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1.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785755

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become an epidemiological threat and a worldwide concern. SARS-CoV-2 has spread to 210 countries worldwide and more than 6,500,000 confirmed cases and 384,643 deaths have been reported, while the number of both confirmed and fatal cases is continually increasing. COVID-19 is a viral disease that can affect every age group-from infants to the elderly-resulting in a wide spectrum of various clinical manifestations. COVID-19 might present different degrees of severity-from mild or even asymptomatic carriers, even to fatal cases. The most common complications include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Fever, dry cough, muscle weakness, and chest pain are the most prevalent and typical symptoms of COVID-19. However, patients might also present atypical symptoms that can occur alone, which might indicate the possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize all of the findings regarding clinical manifestations of COVID-19 patients, which include respiratory, neurological, olfactory and gustatory, gastrointestinal, ophthalmic, dermatological, cardiac, and rheumatologic manifestations, as well as specific symptoms in pediatric patients.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 681449, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314554

ABSTRACT

Immunosenescence is a process associated with aging that leads to dysregulation of cells of innate and adaptive immunity, which may become dysfunctional. Consequently, older adults show increased severity of viral and bacterial infections and impaired responses to vaccinations. A better understanding of the process of immunosenescence will aid the development of novel strategies to boost the immune system in older adults. In this review, we focus on major alterations of the immune system triggered by aging, and address the effect of chronic viral infections, effectiveness of vaccination of older adults and strategies to improve immune function in this vulnerable age group.


Subject(s)
Aging/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Immunity , Virus Diseases/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Age Factors , Animals , Clinical Decision-Making , Disease Management , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Humans , Immune System/immunology , Immune System/metabolism , Immunity, Innate , Virus Diseases/therapy , Virus Diseases/virology
3.
Front Psychol ; 12: 609893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1211849

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 severity and mortality risk are greater for older adults whereas economic impact is deeper for younger adults. Using the Health Belief Model (HBM) as a framework, this study used a web-based survey to examine how perceived COVID-19 susceptibility and severity and perceived efficacy of recommended health behaviors varied by age group and were related to the adoption of health behaviors. Proportional odds logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between age group and perceived COVID-19 susceptibility, severity, impact, and health behavior efficacy and adoption. Structural equation modeling based on HBM constructs examined the relationships between health beliefs and behaviors. Data from 820 participants (Ontario, Canada) were analyzed (age: 42.7, 16.2 years; 79% women). Middle-aged and older adults reported greater concerns about the personal risk of hospitalization and mortality, economic impact, and social impact of COVID-19 than young adults. Middle-aged adults also reported greatest concern for other age groups. Adoption and perceived efficacy of health behaviors was similar across age groups with few exceptions. Both middle-aged and older-adults were more likely to perceive their own and each other's age groups as responding adequately to COVID-19 compared to young adults. Structural equation modeling indicated perceived benefits of health behaviors were the primary driver of behavior uptake, with socioeconomic factors and perceived severity and susceptibility indirectly associated with uptake through their influence on perceived benefits. Overall, these results suggest adoption of health behaviors is very high with few differences between age groups, despite differences in perceived impact of COVID-19. Public health communications should focus on the benefits of health behaviors to drive adoption.

4.
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol ; 55(5): 272-278, 2020.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196758

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze differences by age group in anxiety, depression, loneliness and comorbid anxiety and depression in young people, middle aged adults and older adults during the lock-down period at home due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and to explore the association between negative self-perceptions of aging and psychological symptoms controlling by age group. METHOD: Participants are 1501 people (age range 18 to 88 years). Anxiety, sadness, loneliness and self-perceptions of aging were assessed. The sample was divided according to the age group and quartiles (lower, intermediate levels, and higher) of anxiety, sadness, loneliness and self-perceptions of aging. RESULTS: Older adults reported lower levels of anxiety and sadness than middle aged adults, and middle aged adults reported lower levels than younger participants. Middle aged adults reported the lowest loneliness, followed by older adults and younger participants. For each age group, those with more negative self-perceptions of aging reported higher anxiety, sadness and loneliness. More comorbid anxiety and sadness was found in younger adults and less in older adults; more depressed participants in the middle aged group, and more older adults and less younger participants were found in the group with the lowest levels of anxiety and sadness. For all the age groups, participants with high levels of comorbid anxiety and sadness are those who report the highest scores in negative self-perceptions of aging. CONCLUSIONS: Older adults reported lower psychological anxiety, sadness and loneliness than the other age groups. Having negative self-perceptions of aging damage psychological health irrespective of the chronological age.


Subject(s)
Aging/psychology , Anxiety/complications , Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections , Depression/complications , Depression/psychology , Loneliness/psychology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Quarantine/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Self Concept , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Young Adult
5.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(4): 488-494, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1132956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in Japan in January 2020 and has spread throughout the country. Previous studies have reported that viral interference among influenza virus, rhinovirus, and other respiratory viruses can affect viral infections at the host and population level. METHODS: To investigate the impact of COVID-19 on influenza and other respiratory virus infections, we analyzed clinical specimens collected from 2244 patients in Japan with respiratory diseases between January 2018 and September 2020. RESULTS: The frequency of influenza and other respiratory viruses (coxsackievirus A and B; echovirus; enterovirus; human coronavirus 229E, HKU1, NL63, and OC43; human metapneumovirus; human parainfluenza virus 1, 2, 3, and 4; human parechovirus; human respiratory syncytial virus; human adenovirus; human bocavirus; human parvovirus B19; herpes simplex virus type 1; and varicella-zoster virus) was appreciably reduced among all patients during the COVID-19 pandemic except for that of rhinovirus in children younger than 10 years, which was appreciably increased. COVID-19 has not spread among this age group, suggesting an increased risk of rhinovirus infection in children. CONCLUSIONS: Rhinovirus infections should be continuously monitored to understand their increased risk during the COVID-19 pandemic and viral interference with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus/isolation & purification , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Picornaviridae Infections/diagnosis , Picornaviridae Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/isolation & purification
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100119

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health status of healthcare professionals (HCPs) and undergraduate students in the health sciences center (HSCUs). In addition, it explored the factors associated with the increased levels of mental health burden among the study population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed using two online-administered questionnaires: the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7), which were distributed in parallel to HCPs and HSCUs in Kuwait. These instruments are validated assessment scales to assess mental health status: depression (PHQ-9) and anxiety (GAD-7). Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS- version 25. RESULTS: A total of 857 individuals (559 HCPs and 298 HSCUs) participated in this study. The prevalence of moderately severe depression or severe depression (PHQ-9 total score of ≥15) among respondents was 66.6%. The median (interquartile range, IQR) PHQ-9 score was significantly higher among HSCUs (20 {11.5}) compared to HCPs (17 {8}). The prevalence of severe anxiety (GAD-7 total score of ≥15) among respondents was 36.7%. There were no significant differences between the median (IQR) GAD-7 scores among the HCPs (14 {7}) and HSCUs (13 {8}). Binary logistic regression analysis revealed that three variables were significantly and independently associated with severe depression among HCPs. The prevalence of severe depression was found to be greater among females compared to males. In addition, it was significantly lower among those who were aged ≥50 years, and those who reported that they were not in direct contact with COVID-19 patients. Among HSCUs, females showed greater depression than males. In contrast, those aged >29 years and who had no history of chronic disease showed lower depression compared to their counterparts in the 18-29 years age group and who had a chronic disease history. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative impact on the mental health of HCPs and HSCUs in Kuwait. This highlights the need for proactive efforts to support their mental health and well-being through educational campaigns and psychological support programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Students/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Status , Humans , Kuwait/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
BMJ ; 372: n188, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1096979

ABSTRACT

The proportion of the global population aged 65 and older is rapidly increasing. Infections in this age group, most recently with SARS-CoV-2, cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Major improvements have been made in vaccines for older people, either through the addition of novel adjuvants-as in the new recombinant zoster vaccine and an adjuvanted influenza vaccine-or by increasing antigen concentration, as in influenza vaccines. In this article we review improvements in immunization for the three most important vaccine preventable diseases of aging. The recombinant zoster vaccine has an efficacy of 90% that is minimally affected by the age of the person being vaccinated and persists for more than four years. Increasing antigen dose or inclusion of adjuvant has improved the immunogenicity of influenza vaccines in older adults, although the relative effectiveness of the enhanced influenza vaccines and the durability of the immune response are the focus of ongoing clinical trials. Conjugate and polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines have similar efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal pneumonia caused by vaccine serotypes in older adults. Their relative value varies by setting, depending on the prevalence of vaccine serotypes, largely related to conjugate vaccine coverage in children. Improved efficacy will increase public confidence and uptake of these vaccines. Co-administration of these vaccines is feasible and important for maximal uptake in older people. Development of new vaccine platforms has accelerated following the arrival of SARS-CoV-2, and will likely result in new vaccines against other pathogens in the future.


Subject(s)
Herpes Zoster Vaccine/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Immunosenescence/immunology , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Case Rep Pediatr ; 2021: 8855962, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paediatric healthcare specialists are concerned about the secondary effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on children. We report a case of acute respiratory distress in a healthy toddler whose healthcare providers were sidetracked from the correct diagnosis by suspicion of COVID-19. Case Presentation. The patient was a 20-month-old healthy boy. In the morning, he had coughed while drinking milk. He was asymptomatic for the day but presented with acute respiratory distress when lying down in the evening. An ambulance was called, and he was taken to a tertiary hospital's paediatric emergency department, where his condition and oxygen saturation fluctuated. He had mildly elevated temperature and petechiae on his trunk, showed asymmetrical radiographic and auscultatory pulmonary findings, and did not tolerate any exertion. Pneumonia was suspected, SARS-CoV-2 was considered as potential causative agent, and the child was admitted to a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit. As the patient did not show clear signs of infection or bronchial obstruction, the events were thoroughly rediscussed with the caregiver next morning. It was then found out that the child had also been eating cashew nuts. Multiple pieces of cashew nuts were removed from the left bronchial tree in a bronchoscopy. After the procedure, all symptoms promptly resolved. Foreign body aspiration-an obvious cause of acute respiratory distress in our patient's age group-was overlooked by experienced emergency medical care providers and paediatric critical care physicians due to the slightly unusual presentation, incomplete anamnestic information, and a bias to consider COVID-19 in the current exceptional circumstances. CONCLUSIONS: Emergency care providers are instructed to consider all patients with respiratory distress as potential COVID-19 patients. However, the clinical course of COVID-19 infection is usually mild in children. Therefore, alternative causes for serious breathing difficulty are more likely, and all differential diagnoses should be considered in the usual unbiased manner.

9.
BMJ Nutr Prev Health ; 3(2): 205-212, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058065

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 is a global public health emergency resulting in lockdowns, associated diet and lifestyle changes and constrained public health delivery. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impacts of the COVID-19-induced lockdown in Zimbabwe on nutrition, physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking among Zimbabwean population aged ≥18 years. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire to collect information on demographics (age, gender, place of residence, current employment), food system dimensions, diet and physical activity patterns, stress and anxiety, body image perceptions, lifestyle behaviours like smoking, alcohol intake, screen time and ease of access to health services. Results The participants (n=507) were mostly women (63.0%) between the ages of 31 and 40 years (48.1%) and had tertiary education (91.3%). The lockdown resulted in increase in food prices (94.8%) and decrease in availability of nutritious foods (64%). Most (62.5%) of the participants reported a reduction in their physical activity levels. The prevalence of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) was 40.4% and mostly affecting woman (63.5%, p=0.909), 31-40 years age group (49.6%, p=0.886). Based on the Body Mass Index-based Silhouette Matching Test (BMI-SMT) 44.5% gained weight, 24.3% lost weight and 31.2% did not have weight change. The paired samples t-test showed that there was a significant increase in perceived body weight (p<0.001). More than half (59.6%) reported having difficulties accessing medicinal drugs and 37.8% growth monitoring services. CONCLUSIONS: The lockdown period was associated with increase in food prices, decrease in dietary diversification, elevated GAD symptoms, disrupted diet and consumption patterns. There were low levels of physical activity and perceived weight gained during the lockdown period, thus increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. Further studies incorporating participants of different socioeconomic status are warranted to get more conclusive results.

10.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(1): e24502, 2021 01 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041395

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has disproportionately affected older adults and certain racial and ethnic groups in the United States. Data quantifying the disease burden, as well as describing clinical outcomes during hospitalization among these groups, are needed. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe interim COVID-19 hospitalization rates and severe clinical outcomes by age group and race and ethnicity among US veterans by using a multisite surveillance network. METHODS: We implemented a multisite COVID-19 surveillance platform in 5 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers located in Atlanta, Bronx, Houston, Palo Alto, and Los Angeles, collectively serving more than 396,000 patients annually. From February 27 to July 17, 2020, we actively identified inpatient cases with COVID-19 by screening admitted patients and reviewing their laboratory test results. We then manually abstracted the patients' medical charts for demographics, underlying medical conditions, and clinical outcomes. Furthermore, we calculated hospitalization incidence and incidence rate ratios, as well as relative risk for invasive mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and case fatality rate after adjusting for age, race and ethnicity, and underlying medical conditions. RESULTS: We identified 621 laboratory-confirmed, hospitalized COVID-19 cases. The median age of the patients was 70 years, with 65.7% (408/621) aged ≥65 years and 94% (584/621) male. Most COVID-19 diagnoses were among non-Hispanic Black (325/621, 52.3%) veterans, followed by non-Hispanic White (153/621, 24.6%) and Hispanic or Latino (112/621, 18%) veterans. Hospitalization rates were the highest among veterans who were ≥85 years old, Hispanic or Latino, and non-Hispanic Black (430, 317, and 298 per 100,000, respectively). Veterans aged ≥85 years had a 14-fold increased rate of hospitalization compared with those aged 18-29 years (95% CI: 5.7-34.6), whereas Hispanic or Latino and Black veterans had a 4.6- and 4.2-fold increased rate of hospitalization, respectively, compared with non-Hispanic White veterans (95% CI: 3.6-5.9). Overall, 11.6% (72/621) of the patients required invasive mechanical ventilation, 26.6% (165/621) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 16.9% (105/621) died in the hospital. The adjusted relative risk for invasive mechanical ventilation and admission to the intensive care unit did not differ by age group or race and ethnicity, but veterans aged ≥65 years had a 4.5-fold increased risk of death while hospitalized with COVID-19 compared with those aged <65 years (95% CI: 2.4-8.6). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 surveillance at the 5 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers across the United States demonstrated higher hospitalization rates and severe outcomes among older veterans, as well as higher hospitalization rates among Hispanic or Latino and non-Hispanic Black veterans than among non-Hispanic White veterans. These findings highlight the need for targeted prevention and timely treatment for veterans, with special attention to older aged, Hispanic or Latino, and non-Hispanic Black veterans.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Veterans , Population Surveillance/methods , Veterans/statistics & numerical data , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , /statistics & numerical data
11.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(12): 1830-1832, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023644

ABSTRACT

The current knowledge about the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease-2019) pandemic is still limited and is unravelling with the passing days, especially clinical data, and research in pediatric age group. Recently, there is a new and crucial development reported recently among the COVID-19 asymptomatic children, a novel syndrome affecting asymptomatic COVID-19 children, presenting as a hyperinflammatory syndrome which is like Kawasaki disease shock syndrome. The purpose of this correspondence is to discuss some important findings of the syndrome for the better understanding of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Child , Humans , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome
12.
Glob Health Res Policy ; 5(1): 54, 2020 12 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992590

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the epidemiological characteristics of COVID-19 related deaths in Wuhan, China and comprehend the changing trends of this epidemic along with analyzing the prevention and control measures in Wuhan. METHODS: Through the China's Infectious Disease Information System, we collected information about COVID-19 associated deaths from December 15, 2019 to February 24, 2020 in Wuhan. We analyzed the patient's demographic characteristics, drew epidemiological curve and made geographic distribution maps of the death toll in each district over time, etc. ArcGIS was used to plot the numbers of daily deaths on maps. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS and @Risk software. RESULTS: As of February 24, 2020, a total of 1833 deaths were included. Among the deaths with COVID-19, mild type accounted for the most (37.2%), followed by severe type (30.1%). The median age was 70.0 (inter quartile range: 63.0-79.0) years. Most of the deaths were distributed in 50-89 age group, whereas no deaths occurred in 0-9 age group. Additionally, the male to female ratio was 1.95:1. A total of 65.7% of the deaths in Wuhan combined with underlying diseases, and was more pronounced among males. Most of the underlying diseases included hypertension, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The peak of daily deaths appeared on February 14 and then declined. The median interval from symptom onset to diagnosis was 10.0 (6.0-14.0) days; the interval from onset to diagnosis gradually shortened. The median intervals from diagnosis to death and symptom onset to deaths were 6.0 (2.0-11.0), 17.0 (12.0-22.0) days, respectively. Most of the disease was centralized in central urban area with highest death rate in Jianghan District. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 poses a greater threat to the elderly people and men with more devastating effects, particularly in the presence of underlying diseases. The geographical distributions show that the epidemic in the central area of Wuhan is more serious than that in the surrounding areas. Analysis of deaths as of February 24 indicates that a tremendous improvement of COVID-19 epidemic in Wuhan has achieved by effective control measures taken by Wuhan Government.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
13.
Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen ; 140(18)2020 12 15.
Article in English, Norwegian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Advanced age is the most important risk factor for death as a result of COVID-19, but there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the impact of chronic diseases. Using health registry data, we describe the disease profiles of persons who died after a confirmed infection with SARS-CoV-2 during the first three months of the pandemic in Norway. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Data from the specialist health service (Norwegian Patient Registry, NPR) and the primary health service (Norwegian Registry for Primary Health Care, NRPHC) were linked to information on positive tests for SARS-CoV-2 from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases (MSIS) and on deaths from the National Population Register. The data retrieval included the Norwegian population as of 1 March 2020 with data for confirmed infections, hospitalisations and deaths until 31 May 2020. RESULTS: Of 8 412 persons with a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, altogether 244 (2.9 %) died, whereof 133 (55 %) were men. Among those with a confirmed infection, the proportion who died varied from 0.2 % (age < 60 years) to 52 % (age ≥ 90 years). Altogether 92 (38 %) patients died in hospital. 25 (16 %) of those who died elsewhere had previously been hospitalised for COVID-19. The proportion with no registered chronic disease was 39 % in the age group < 70 years and 26 % in the age group ≥ 70 years. The disease distribution varied between those patients who had died in and outside of hospital, especially for diagnoses of diabetes, renal failure and dementia. INTERPRETATION: Among those who had a SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed during the first three months of the pandemic in Norway, only a small proportion died. The majority of those who died were 70 years or older and had at least one chronic disease, but the disease profile varied between patients who died in and outside of hospital. Health registry data can help provide a better overview of and advice to risk groups in the population during an ongoing pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Norway/epidemiology , Risk Factors
14.
Pharmacol Ther ; 221: 107745, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-922109

ABSTRACT

While COVID-19, the disease driven by SARS-CoV-2 has ignited interest in the host immune response to this infection, it has also highlighted the lack of treatment options for the damaging inflammatory responses driven by pathogens that precipitate the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). With the global prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and the likelihood of a second winter spike alongside seasonal flu, the need for effective and targeted anti-inflammatory agents is even more pressing. Here we discuss the aetiology of COVID-19 and the common signalling pathways driven by SARS-CoV-2, namely p38 MAP kinase. We highlight that p38 MAP kinase becomes elevated with increasing age, thereby driving many of the inflammatory pathways that precipitate death in old people with the added drawback of impairing vaccine efficacy in this susceptible age group. Finally, we review drugs available to inhibit p38 MAP kinase, their risks-versus-benefits as well as suggested dosing regimen to combat over-exuberant innate immune responses and potentially reverse vaccine inefficacy in older patients.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , MAP Kinase Signaling System/drug effects , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunity, Innate/immunology , MAP Kinase Signaling System/physiology , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/immunology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 735, 2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835820

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has occurred close on the heels of a global resurgence of measles. In 2019, an unprecedented epidemic of measles affected Samoa, requiring a state of emergency to be declared. Measles causes an immune amnesia which can persist for over 2 years after acute infection and increases the risk of a range of other infections. METHODS: We modelled the potential impact of measles-induced immune amnesia on a COVID-19 epidemic in Samoa using data on measles incidence in 2018-2019, population data and a hypothetical COVID-19 epidemic. RESULTS: The young population structure and contact matrix in Samoa results in the most transmission occurring in young people < 20 years old. The highest rate of death is the 60+ years old, but a smaller peak in death may occur in younger people, with more than 15% of total deaths in the age group under 20 years old. Measles induced immune amnesia could increase the total number of cases by 8% and deaths by more than 2%. CONCLUSIONS: Samoa, which had large measles epidemics in 2019-2020 should focus on rapidly achieving high rates of measles vaccination and enhanced surveillance for COVID-19, as the impact may be more severe due to measles-induced immune paresis. This applies to other severely measles-affected countries in the Pacific, Europe and elsewhere.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Measles/immunology , Measles/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Samoa/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
16.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 491, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-818083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented health and economic impact. Psychological stress, anxiety and depression are affecting not only COVID-19 patients but also health professionals, and general population. Fear of contracting COVID-19, forced restrictive social measures, and economic hardship are causing mental trauma. Nepal is a developing country from South Asia where the COVID-19 pandemic is still evolving. This online survey has been carried out to understand impact of COVID- 19 on mental health of Nepalese community dwellers. METHODS: The COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI) questionnaire adapted from the Shanghai Mental Health Centre was used for online data collection from 11 April-17 May 2020. Collected data were extracted to Microsoft excel-13 and imported and analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version-22. An initial univariate analysis was conducted for all variables to assess the distribution. Logistic regression analyses were done to estimate the odds ratios of relevant predicting variables. RESULTS: A total of 410 participants completed the self-rated questionnaires. Mean age of study participants was 34.8 ± 11.7 years with male preponderance. 88.5% of the respondents were not in distress (score less than 28) while, 11% had mild to moderate distress and 0.5% had severe distress. The prevalence of distress is higher among age group > 45 years, female gender, and post-secondary education group. Health professional were more likely to get distressed. Respondents with post-secondary education had higher odds (OR = 3.32; p = 0.020) of developing distress as compared to respondents with secondary education or lower. CONCLUSION: There is lower rate of psychological distress in city dwellers and people with low education. Adequate intervention and evaluation into mental health awareness, and psychosocial support focused primarily on health care workers, female and elderly individuals is necessary.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Distress , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nepal/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Nepal J Epidemiol ; 10(2): 845-855, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-740486

ABSTRACT

This narrative review of the literature aims to assess the impact of COVID-19 on the younger age group in terms of the Global mortality of COVID-19 in comparison to Nepal. An extensive literature survey of English literature was conducted using Pubmed, Medline, Google Scholar, Embase, WHO Nepal Situation Updates on COVID-19, Situation update report, Ministry of Health and Population-Nepal from January 25, 2020 to June 20, 2020. According to the Ministry of Health and population of The Government of Nepal, as of June 20, 2020, out of a total of 8,605 laboratory confirmed cases reported to date, the pattern shows that most of the cases fell into the cohort of 21-30 years (37.72%), followed by 11-20 years (24.35 %), 31-40 years (21.97%) and 41-50 years (9.2%). To date Nepal has recorded a total of twenty-two deaths. At first evaluation these figures may not strike one as alarming, but on further investigation it is noted that the mean age is 42. 32 ± 19.632 SD years, and out of which male patients accounted for 77.3% and female accounted for 22.7%. The current situation of COVID-19 and how it develops in Nepal should be closely monitored and could be of international concern as it may be the early indicator of a changing pattern in COVID-19 infections. Nepal may therefore act as a global watch dog, due to the fact that the world could very possibly expose the younger age group under the notion that they are more resilient to the virus, when in reality that notion may be changing. This trend must be monitored and further investigated in order to establish the risk of the events unfolding in Nepal.

18.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 35(12): 1437-1441, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694597

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The global COVID-19 pandemic has caused rapid and monumental changes around the world. Older people, who already experience higher rates of social isolation and loneliness, are more susceptible to adverse effects as a result of the social distancing protocols enacted to slow the spread of COVID-19. Based on prior outbreaks, we speculate the detrimental outcomes and offer solutions. METHODS: Reviewing the literature on the detrimental effects of social isolation and loneliness and higher mortality in the older population. Utilizing psychological study outcomes from prior major outbreaks such as in SARS, Ebola, H1N1 influenza, and Middle East respiratory syndrome offer predictions and the susceptibility in the geriatric age group. RESULTS: Organizations such as the WHO, Centers for Disease Control, and American Association of Retired Persons have put measures in place to provide networking on a local, regional, and national level. These efforts are designed to start mitigating such detrimental effects. A necessary follow-up to this pandemic will be gathering data on unique populations such as the geriatric community, to better mitigate adverse outcomes given the certainty that COVID-19 will not be the last global viral outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: The results of worsened social isolation and loneliness is associated with significantly increased morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. Various solutions including virtual interactions with loved ones, engaging in physical activity, continuing any spiritual or religious prayers remotely, and community services to provide aid for the older population are all efforts to minimize social isolation and loneliness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Loneliness , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
19.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(6): 13-19, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622385

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study was undertaken to investigate epidemiological distribution, clinical manifestation, co morbid status, treatment strategy and case fatality index of emerging COVID-19 infection at SMS Medical College Hospital, Jaipur, Rajasthan. It also evaluated efficacy of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) in treatment of patients and risk of serious adverse outcomes in patients with COVID-19 in relation to their co morbid status. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an attempt to provide extensive information pertaining to epidemiological and clinical characteristics of COVID-19, the present study was undertaken on 522 patients. The patients were COVID-19 confirmed positive by genomic analysis through Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) at SMS Medical College and Attached Hospitals, Jaipur. The indoor admitted patient's information inclusive of demographic profile (age, sex, nationality, residence), date of confirmation for positive COVID-19 case, travel/ exposure history, date of recovery/ death, clinical features, co morbidities and treatment plan was recorded. A serial follow-up of recovered patients to evaluate infective period of the disease was also part of the study. RESULTS: A total of 522 patients of laboratory confirmed COVID-19 test by RT-PCR at SMS Hospitals, Jaipur were assessed. Among the confirmed cases, most of patients were young adult in the age group with mean age of 35.42 years. 22.41% patients were below 20 years of age, majority of patients (58.80%) were in the age range of 21 to 50 years and only 18.79% patient population was in the age range of above 50 years. Females (39.08%) were affected less than males (60.91%) with an average sex ratio of female: male being 0.64. Out of the total analyzed patients, only 24.32% patients were symptomatic, among them fever (55.90%), cough (52.75%), sore throat (49.60%) and shortness of breath (46.45%) were the most common presenting clinical manifestations while a few patients also had symptoms of headache (26.77%), chest pain (6.29%) and other symptoms (7.87%) like pain abdomen, fatigue, joints pain, altered sensorium etc. Most of symptomatic patients belonging to older age group. An average of 40.40% patient population of above 50 years of age, were symptomatic while none of the patients below 10 years of age were symptomatic. 13.98% patients had some or the other underlying co morbid disease. The most prevalent co morbidity was hypertension (42.46%) followed by Diabetes mellitus (39.72%), Old k-chest (20.54%), COPD/ Bronchial Asthma (16.43%), Coronary artery disease (13.69%), Chronic kidney disease (13.69%) and Valvular heart disease (6.84%) distributed in co morbid patients of COVID-19. 60.27% of patient population with underlying co morbid conditions were more prone to develop symptomatology complex as compared to that observed in patients with no co morbidity (18.42%). 116 patients had recovered with effective treatment till the date of data analysis. Time of recovery was counted from the date of positive report to 1st negative report of oropharyngeal sample by RT-PCR for COVID-19 with an average recovery time of 8.15 days. 23.27% patients recovered within 5 days, while 52.58% patients took about 6-10 days, 23.27% patients took 11-15 days and remaining 0.86% took more than 16 days to recover. In the present study 15 patients had died till analysis of data, among the deceased, 73.33% were above 50 year of age with a male preponderance (66.6%). Interestingly, all deceased (100%) had presented with clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and all had underlying multiple co morbid conditions. Majority of patients had early mortality after admission to hospital with two third death account in initial three days. Asymptomatic patients (cases) treated with HCQ recovered early (average recovery time =5.4 days) compared to asymptomatic patients who did not receive any treatment (control group) and had longer recovery time (average recovery time =7.6 days). CONCLUSION: The varied spectra of COVID-19 mostly affects young adult age group (third to fifth decades of life). Interestingly, early age group was also affected in significant proportion when compared with similar data from other countries. It was observed that male population seemed to be was more prone to getting infected. Majority of COVID-19 positive patients (nearly three-fourth) were asymptomatic (mostly in young age range) at the time of diagnosis, which poses a major challenge for health care workers. Fever, cough, sore throat and shortness of breath were major symptoms that could be detected in such COVID-19 patients. Symptomatic clinical manifestations were more common in old age population. Infectivity was higher in patients that had underlying co morbid disease, especially in patients with multiple co morbid conditions. Symptomatic presentation of COVID-19 was observed to be higher in patients with co morbid disease. Average recovery time from COVID-19 was 8 days with effective treatment. Mortality in COVID-19 was higher in old age population, male gender, symptomatic and co morbid patients as compared to other similarly matched group. Most of mortality was noted within first few days of admission, suggestive of early mortality due to the primary disease process. Treatment with HCQ had early recovery without effectively influencing the overall mortality.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
20.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(Suppl 1): S28-S32, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-305130

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel Corona Virus pandemic beginning from Wuhan, China primarily affects the respiratory tract but its has impacted clinical practice across a range of specialities including neurology. We review the bearing of the 2019 NCoV infection on neurological practice. Neurological manifestations are less common than respiratory manifestations, yet conspicuous, affecting nearly over a third of hospitalized individuals. These may be classified in to early - headache, dizziness, hyposmia and hypogeusia and late - encephalopathy. Rarely but surely, a very small proportion of infected individuals might present with stroke. Certain neurological conditions, including cerebrovascular disease in both China and Italy and dementia in Italy predispose to infection and more severe manifestations, requiring intensive care unit admission. There is no convincing evidence that the manifestations, course and outcome of various neurological disorders is impacted by 2019 nCoV infection. Concerns of an increased risk of febrile seizures offset by a reduced frequency of infection in the paediatric age group. Individuals with multiple sclerosis might potentially experience both true and pseudorelapses. Besides a direct effect, 2019 nCoV has tremendously affected neurological care by disrupting the continuity of care and the availability of neurological medicines worldwide. Neurologists should respond to this challenge by developing and sustaining innovative methods of providing care as well as alerting the society at large to adopt measures to contain the spread of 2019 nCoV.

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