Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 31
Filter
1.
Front Psychol ; 11: 578562, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1756449

ABSTRACT

Prior research suggests that the pandemic coronavirus pushes all the "hot spots" for risk perceptions, yet both governments and populations have varied in their responses. As the economic impacts of the pandemic have become salient, governments have begun to slash their budgets for mitigating other global risks, including climate change, likely imposing increased future costs from those risks. Risk analysts have long argued that global environmental and health risks are inseparable at some level, and must ultimately be managed systemically, to effectively increase safety and welfare. In contrast, it has been suggested that we have worry budgets, in which one risk crowds out another. "In the wild," our problem-solving strategies are often lexicographic; we seek and assess potential solutions one at a time, even one attribute at a time, rather than conducting integrated risk assessments. In a U.S. national survey experiment in which participants were randomly assigned to coronavirus or climate change surveys (N = 3203) we assess risk perceptions, and whether risk perception "hot spots" are driving policy preferences, within and across these global risks. Striking parallels emerge between the two. Both risks are perceived as highly threatening, inequitably distributed, and not particularly controllable. People see themselves as somewhat informed about both risks and have moral concerns about both. In contrast, climate change is seen as better understood by science than is pandemic coronavirus. Further, individuals think they can contribute more to slowing or stopping pandemic coronavirus than climate change, and have a greater moral responsibility to do so. Survey assignment influences policy preferences, with higher support for policies to control pandemic coronavirus in pandemic coronavirus surveys, and higher support for policies to control climate change risks in climate change surveys. Across all surveys, age groups, and policies to control either climate change or pandemic coronavirus risks, support is highest for funding research on vaccines against pandemic diseases, which is the only policy that achieves majority support in both surveys. Findings bolster both the finite worry budget hypothesis and the hypothesis that supporters of policies to confront one threat are disproportionately likely also to support policies to confront the other threat.

2.
Am J Psychoanal ; 80(3): 342-353, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387599

ABSTRACT

This paper explores the relationship between human desire, technology, and imagination, emphasizing (1) the phenomenology of this relationship, and (2) its ontological and ecological ramifications. Drawing on the work of Bion and Winnicott, the paper will develop a psychoanalytic container for attitudes contributing to our current climate-based crisis, paying special attention to the problematic effect technology has had on our sense of time and place. Many of our technologies stunt sensuous engagement, collapse psychic space, diminish our capacity to tolerate frustration, and blind us to our dependence on worlds beyond the human. In short, our technologies trouble our relationship to our bodies and other bodies. The paper argues that omnipotent fantasies organizing our relationship to technology, to each other, and to the nonhuman world, have cocooned us in a kind of virtual reality that devastates a sense of deep obligation to the environment.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychoanalytic Interpretation , Psychoanalytic Therapy/trends , Social Isolation/psychology , Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy/trends , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Climate Change , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Environmental Psychology/trends , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Psychoanalytic Theory , Psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Technology Transfer
3.
Emerg Top Life Sci ; 4(5): 539-549, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387508

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the world has woken up to the importance of biosecurity and the need to manage international borders. Yet strong sectorial identities exist within biosecurity that are associated with specific international standards, individual economic interests, specific research communities, and unique stakeholder involvement. Despite considerable research addressing human, animal, plant, and environmental health, the science connections between these sectors remain quite limited. One Biosecurity aims to address these limitations at global, national, and local scales. It is an interdisciplinary approach to biosecurity policy and research that builds on the interconnections between human, animal, plant, and environmental health to effectively prevent and mitigate the impacts of invasive alien species. It provides an integrated perspective to address the many biosecurity risks that transcend the traditional boundaries of health, agriculture, and the environment. Individual invasive alien plant and animal species often have multiple impacts across sectors: as hosts of zoonotic parasites, vectors of pathogens, pests of agriculture or forestry, as well as threats to biodiversity and ecosystem function. It is time these risks were addressed in a systematic way. One Biosecurity is essential to address several major sociological and environmental challenges to biosecurity: climate change, increasing urbanisation, agricultural intensification, human global mobility, loss of technical capability as well as public resistance to pesticides and vaccines. One Biosecurity will require the bringing together of taxonomists, population biologists, modellers, economists, chemists, engineers, and social scientists to engage in a new agenda that is shaped by politics, legislation, and public perceptions.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Environmental Health , One Health , Animals , COVID-19 , Climate Change , Humans , Pandemics , Plants , SARS-CoV-2 , Urbanization
4.
Science ; 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282048

ABSTRACT

As climate change intensifies, civil society is increasingly calling for transformative adaptation that redresses drivers of climate vulnerability. We review trends in how U.S. federal government, private industry and civil society are planning for climate adaptation. We find growing divergence in their approaches and impacts. This incoherence increases maladaptive investment in climate-blind infrastructure, justice-blind reforms in financial and professional sectors, and greater societal vulnerability to climate impacts. If these actors were to proactively and deliberatively engage in transformative adaptation, they would need to address the material, relational and normative factors that hold current systems in place. Drawing on a review of transformation and collective impact literatures, we conclude with directions for research and policy engagement to support more transformative adaptation moving forward.

5.
Global Health ; 17(1): 59, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238728

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely impacting modern human civilization. A global view using a systems science approach is necessary to recognize the close interactions between health of animals, humans and the environment. DISCUSSION: A model is developed initially by describing five sequential or parallel steps on how a RNA virus emerged from animals and became a pandemic: 1. Origins in the animal kingdom; 2. Transmission to domesticated animals; 3. Inter-species transmission to humans; 4. Local epidemics; 5. Global spread towards a pandemic. The next stage identifies global level determinants from the physical environments, the biosphere and social environment that influence these steps to derive a generic conceptual model. It identifies that future pandemics are likely to emerge from ecological processes (climate change, loss of biodiversity), anthropogenic social processes (i.e. corporate interests, culture and globalization) and world population growth. Intervention would therefore require modifications or dampening these generators and prevent future periodic pandemics that would reverse human development. Addressing issues such as poorly planned urbanization, climate change and deforestation coincide with SDGs such as sustainable cities and communities (Goal 11), climate action (Goal 13) and preserving forests and other ecosystems (Goal 15). This will be an added justification to address them as global priorities. Some determinants in the model are poorly addressed by SDGs such as the case of population pressures, cultural factors, corporate interests and globalization. The overarching process of globalization will require modifications to the structures, processes and mechanisms of global governance. The defects in global governance are arguably due to historical reasons and the neo-liberal capitalist order. This became evident especially in the aftermath of the COVID-19 when the vaccination roll-out led to violations of universal values of equity and right to life by some of the powerful and affluent nations. A systems approach leads us to a model that shows the need to tackle several factors, some of which are not adequately addressed by SDGs and require restructuring of global governance and political economy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Global Health/trends , Systems Analysis , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Sustainable Development/trends
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(3)2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215425

ABSTRACT

Background: One Health is a comprehensive and multisectoral approach to assess and examine the health of animals, humans and the environment. However, while the One Health approach gains increasing momentum, its practical application meets hindrances. This paper investigates the environmental pillar of the One Health approach, using two case studies to highlight the integration of environmental considerations. The first case study pertains to the Danish monitoring and surveillance programme for antimicrobial resistance, DANMAP. The second case illustrates the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk in dairy-producing ruminants in Italian regions. Method: A scientific literature search was conducted in PubMed and Web of Science to locate articles informing the two cases. Grey literature was gathered to describe the cases as well as their contexts. Results: 19 articles and 10 reports were reviewed and informed the two cases. The cases show how the environmental component influences the apparent impacts for human and animal health. The DANMAP highlights the two approaches One Health and farm to fork. The literature provides information on the comprehensiveness of the DANMAP, but highlights some shortcomings in terms of environmental considerations. The AFM1 case, the milk metabolite of the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1, shows that dairy products are heavily impacted by changes of the climate as well as by economic drivers. Conclusions: The two cases show that environmental conditions directly influence the onset and diffusion of hazardous factors. Climate change, treatment of soils, water and standards in slaughterhouses as well as farms can have a great impact on the health of animals, humans and the environment. Hence, it is important to include environmental considerations, for example, via engaging environmental experts and sharing data. Further case studies will help to better define the roles of environment in One Health scenarios.


Subject(s)
One Health , Aflatoxin M1/analysis , Animals , Food Contamination/analysis , Humans , Milk
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(18)2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203482

ABSTRACT

Melting snow and ice supply water for nearly 2 billion people [J. S. Mankin, D. Viviroli, D. Singh, A. Y. Hoekstra, N. S. Diffenbaugh, Environ. Res. Lett. 10, 114016 (2015)]. The Indus River in South Asia alone supplies water for over 300 million people [S. I. Khan, T. E. Adams, "Introduction of Indus River Basin: Water security and sustainability" in Indus River Basin, pp. 3-16 (2019)]. When light-absorbing particles (LAP) darken the snow/ice surfaces, melt is accelerated, affecting the timing of runoff. In the Indus, dust and black carbon degrade the snow/ice albedos [S. M. Skiles, M. Flanner, J. M. Cook, M. Dumont, T. H. Painter, Nat. Clim. Chang. 8, 964-971 (2018)]. During the COVID-19 lockdowns of 2020, air quality visibly improved across cities worldwide, for example, Delhi, India, potentially reducing deposition of dark aerosols on snow and ice. Mean values from two remotely sensed approaches show 2020 as having one of the cleanest snow/ice surfaces on record in the past two decades. A 30% LAP reduction in the spring and summer of 2020 affected the timing of 6.6 km3 of melt water. It remains to be seen whether there will be significant reductions in pollution post-COVID-19, but these results offer a glimpse of the link between pollution and the timing of water supply for billions of people. By causing more solar radiation to be reflected, cleaner snow/ice could mitigate climate change effects by delaying melt onset and extending snow cover duration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Environmental Pollution , Ice Cover , Quarantine , Snow , COVID-19/virology , Climate Change , India/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Water Supply
8.
Pediatr Dermatol ; 38(3): 613-616, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1192574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Other medical specialties have studied how their practices influence the environment, but environmental impact studies in the field of dermatology remain limited. With respect to dermatology, vehicle emissions by patients traveling to and from appointments are an important factor influencing climate change. This study was undertaken to determine the greenhouse gas emissions avoided by managing isotretinoin virtually at West Virginia University Hospital. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted during the COVID-19 outbreak from March 25 to December 1, 2020, where travel data were acquired and converted to emission data. RESULTS: 5,137 kg of GHG emissions in CO2 equivalents were prevented by managing isotretinoin virtually during the study period. 49 400 kg of GHG emissions in CO2 equivalents would be prevented annually. This is the emission load released when 24 690 kg of coal are burned. CONCLUSIONS: Environmental impact studies in the field of dermatology remain limited. GHG emissions were significantly reduced by virtually managing isotretinoin at a single institution. The practice of dermatology could reduce its carbon footprint by managing isotretinoin virtually, even in non-pandemic periods. Given that isotretinoin management represents a small percentage of the overall carbon footprint associated with dermatology, dermatologists should identify other conditions amenable to virtual medicine to produce greater environmental impact.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Greenhouse Effect , Carbon Footprint , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Isotretinoin , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Psychol ; 12: 646593, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140663

ABSTRACT

One sector that severely suffers from the outbreak of the coronavirus is carsharing (i.e., short-term car access). The downswing of the carsharing industry may not only experience negative economic consequences but also ecological ones. Carsharing has the potential to reduce emissions, occupied space, and congestion and hence can actively contribute to mitigating climate change. As Bill Gates strikingly states: "Covid-19 is awful. Climate change could be worse." For this reason, it is important to understand which underlying mechanisms drive carsharing usage during the Covid-19 pandemic. The current research has the overall objective to provide deeper insights into the mediating mechanisms that explain carsharing usage intention during the Covid-19 pandemic. In particular, we draw on signaling theory to explore how different claims (environmental claims, safety claims) that prompt two different opposing underlying processes (perceived ecological benefits, perceived physical risk) influence carsharing usage intention. An online experiment employing a 3 (environmental claim vs. safety claim vs. no claim) × 2 (high information diagnosticity vs. low information diagnosticity) between-subjects design with participants acquired by the online panel platform Clickworker was conducted in April 2020. Fictitious labels and fictitious advertisements served as stimulus material and constituted the five experimental conditions. The data were analyzed by a multicategorial moderated mediation analysis and a multivariate analysis of covariance. Results reveal that environmental claims can stimulate perceived ecological benefits, which, in turn, positively affect carsharing usage intention. Interestingly, our research demonstrates that safety claims cannot decrease perceived physical risk in the context of Covid-19 and carsharing. Nevertheless, perceived physical risk has a (marginal) negative influence on carsharing usage intention and hence should not be discarded altogether. The findings of this article offer new insights into the mental processes that guide consumer decision-making during the coronavirus crisis and also offer important policy implications by highlighting the relevance of environmental claims during the Covid-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the negative influence of perceived physical risk on carsharing usage intention points to the need for alternative measures to reduce users' risk perceptions.

10.
One Health ; 12: 100231, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131677

ABSTRACT

Lessons learned from recent pandemics, such as SARS-CoV-2 have illustrated that education and training in a One Health approach, which recognizes the interdependency of the health of people, animals and the environment, are essential in improving preparations for and responses to disease outbreaks. For this reason and others, there is a critical need to provide One Health (OH) training to medical professionals early in their careers. 133 U.S. medical schools were surveyed for the incorporation of OH learning activities. Results showed that 56% of surveyed programs included OH-related subject matter, primarily in the context of preclinical classroom learning. This supports previous findings that OH education efforts in medical schools lag behind veterinary schools, with many veterinary schools already including OH as a central part of their curricula. A two week OH elective course for third year medical students was developed and implemented at Georgetown University School of Medicine. Topics such as emerging infectious diseases, zoonoses, vector-borne diseases, epidemiology, emergency preparedness, the human-animal bond, and effects of climate change on public health were discussed. The 21 participants were surveyed before and after the course regarding their knowledge and understanding of OH. Participation in the course enhanced the students' knowledge of OH and furthermore, the students' perception of the importance of incorporating OH within the curriculum and in their future careers changed significantly. This study provides clear evidence that successful integration of OH material is achievable at low cost through interdepartmental and interdisciplinary collaboration. A more holistic approach to health care that takes into consideration environmental, wildlife, and domestic animal factors, and introduction of concepts such as OH into the medical school curriculum, can help close the educational gaps identified in the surveys.

11.
Sci Adv ; 7(10)2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1119273

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic has resulted in a marked slowdown in greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions. Although the resulting emission reductions will continue to evolve, this will presumably be temporary. Here, we provide estimates of the potential effect of such short-term emission reductions on global and regional temperature and precipitation by analyzing the response of an Earth System Model to a range of idealized near-term emission pathways not considered in available model intercomparison projects. These estimates reveal the modest impact that temporary emission reductions associated with the COVID-19 pandemic will have on global and regional climate. Our simulations suggest that the impact of carbon dioxide and aerosol emission reductions is actually a temporary enhancement in warming rate. However, our results demonstrate that even large emission reductions applied for a short duration have only a small and likely undetectable impact.


Subject(s)
Climate , Greenhouse Effect/prevention & control , Air , Carbon Dioxide/analysis , Internationality , Rain , Temperature , Time Factors
12.
One Health ; 12: 100225, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1071821

ABSTRACT

Meteorological variables, such as the ambient temperature and humidity, play a well-established role in the seasonal transmission of respiratory viruses and influenza in temperate climates. Since the onset of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a growing body of literature has attempted to characterize the sensitivity of COVID-19 to meteorological factors and thus understand how changes in the weather and seasonality may impede COVID-19 transmission. Here we select a subset of this literature, summarize the diversity in these studies' scopes and methodologies, and show the lack of consensus in their conclusions on the roles of temperature, humidity, and other meteorological factors on COVID-19 transmission dynamics. We discuss how several aspects of studies' methodologies may challenge direct comparisons across studies and inflate the importance of meteorological factors on COVID-19 transmission. We further comment on outstanding challenges for this area of research and how future studies might overcome them by carefully considering robust modeling approaches, adjusting for mediating and covariate effects, and choosing appropriate scales of analysis.

13.
Model Earth Syst Environ ; : 1-14, 2021 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056106

ABSTRACT

The main aim of the present study is to disclose the similarities or differences of the climate effects on the COVID-19 outbreak in two countries, which have different climatic conditions. Using the correlation modeling, the results revealed that some climatic factors, such as the ULR, temperature, and CH4 in the UAE and aerosol index and NO2 in Switzerland have positive lagged correlations with the outburst of COVID-19 by intensifying role within - 9, - 7, and - 2 days. The mitigating role was also observed for ozone/solar radiation and temperature/long-wave radiation in the UAE and Switzerland, respectively. The initial hypotheses of the research have confirmed the correlations between new cases of COVID-19 and ULR and aerosol indices in the UAE and Switzerland. However, the main finding revealed that the climate effects on the COVID-19 outbreak show different roles in the different countries, locating in dissimilar climatic zones. Accordingly, the COVID-19 can be intensified by increases of the ULR and temperature in an arid region, while it can be exactly mitigated by increases of these factors in a temperate area. This finding may be useful for future researches for identifying the essential influencing factors for the mitigating COVID-19 outbreak.

14.
Foods ; 10(2)2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048979

ABSTRACT

Legume species are important food sources to reduce hunger and deal with malnutrition; they also play a crucial role in sustainable agriculture in the tropical dry islands of Cabo Verde. To improve the knowledge of the heritage of plant genetic resources in this Middle Income Country, this study had three main goals: (i) to provide a checklist of food legumes; (ii) to investigate which species are traded in local markets and, based on field surveys, to compare species for their chemical, phenolic, antioxidant, and nutritional composition; and (iii) to discuss the agronomic value and contribution to food security in this archipelago. Our results revealed that 15 species are used as food and 5 of them are locally traded (Cajanus cajan, Lablab purpureus, Phaseolus lunatus, Phaseolus vulgaris, and Vigna unguiculata). The role of these species as sources of important minerals, antioxidants, and nutritional components for food security is highlighted, and the native ones (Lablab purpureus and Vigna unguiculata) stand-out as particularly well-adapted to the climate of these islands, which are already experiencing the adverse effects of climate change. We conclude that the sustainable use of these genetic resources can contribute to the reduction of hunger and poverty, thus meeting some challenges of the Sustainable Development Goals.

15.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44: e70, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1034264

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly stressed public health systems around the world and exposed the gaps in health care for underserved and vulnerable populations. In the context of the social determinants of health, focusing on health system preparedness is paramount for protecting the health of all of society. Faced with old threats (e.g., re-emergence of measles), disruptive new technologies (e.g., electronic cigarettes), increased challenges (e.g. drug-resistant organisms), and new threats (e.g., the current pandemic, climate change, politicized misinformation), our health systems must be robust and resilient. The response must include those who now suffer disproportionately-the poor and the vulnerable. Current World Health Organization priorities call for infrastructures capable of detecting, monitoring, and responding to health emergencies, such as COVID-19, and the health impacts of climate change in the context of health for all. Health care infrastructure can be better prepared and more equitable if systems are strengthened by building on core competencies and following the recommendations made for leadership, stakeholder involvement, accreditation, data collection, and funding resources. Ensuring health equity in a pandemic requires robust and resilient public health infrastructure during normal times.


La pandemia de COVID-19 ha sometido a una gran exigencia a los sistemas de salud pública de todo el mundo y ha puesto de manifiesto las deficiencias de la atención de la salud de las poblaciones desatendidas y vulnerables. En el contexto de los determinantes sociales de la salud, es fundamental centrarse en la preparación del sistema de salud para proteger la salud de toda la sociedad. Frente a las viejas amenazas (p. ej., la reaparición del sarampión), las nuevas tecnologías perturbadoras (p. ej., los cigarrillos electrónicos), los mayores desafíos (p. ej., los microorganismos resistentes a los medicamentos) y las nuevas amenazas ­la pandemia actual, el cambio climático, la politización de la información y la desinformación sobre la salud­ nuestros sistemas de salud deben ser sólidos y resilientes. Su respuesta debe incluir a quienes ahora sufren de manera desproporcionada, los pobres y los vulnerables. Las prioridades actuales de la Organización Mundial de la Salud requieren infraestructuras capaces de detectar, vigilar y responder a las emergencias sanitarias, como la COVID-19, y a los efectos del cambio climático sobre la salud en el contexto de la salud para todos. Si se fortalecen los sistemas de salud reforzando sus competencias básicas y siguiendo las recomendaciones formuladas en materia de liderazgo, participación de los interesados, acreditación, recolección de datos y recursos de financiación la infraestructura de atención de la salud estará mejor preparada y será más equitativa. Para garantizar la equidad en la salud en una pandemia se requiere una infraestructura de salud pública sólida y resiliente en épocas normales.


Em todo o mundo, a pandemia da COVID-19 tem colocado ênfase significativa nos sistemas públicos de saúde e exposto as lacunas nos cuidados em saúde para populações carentes e vulneráveis. No contexto dos determinantes sociais da saúde, o foco na prontidão dos sistemas de saúde é fundamental para a proteção de toda a sociedade. Diante de antigas ameaças (por exemplo, o ressurgimento do sarampo), novas tecnologias disruptivas (por exemplo, cigarros eletrônicos), maiores desafios (por exemplo, organismos resistentes a drogas) e novas ameaças - a atual pandemia, as mudanças climáticas, a politização da informação/informação sobre saúde - os sistemas de saúde devem ser robustos e resilientes. A resposta desses sistemas deve incluir grupos que agora sofrem de forma desproporcional, os pobres e os vulneráveis. As prioridades atuais da Organização Mundial da Saúde exigem infraestruturas capazes de detectar, monitorar e responder a emergências de saúde como a COVID-19 e aos impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a saúde no contexto da saúde para todos. A infraestrutura de saúde estará mais bem preparada e será mais equitativa se os sistemas forem fortalecidos com base em competências essenciais e seguirem recomendações com foco em liderança, envolvimento das partes interessadas, acreditação, coleta de dados e recursos de financiamento. Garantir a equidade na saúde em uma pandemia requer uma infraestrutura pública de saúde robusta e resiliente, mesmo em tempos normais.

16.
Healthc Pap ; 19(3): 61-66, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-994284

ABSTRACT

The impacts of climate change can already be seen among many of the patients in our clinics and emergency rooms, and as with all disasters, the most impoverished and marginalized members of society are the hardest hit. The health system has a social accountability role to anticipate and respond to the evolving health needs of our society. We are the stewards of this planet, steering the course through current and future challenges. What we do now will determine what the world will be like for our children and grandchildren. At times like this, more than ever before, health workers around the world must unite and engage in contributing to shaping future policy directions and monitoring progress to create a post-COVID world where social accountability and sustainable development go hand in hand.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Family , Government Programs , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Responsibility
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 759: 144312, 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966166

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the SARS-COV-2 outbreak in Brazil, there was a striking difference between the contamination rate in the Amazonian States and the South and the Southeast States. The regions near the Amazon rainforest presented much higher and faster contaminations. This paper attempts to explain this phenomenon through a global analysis of the COVID-19 epidemic in Brazil. It also investigates the relationship between climate conditions and airborne transmission with the evolution of contagion in the Amazonian states. The method of investigation of the spread of SARS-COV-2 in these different macro-environments was based on the analysis of three extensive daily official databases on the number of deaths, the percentage of adherence of the populations to the restriction policies, and the local climatic conditions. Besides, the social conditions in those States were also taken into account. Then, it was compared the epidemiologic results for States with very different climatic characteristics and that had adopted, almost simultaneously, similar social isolation measures. However, all these analyses were not able to explain the remarkable difference in the evolution of the pandemic among Brazilian regions. So, it was necessary to invoke airborne transmission, facilitated by the very high air humidity, as a decisive factor to explain the faster evolution of contagion in the rainforest region. Air humidity seems to be the most important climatic factor in viral spreading, while usual ambient temperatures do not have a strong influence. Another very important result of this analysis was the observation that the onset of collective immunity may have been achieved with a contamination rate of about 15% of the Amazonian population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Humidity , Rainforest , Temperature
18.
Faraday Discuss ; 226: 9-52, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963090

ABSTRACT

Urbanization is an ongoing global phenomenon as more and more people are moving from rural to urban areas for better employment opportunities and a higher standard of living, leading to the growth of megacities, broadly defined as urban agglomeration with more than 10 million inhabitants. Intense activities in megacities induce high levels of air pollutants in the atmosphere that harm human health, cause regional haze and acid deposition, damage crops, influence air quality in regions far from the megacity sources, and contribute to climate change. Since the Great London Smog and the first recognized episode of Los Angeles photochemical smog seventy years ago, substantial progress has been made in improving the scientific understanding of air pollution and in developing emissions reduction technologies. However, much remains to be understood about the complex processes of atmospheric oxidation mechanisms; the formation and evolution of secondary particles, especially those containing organic species; and the influence of emerging emissions sources and changing climate on air quality and health. While air quality has substantially improved in megacities in developed regions and some in the developing regions, many still suffer from severe air pollution. Strong regional and international collaboration in data collection and assessment will be beneficial in strengthening the capacity. This article provides an overview of the sources of emissions in megacities, atmospheric physicochemical processes, air quality trends and management in a few megacities, and the impacts on health and climate. The challenges and opportunities facing megacities due to lockdown during the COVID-19 pandemic is also discussed.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution/analysis , Biomass , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cities , Climate Change , Gases/chemistry , Humans , Particulate Matter/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Vehicle Emissions
19.
Med J Aust ; 213(11): 490-492.e10, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952927

ABSTRACT

The MJA-Lancet Countdown on health and climate change was established in 2017, and produced its first Australian national assessment in 2018 and its first annual update in 2019. It examines indicators across five broad domains: climate change impacts, exposures and vulnerability; adaptation, planning and resilience for health; mitigation actions and health co-benefits; economics and finance; and public and political engagement. In the wake of the unprecedented and catastrophic 2019-20 Australian bushfire season, in this special report we present the 2020 update, with a focus on the relationship between health, climate change and bushfires, highlighting indicators that explore these linkages. In an environment of continuing increases in summer maximum temperatures and heatwave intensity, substantial increases in both fire risk and population exposure to bushfires are having an impact on Australia's health and economy. As a result of the "Black Summer" bushfires, the monthly airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5 ) concentrations in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory in December 2019 were the highest of any month in any state or territory over the period 2000-2019 at 26.0 µg/m3 and 71.6 µg/m3 respectively, and insured economic losses were $2.2 billion. We also found growing awareness of and engagement with the links between health and climate change, with a 50% increase in scientific publications and a doubling of newspaper articles on the topic in Australia in 2019 compared with 2018. However, despite clear and present need, Australia still lacks a nationwide adaptation plan for health. As Australia recovers from the compounded effects of the bushfires and the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the health profession has a pivotal role to play. It is uniquely suited to integrate the response to these short term threats with the longer term public health implications of climate change, and to argue for the economic recovery from COVID-19 to align with and strengthen Australia's commitments under the Paris Agreement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Climate Change , Environmental Exposure , Public Health , Wildfires , Australia , Humans , Pandemics , Particulate Matter , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Development (Rome) ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-947583

ABSTRACT

There are several other pandemics, such as NCDs, obesity and climate change that have been ongoing for a while and are now being severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Are we going to use this convergence as an opportunity to tackle the systemic structures that have been fertile ground for the new COVID-19 pandemic to arise, alongside the older ones? This article will reflect upon the above through a closer look into the intersections between the questions that concern food systems, climate change, health politics and power relations with examples from the Brazilian context. We need inspired, inclusive and compassionate responses to bridge the current mismatch between the size of the problem and the response to it.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL