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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(19)2020 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000263

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The global outbreak of COVID-19set new challenges and threats for every human being. In the psychological field it is similar to deep existential crises or a traumatic experience that may lead to the appearance or exacerbation of a serious mental disorder and loss of life meaning and satisfaction. Courtney et al. (2020) discussed deadly pandemic COVID-19 in the light of TMT theory and named it as global contagion of mortality that personally affected every human being. Such unique conditions activate existential fears as people start to be aware of their own mortality. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to test the mediating effect of existential anxiety, activated by COVID-19 and life satisfaction (SWLS) on the relationship between PTSD symptoms and post-traumatic growth (PTG). We also examined the moderated mediating effect of severity of trauma symptoms on life satisfaction and existential anxiety and its associations with PTG. METHOD: We conducted an online survey during the peak of the COVID-19 outbreak in Poland. The participants completed existential anxiety scale (SNE), life satisfaction scale (SWLS), IES-R scale for measuring the level of PTSD symptoms and post-traumatic growth inventory (PTGI). RESULTS: The effect of PTSD on PTG was found to be mediated by existential anxiety and life satisfaction. We also confirmed two indirect effects: (1) the indirect effect of PTSD on PTG via existential anxiety and life satisfaction tested simultaneously; (2) the indirect effect of life satisfaction on PTG through severity of trauma symptoms. An intermediate or high level of PTSD level was related to less PTG when low and full PTSD stress symptoms strengthened PTG experiences. CONCLUSIONS: A therapeutic intervention for individuals after traumatic experience should attempt to include fundamental existential questions and meaning of life as well as the severity of PTSD symptoms. The severity of traumatic sensations may affect the relationship between life satisfaction and post-traumatic growth.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/psychology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Personal Satisfaction , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Posttraumatic Growth, Psychological , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Poland/epidemiology
2.
Front Psychiatry ; 11: 571876, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895327

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the middle of March, the COVID-19 outbreak has been well contained in China. The prevention and control measures for the outbreak have been downgraded to a normalized level. However, until now, the change in level of psychological health amongst perinatal women during the remission phase of the COVID-19 outbreak has not been investigated in China. The aim of this current study was to assess the symptoms of anxiety, depression, insomnia and quality of life (QOL) in perinatal women and to identify potential risk factors associated with these symptoms. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital-based survey conducted between March 25th till June 5th, 2020 in southern China. Convenient sampling method was adopted. Women's anxiety, depression, insomnia symptoms and QOL was examined through standardized measurements. Multivariate logistic regression and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted for the same. Results: A total of 625 perinatal women completed the study; of them, 195 women (31.2%, 95%CI=27.56%-34.84%) reported anxiety, 120 (19.2%, 95%CI=16.10%-22.30%) reported depression, and 87 (13.9%, 95%CI=11.20%-16.64%) experienced symptoms of insomnia. Previous adverse experiences during pregnancy was a significant risk factor for anxiety (OR=1.628, 95%CI=1.069-2.480, P=0.023), depression (OR=1.853, 95%CI=1.153-2.977, P=0.011), and insomnia (OR=2.160, 95%CI=1.290-3.616, P=0.003). Participants having infected friends/families/colleagues were more likely to report anxiety (OR=2.195, 95%CI=1.245-3.871, P=0.007) and depression (OR=2.666, 95%CI=1.482-4.794, P=0.001). Those women whose regular check-ups were severely interrupted by the COVID-19 were also more likely to experience symptoms of anxiety (OR=2.935, 95%CI=1.701-5.062, P<0.001) and insomnia (OR=2.195, 95%CI=1.098-4.390, P=0.026). Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic does affect the mental health and well being of perinatal women. Increased attention should be paid to women who have infected friends/families/colleagues and those with previous adverse experiences during pregnancy. Coping strategies that relieve psychological stress during the COVID-19 outbreak should be provided to prevent adverse outcomes for women and their infants.

3.
Front Psychol ; 11: 567367, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814736

ABSTRACT

On January 30th 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 pandemic a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Italy has been one of the most affected countries in the world. To contain further spread of the virus, the Italian government has imposed an unprecedented long-period lockdown for the entire country. This dramatic scenario may have caused a strong psychological distress, with potential negative long-term mental health consequences. The aim of the present study is to report the prevalence of high psychological distress due to the COVID-19 pandemic on the general population, especially considering that this aspect is consistently associated with PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, the present study aims to identify the risk factors for high PTSD symptoms, including individual differences and subjective perception of both economic and psychological aspects. We administered an online survey to 1253 participants during the peak period of the contagion in Italy. A logistic regression on the Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) scores was used to test the risk factors that predict the possibility to develop PTSD symptoms due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Gender (female), lower perceived economic stability, higher neuroticism, and fear and consequences of contagion were predictors of high PTSD symptomatology. The results, highlighted in the present study, extend our understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic's impact on the population's mental health, by identifying individuals at high-risk of developing PTSD. This may help with the implementation of specific protocols to prevent the possibility of developing symptoms of PTSD in target populations.

4.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 41(6): 102721, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to have profound effect on global health. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and characterize specific symptoms associated with COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study included 326 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection evaluated at the Emergency Department of the Umberto I Polyclinic Hospital, Rome, Italy between March 6th and April 30th, 2020. In order to assess xerostomia, olfactory and gustatory dysfunctions secondary to COVID-19, a telephone-based a modified survey obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2013-2014 for taste and smell disorders and the Fox Questionnaire for dry mouth were administered to 111 patients (34%) after discharge between June 4th and June 12th. RESULTS: Taste dysfunction was the most common reported symptom (59.5%; n = 66), followed by xerostomia (45.9%; n = 51) and olfactory dysfunctions (41.4%; n = 46). The most severe symptom was olfactory dysfunction with a median severity score of 8.5 (range: 5-10). Overall 74.5% (n = 38) of patients with xerostomia, 78.8% (n = 52) of patients with gustatory dysfunctions and 71.1% (n = 33) of patients with olfactory dysfunctions reported that all symptoms appeared before COVID-19 diagnosis. Overall, the majority of patients reported one symptom only (45.9%, n = 51), 37 (33.3%) reported the association of two symptoms, and 23 (20.7%) patients reported the association of three symptoms at the same time. CONCLUSION: Xerostomia, gustatory and olfactory dysfunctions may present as a prodromal or as the sole manifestation of COVID-19. Awareness is fundamental to identify COVID-19 patients at an early stage of the disease and limit the spread of the virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/virology , Xerostomia/virology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Xerostomia/epidemiology
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e20001, 2020 07 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628148

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Existing health disparities based on race and ethnicity in the United States are contributing to disparities in morbidity and mortality during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. We conducted an online survey of American adults to assess similarities and differences by race and ethnicity with respect to COVID-19 symptoms, estimates of the extent of the pandemic, knowledge of control measures, and stigma. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe similarities and differences in COVID-19 symptoms, knowledge, and beliefs by race and ethnicity among adults in the United States. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from March 27, 2020 through April 1, 2020. Participants were recruited on social media platforms and completed the survey on a secure web-based survey platform. We used chi-square tests to compare characteristics related to COVID-19 by race and ethnicity. Statistical tests were corrected using the Holm Bonferroni correction to account for multiple comparisons. RESULTS: A total of 1435 participants completed the survey; 52 (3.6%) were Asian, 158 (11.0%) were non-Hispanic Black, 548 (38.2%) were Hispanic, 587 (40.9%) were non-Hispanic White, and 90 (6.3%) identified as other or multiple races. Only one symptom (sore throat) was found to be different based on race and ethnicity (P=.003); this symptom was less frequently reported by Asian (3/52, 5.8%), non-Hispanic Black (9/158, 5.7%), and other/multiple race (8/90, 8.9%) participants compared to those who were Hispanic (99/548, 18.1%) or non-Hispanic White (95/587, 16.2%). Non-Hispanic White and Asian participants were more likely to estimate that the number of current cases was at least 100,000 (P=.004) and were more likely to answer all 14 COVID-19 knowledge scale questions correctly (Asian participants, 13/52, 25.0%; non-Hispanic White participants, 180/587, 30.7%) compared to Hispanic (108/548, 19.7%) and non-Hispanic Black (25/158, 15.8%) participants. CONCLUSIONS: We observed differences with respect to knowledge of appropriate methods to prevent infection by the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Deficits in knowledge of proper control methods may further exacerbate existing race/ethnicity disparities. Additional research is needed to identify trusted sources of information in Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black communities and create effective messaging to disseminate correct COVID-19 prevention and treatment information.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adult , African Americans/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(9): e13276, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260421

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 was declared in the last weeks as global pandemic. Currently affecting more than 5 000 000 individuals worldwide, COVID-19 is most commonly associated with symptoms caused by the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As the number of infected individuals increases, we are learning that not only lungs, but also other organs can be affected by the virus. The gastrointestinal symptoms, for example diarrhoea, vomiting, nausea or abdominal pain, are frequent in patients with COVID-19. Moreover, alimentary tract symptoms may precede the respiratory presentation of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This can lead to delayed diagnosis and inappropriate management of infected patients. In addition, SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid can be detected in faeces of infected patients and rectal swabs are even reported to remain positive for a longer period of time than nasopharyngeal swabs. Here, we aim to provide an update on the gastrointestinal involvement of COVID-19 presenting the symptoms that can be encountered in infected patients. We address the role of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), as a functional receptor for SARS-CoV-2, which also was found in the gastrointestinal tract. Finally, we briefly discuss faecal shedding of SARS-CoV-2 and its potential role in the pathogenesis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/statistics & numerical data , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Female , Gastrointestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment
7.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e18811, 2020 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic is rapidly spreading across the world. As of March 26, 2020, there are more than 500,000 cases and more than 25,000 deaths related to COVID-19, and the numbers are increasing by the hour. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the trends in confirmed COVID-19 cases in North Carolina, and to understand patterns in virtual visits related to symptoms of COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of confirmed COVID-19 cases and patients using an on-demand, statewide virtual urgent care center. We collected data from February 1, 2020, to March 15, 2020. Institutional Review Board exemption was obtained prior to the study. RESULTS: As of March, 18 2020, there were 92 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 733 total virtual visits. Of the total visits, 257 (35.1%) were related to COVID-19-like symptoms. Of the COVID-19-like visits, the number of females was 178 (69.2%). People in the age groups of 30-39 years (n=67, 26.1%) and 40-49 years (n=64, 24.9%) were half of the total patients. Additionally, approximately 96.9% (n=249) of the COVID-like encounters came from within the state of North Carolina. Our study shows that virtual care can provide efficient triaging in the counties with the highest number of COVID-19 cases. We also confirmed that the largest spread of the disease occurs in areas with a high population density as well as in areas with major airports. CONCLUSIONS: The use of virtual care presents promising potential in the fight against COVID-19. Virtual care is capable of reducing emergency room visits, conserving health care resources, and avoiding the spread of COVID-19 by treating patients remotely. We call for further adoption of virtual care by health systems across the United States and the world during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Telemedicine/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , North Carolina/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Young Adult
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