 immune response among patients receiving dialysis can define its durability in a highly clinically relevant context because patients receiving dialysis share the characteristics of persons most susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG in seroprevalent patients receiving dialysis. DESIGN: Prospective. SETTING: Nationwide sample from dialysis facilities. PATIENTS: 2215 patients receiving dialysis who had evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection as of July 2020. MEASUREMENTS: Remainder plasma from routine monthly laboratories was used to measure semiquantitative RBD IgG index value over 6 months. RESULTS: A total of 2063 (93%) seroprevalent patients reached an assay detectable response (IgG index value ≥1). Most (n = 1323, 60%) had responses in July with index values classified as high (IgG ≥10); 1003 (76%) remained within this stratum. Adjusted median index values declined slowly but continuously (July vs. December values were 21 vs. 13; P < 0.001). The trajectory of the response did not vary by age group, sex, race/ethnicity, or diabetes status. Patients without an assay detectable response (n = 137) were more likely to be White and in the younger (18 to 44 years) or older (≥80 years) age groups and less likely to have diabetes and hypoalbuminemia. LIMITATION: Lack of data on symptoms or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction diagnosis, cohort of persons who survived infection, and use of a semiquantitative assay. CONCLUSION: Despite impaired immunity, most seropositive patients receiving dialysis maintained RBD antibody levels over 6 months. A slow and continual decline in median antibody levels over time was seen, but no indication that subgroups with impaired immunity had a shorter-lived humoral response was found. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Ascend Clinical Laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Protein Domains/immunology , Renal Dialysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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