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1.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 108(4): 452-460, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509222

ABSTRACT

Bone is not only a mineralized and apparently non-vital structure that provides support for locomotion and protection to inner organs. An increasing number of studies are unveiling new biologic functions and connections to other systems, giving the rise to new fields of research, such as osteoimmunology. The bone marrow niche, a new entity in bone physiology, seems to represent the site where a complex crosstalk between bone and immune/inflammatory responses takes place. An impressive interplay with the immune system is realized in bone marrow, with reciprocal influences between bone cells and haematopoietic cells. In this way, systemic chronic inflammatory diseases realize a crosstalk with bone, resulting in bone disease. Thus, pathogenetic links between chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders and osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and ageing are common. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a general view of the progresses in the field of bone research and their potential clinical implications, with emphasis on the links with inflammation and the connections to osteoimmunology and chemokines.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Bone Marrow , Humans , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress
2.
J Investig Med ; 69(6): 1230-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342804

ABSTRACT

The impact of HIV on influenza-like illness (ILI) has been incompletely described in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, particularly in the post-H1N1 pandemic period. This analysis informs on ILI in an otherwise healthy, predominantly outpatient cohort of adults with HIV in the USA. From September 2010 to March 2015, this multisite observational cohort study enrolled otherwise healthy adults presenting to a participating US military medical center with ILI, a subset of whom were HIV positive. Demographics, clinical data, and self-reported symptom severity were ascertained, and enrollees completed a daily symptom diary for up to 10 days. 510 men were included in the analysis; 50 (9.8%) were HIV positive. Subjects with HIV were older and less likely to be on active duty. Rhinovirus and influenza A were the most commonly identified pathogens. Moderate-severe diarrhea (p<0.001) and fatigue (p=0.01) were more frequently reported by HIV-positive men. HIV positivity was associated with higher gastrointestinal scores, but not other measures of ILI symptom severity, after controlling for age, race, military status, and influenza season. Few were hospitalized. HIV-positive subjects had more influenza B (p=0.04) and were more likely to receive antivirals (32% vs 6%, p<0.01). Antiviral use was not significantly associated with symptom scores when accounting for potential confounders. In this predominantly outpatient cohort of adult men, HIV had minimal impact on ILI symptom severity. Despite similar illness severity, a higher percentage of subjects with HIV reported undergoing antiviral treatment for ILI, likely reflecting differences in prescribing practices.Trial registration number: NCT01021098.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Influenza, Human , Adult , Antiviral Agents , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Male , Outpatients , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/pathology
3.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(4): 831-834, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352774

ABSTRACT

Early clinical experience with COVID-19 vaccination suggests that approved COVID-19 vaccines cause a notably higher incidence of axillary lymphadenopathy on breast MRI compared with other vaccines. Guidelines are needed to appropriately manage unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy detected by MRI in the era of COVID-19 vaccination and to avoid biopsies of benign reactive nodes. This article examines the available data on vaccine-related lymphadenopathy and offers a basic strategy for assessing axillary lymphadenopathy on MRI and guiding management. At our institution, we are adding questions regarding the date(s) and laterality of administration of COVID-19 vaccination to the intake form given to patients before all breast imaging examinations. We consider MRI-detected isolated unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy ipsilateral to the vaccination arm to most likely be related to the COVID-19 vaccine if it develops within 4 weeks of administration of either dose. In these cases, we assess the lymphadenopathy as BI-RADS 3 and recommend that follow-up ultrasound be performed within 6-8 weeks after administration of the second dose. These guidelines may be refined as we acquire further data on the expected time course of axillary lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination. Until that time, this management pathway will help avoid unnecessary biopsies of benign vaccine-related reactive lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Adult , Axilla , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173682

ABSTRACT

Dental health care workers around the world are in a constant state of fear and anxiety because they work in a constrained space of the dental practice. During routine dental procedures, they are exposed to aerosol and splatter. These airborne particles pose a great risk of transmitting contagious infections to health care workers and patients, especially in an era of social distancing due to COVID-19. The current study was conducted to evaluate contamination amount, duration, the distance of aerosol, and splatter produced after cavity preparation using a two-hole and four-hole handpiece. The study was performed on a dental manikin in a dental simulation laboratory at the College of Dentistry, King Faisal University Al Ahsa. The dental manikin was set to a reclined position to simulate the clinical operatory position of the patient for dental restorative procedures. Aerosol and splatter were collected on Grade 1 qualitative cotton cellulose filter paper. These were placed on adhesive tape extending from the headrest of the dental manikin in six different directions (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 o'clock) for up to 60 inches and on certain positions of the operator and assistant such as the chest, head, forearms, upper leg, and inside facemask. Class V cavity preparation was done by the principal investigator at a specific time of 3 min on tooth #11 using a two-hole high-speed handpiece, then on the next day, Class V cavity preparation was performed on tooth #21 by a four-hole handpiece. High volume suction was used throughout the cavity preparation. Immediately after cavity preparation, the first filter paper disc was replaced with new ones in all positions. The second set of filter papers was removed after 30 min. Transparent grids were used to count the contamination area on the filter paper disc. No statistically significant difference was found in the mean amount of aerosol and splatter produced by both handpieces, however, a statistically significant difference was found in an amount of aerosol and splatter produced at a 12, 24, and 36 inches distance immediately after cavity preparation and 30 min after cavity preparation, regardless of the type of handpiece used. It is advisable to refrain from removing the personal protective barriers immediately after the procedure within the vicinity of the dental practice. The use of other adjuncts such as high volume suction to reduce the spread of aerosol and splatter is also recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aerosols , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Suction
5.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933088, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314975

ABSTRACT

Synthetic mRNA and the expression of therapeutic proteins have accelerated vaccine development to prevent infection and heralds a new era in targeted immunotherapy in oncology. Therapeutic mRNA vaccines rely on available tumor tissue for gene sequencing analysis to compare the patient's normal cellular DNA sequences and those of the tumor. Carrier-based mRNA vaccines for cancer immunotherapy are now in development that use delivery systems based on peptides, lipids, polymers, and cationic nano-emulsions. There have also been recent developments in dendritic cell-based mRNA vaccines. For patients with available tumor tissue samples, it is possible to develop mRNA vaccines that result in the expression of tumor antigens by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), resulting in innate and adaptive immune responses. Ongoing developments in mRNA immunotherapy include modifications in the route of administration and combined delivery of multiple mRNA vaccines with checkpoint inhibitors. This Editorial aims to present a brief overview of how mRNA immunotherapy may change the therapeutic landscape of personalized medicine for patients with solid malignant tumors.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Medical Oncology/methods , Precision Medicine/methods
6.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 56-63, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300691

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune connective tissue diseases are a heterogeneous group of clinical entities sharing a common feature-an impairment of structural components like collagen and elastin, arising by autoimmune mechanisms. Because most patients are on a long-term immunosuppressive therapy, which renders them vulnerable to infections, a new challenge appears in front of physicians in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era. Immune mechanisms are substantial for the control and ceasing of viral infections, and their impairment may cause serious complications; however, data from immunosuppressed transplant patients do not reveal a higher frequency or diseases' severity in those infected by COVID-19. Several immunotherapies used to treat autoimmune connective tissue diseases favorably modulate the immune response of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients. The present review highlights the problems of susceptibility, severity, and therapeutic options in patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationship between autoimmune connective tissue diseases and COVID-19 infection is explained with antiviral protection genes expression, hypercytokinemia, and lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation mechanisms. Recommendations concerning therapy for prevention during the pandemic period or in case of concomitant COVID-19 infection are also presented. Clinical trials are ongoing regarding COVID-19 therapy blocking the cytokine response. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dermatomyositis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Scleroderma, Systemic , Vasculitis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/drug therapy , Dermatomyositis/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Scleroderma, Systemic/drug therapy , Scleroderma, Systemic/immunology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Vasculitis/drug therapy
7.
Minerva Surg ; 77(1): 22-29, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 lockdown restrictions in conjunction with the pervasive hospital fear endured by the vast majority of the population played a fundamental role in discouraging access to emergency departments (EDs). We aimed at investigating whether and how the COVID-19 outbreak limited the access to ED and affected urgent surgical activities during and immediately after the 2-month pandemic-related national lockdown. METHODS: Data regarding patients who accessed to the surgical ED were retrospectively collected. Analyzed time-periods included: "pre-COVID-19 era," "COVID-19 era" considered as the period of full national lockdown and "post-COVID-19 era" after easing of lockdown measures. Consecutive emergency surgical procedures and ED admissions before, during and after COVID-19-lockdown were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in overall ED admissions and in all-specialty surgical consultations (P<0.01) throughout the outbreak. Once national lockdown was eased, we recorded a subsequent rebound 5-fold rise of emergency surgical procedures compared to COVID-19 group (P=0.011). Time-to-surgery was significantly greater in "COVID-19 era" and "post-COVID-19 era" compared to "pre-COVID-19" group (22.56±4.78, 75.99±15.89 and 16.73±1.76 hours, respectively) (P<0.01). A raised incidence of postoperative complications emerged in the "COVID-19 era" group (37.5%) compared to pre- and post-COVID groups (9.1% and 12.5%, respectively; P<0.001). Mortality rate in the "COVID-19 era" was 31.3% and 7.5% in "post-COVID-19" group (<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the major reduction of emergency surgical procedures and overall, ED admissions caused by COVID-19 pandemic. The raised rate of postoperative complications and mortality might be likely due to the superior severity of surgical conditions observed in the "COVID-19 era" subjects together with a probable deferred pursuit of medical attention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 33, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant strain on healthcare resources and this requires diligent resource re-allocation. We aim to describe the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) during this period as compared to non-pandemic period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. The study compared the incidence and outcomes of code blue activations over a 3-month period from March to May 2020 (COVID-19 period) with the same months in 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period). The primary outcome of the study was the rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA. The secondary outcomes included incidence of all code blue activation per 1000 hospital admissions, incidence of IHCA per 1000 hospital admissions. OUTCOMES: The rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA was 5.88% in the COVID-19 period as compared to 10.0% in the pre-COVID-19 period [odds ratio (OR), 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26-1.95]. Compared to pre-COVID-19 period, there were more IHCA incidences per 1000 hospital admissions in the COVID-19 period (1.86 vs 1.03; OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.78-4.41). CONCLUSIONS: The study observed a trend towards higher incidence of IHCA and lower rate of survival to hospital discharge during COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-COVID-19 period.

9.
Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) ; 67(4): 307-309, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187222
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(8)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1186896

ABSTRACT

Since the start of the global spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, cancer patients were identified as a specifically susceptible subgroup of the patient population. Several reports have shown that cancer patients have an increased risk of both contracting the infection and of experiencing a more severe disease course, with a rapidly evolving picture associated with higher mortality. The assumption of cancer patients as "COVID-19 vulnerable" has led, irretrievably, to profound changes in the decision making of oncological treatments. Potential justifications for such concerns encompass the cancer-dependent suppression of the immune response, as well as the influence of administration of systemic anticancer treatments, including chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Nevertheless, to date, it is not clear whether the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in cancer patients is safe, given their modulating effects on the immune system, or that they may rather conceal detrimental consequences. Theoretically, on the one hand, ICIs may enhance the immunological control of viral infections through their immunostimulating mechanisms; on the other hand, they could contribute to the hyper-inflammatory phase of COVID-19, worsening its clinical outcomes. In this study, we report the foremost clinical observations on the safety of ICI administration in cancer patients affected by COVID-19.

12.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 51: 102908, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic impact on people with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) continues to worry. The disease modifying therapies in pwMS can add a more severe risk of infection when compared to the general population. Alemtuzumab is an anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody and it is one of the most immunosuppressive drugs used in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a case of Covid-19 infection that occurred in a 24-year-old woman with MS and treated with alemtuzumab. The infection occurred 4 months after administration of the first course of alemtuzumab and had a benign course with subsequent development of antibodies. Furthermore, we present a brief review of the literature on similar published cases. DISCUSSION: We reviewed 17 articles concerning COVID-19 infection in MS patients in treatment with Alemtuzumab. In our case and all screened cases no severe course of disease was noted and no fatality was observed. Systematic compilation of this observation comforts clinicians about the course of Covid-19 infection despite alemtuzumab immunosuppressive treatment CONCLUSIONS: The risk of serious COVID-19 disease in MS patients treated with alemtuzumab is unknown. Physicians need to monitor carefully pwMS treated with alemtuzumab and to consider COVID-19 infection related relapse in the MS patients. Further research is recommended to evaluate the beneficial-risk profile of alemtuzumab in pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Adult , Alemtuzumab/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(5): e04071, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148801

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is known to the world for many years. It is associated with various complications and rarely with pulmonary embolism. However, due to its commonalities of presenting features with COVID 19, it can easily be missed and may be life threatening.

15.
Intern Emerg Med ; 16(3): 549-550, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1130904
16.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(9): 1125-1134, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically challenged the national health systems worldwide in the last months. Dalbavancin is a novel antibiotic with a long plasmatic half-life and simplified weekly administration regimens, thus representing a promising option for the outpatient treatment of Gram-positive infections and the early discharge of hospitalized patients. Dalbavancin is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Many preliminary data seem to support its use in other indications, such as osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, and infective endocarditis. AREAS COVERED: A search in the literature using validated keywords (dalbavancin, Gram-positive infections, Gram-positive cocci, ABSSSI, intravenous treatment, and long-acting antibiotics) was conducted on biomedical bibliographic databases (PubMed and Embase) from 2004 to 30 September 2020. Results were analyzed during two consensus conferences with the aim to review the current evidence on dalbavancin in Gram-positive infections, mainly ABSSSI, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis, highlight the main limitations of available studies and suggest possible advantages of the molecule. EXPERT OPINION: The board identifies some specific subgroups of patients with ABSSSIs who could mostly benefit from a treatment with dalbavancin and agrees that the design of homogenous and robust studies would allow a broader use of dalbavancin even in other clinical settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Ambulatory Care/methods , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Teicoplanin/administration & dosage , Teicoplanin/pharmacology
17.
Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol ; 259(7): 1965-1974, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120695

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Two-year post-operative outcomes of both deep sclerectomy (DS) and trabeculectomy surgery (Trab) augmented with Mitomycin C (MMC) at a single tertiary eye centre. METHODS: Retrospective review of DS + MMC and trabeculectomy + MMC at a single centre between February 2015 and March 2018. Patients with a minimum of 12-month follow-up were included. Post-operative follow-up: day 1, week 1, months 1/3/6/12/18/24. Primary outcomes: changes in intraocular pressure (IOP) and changes in LogMAR visual acuity (BCVA) pre- and post-procedure. SECONDARY OUTCOMES: changes in number of eye drops, number of follow-up clinic visits, post-operative complications and further surgical interventions. Complete success: IOP ≤ 21 mmHg off all IOP-lowering medications. Qualified success: IOP ≤ 21 mmHg on medication. Failure: IOP > 21 mmHg at 24 months or ≤ 5 mmHg on 2 consecutive follow-up visits after 3 months +/- additional incisional glaucoma surgery +/- loss of light perception. Statistical analysis performed using Microsoft Excel + SPSS. RESULTS: 90 eyes: DS + MMC = 46 eyes, Trab + MMC = 44 eyes. DS + MMC v Trab + MMC: mean pre-op IOP = 19.57 mmHg v 18.89 mmHg, significantly reduced at all post-operative time-points for both groups (p < 0.001). Mean IOP reduction from baseline = 33.94% v 38.39%; > 30% IOP reduction = 54.35% v 68.18%. IOP ≤ 16 mmHg = 82.61% (38/46) v 95.46% (42/44), IOP ≤ 12 mmHg = 52.17% (24/46) v 72.72% (32/44). Complete success = 67.39% v 61.36%, qualified success = 26.09% v 29.55%, failure = 6.52% v 9.09%. Post-op BCVA: no statistically significant differences between two groups (p = 0.09). Mean pre-op drops v post-op drops = 2.98 v 0.38 (DS + MMC; p < 0.001); 2.68 v 0.39 (Trab + MMC; p < 0.001). Further surgical intervention = 13% v 29.55%. Mean number of post-op clinic visits DS + MMC v Trab + MMC = 10.09 v 13.02 (p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: Both procedures achieve sustained intraocular pressure and drop reduction at 2 years post-op. DS + MMC has lower complication rates requiring less intervention and significantly fewer clinic visits, which may be an important factor for deciding surgical management of glaucoma patients in the era of Covid-19 to reduce patient/clinician exposure to the virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Trabeculectomy , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intraocular Pressure , Mitomycin , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul) ; 36(1): 30-35, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120166

ABSTRACT

This review highlights the most interesting research in thyroidology conducted in 2020. The publications of interest discussed below dealt with the following topics: thyroid dysfunction, risk of thyroid cancer, molecular diagnostics and new therapeutics for thyroid cancer, and thyroid disease in the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endocrinology/trends , Thyroid Diseases , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
19.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 14(1)2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072792

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Unprecedented workflow shifts during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have contributed to delays in acute care delivery, but whether it adversely affected endovascular thrombectomy metrics in acute large vessel occlusion (LVO) is unknown. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of observational data from 14 comprehensive stroke centers in nine US states with acute LVO. EVT metrics were compared between March to July 2019 against March to July 2020 (primary analysis), and between state-specific pre-peak and peak COVID-19 months (secondary analysis), with multivariable adjustment. RESULTS: Of the 1364 patients included in the primary analysis (51% female, median NIHSS 14 [IQR 7-21], and 74% of whom underwent EVT), there was no difference in the primary outcome of door-to-puncture (DTP) time between the 2019 control period and the COVID-19 period (median 71 vs 67 min, P=0.10). After adjustment for variables associated with faster DTP, and clustering by site, there remained a trend toward shorter DTP during the pandemic (ßadj=-73.2, 95% CI -153.8-7.4, Pp=0.07). There was no difference in DTP times according to local COVID-19 peaks vs pre-peak months in unadjusted or adjusted multivariable regression (ßadj=-3.85, 95% CI -36.9-29.2, P=0.80). In this final multivariable model (secondary analysis), faster DTP times were significantly associated with transfer from an outside institution (ßadj=-46.44, 95% CI -62.8 to - -30.0, P<0.01) and higher NIHSS (ßadj=-2.15, 95% CI -4.2to - -0.1, P=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In this multi-center study, there was no delay in EVT among patients treated for intracranial occlusion during the COVID-19 era compared with the pre-COVID era.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Neurology , Stroke , Benchmarking , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/surgery , Thrombectomy , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
20.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(4): 831-834, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067593

ABSTRACT

Early clinical experience with COVID-19 vaccination suggests that approved COVID-19 vaccines cause a notably higher incidence of axillary lymphadenopathy on breast MRI compared with other vaccines. Guidelines are needed to appropriately manage unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy detected by MRI in the era of COVID-19 vaccination and to avoid biopsies of benign reactive nodes. This article examines the available data on vaccine-related lymphadenopathy and offers a basic strategy for assessing axillary lymphadenopathy on MRI and guiding management. At our institution, we are adding questions regarding the date(s) and laterality of administration of COVID-19 vaccination to the intake form given to patients before all breast imaging examinations. We consider MRI-detected isolated unilateral axillary lymphadenopathy ipsilateral to the vaccination arm to most likely be related to the COVID-19 vaccine if it develops within 4 weeks of administration of either dose. In these cases, we assess the lymphadenopathy as BI-RADS 3 and recommend that follow-up ultrasound be performed within 6-8 weeks after administration of the second dose. These guidelines may be refined as we acquire further data on the expected time course of axillary lymphadenopathy after COVID-19 vaccination. Until that time, this management pathway will help avoid unnecessary biopsies of benign vaccine-related reactive lymphadenopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Adult , Axilla , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
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