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1.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 155(6): 249-253, 2020 Sep 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796343

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Influenza virus infection is associated with a high disease burden. COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has become a pandemic outbreak since January 2020. Taiwan has effectively contained COVID-19 community transmission. We aimed to validate whether fighting COVID-19 could help to control other respiratory infections in Taiwan. METHOD: We collected week-case data of severe influenza, invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae disease and death toll from pneumonia among 25 calendar weeks of the influenza season for four years (2016-2020), which were reported to Taiwan CDC. Trend and slope differences between years were compared. RESULT: A downturn trend of severe influenza, invasive S. pneumoniae disease and the death toll from pneumonia per week in 2019/2020 season and significant trend difference in comparison to previous seasons were noted, especially after initiation of several disease prevention measures to fight potential COVID-19 outbreak in Taiwan. CONCLUSIONS: Fighting COVID-19 achieved collateral benefits on significant reductions of severe influenza burden, invasive S. pneumoniae disease activity, and the death toll from pneumonia reported to CDC in Taiwan.


PROPÓSITOS: La COVID-19, causada por SARS-CoV-2, se ha convertido en un brote de pandemia desde enero de 2020. Taiwán ha contenido efectivamente la transmisión comunitaria de la COVID-19. Por otra parte, la influenza también es una enfermedad que se asocia con una alta carga de morbilidades. El objetivo del estudio es validar si combatir la COVID-19 podría ayudar a controlar otras infecciones respiratorias en Taiwán. MÉTODOS: Recopilamos datos semanales de casos de influenza grave, infecciones invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae y número de muertes por neumonía, que se informaron a los CDC de Taiwán en las 25 semanas de la temporada de influenza durante 4 años (2016-2020). Comparamos las diferencias de tendencia y de pendiente entre los años. RESULTADOS: Se observó una tendencia a la baja de la influenza grave, de las infecciones invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae y del número de muertes por neumonía por semana en la temporada de influenza de 2019-2020. Se observaron diferencias significativas en la tendencia en comparación con las temporadas anteriores, especialmente después del inicio de varias medidas de prevención de enfermedades para combatir el posible brote de COVID-19 en Taiwán. CONCLUSIONES: Por el número de casos reportados a los CDC de Taiwán, encontramos que la lucha contra la COVID-19 logró beneficios colaterales en cuanto a reducción significativa de la carga de la influenza grave, a las infecciones invasivas por Streptococcus pneumoniae y al número de muertes por neumonía.

2.
J Leukoc Biol ; 111(2): 497-508, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669515

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are RNA viruses that cause human respiratory infections. Zoonotic transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus caused the recent COVID-19 pandemic, which led to over 2 million deaths worldwide. Elevated inflammatory responses and cytotoxicity in the lungs are associated with COVID-19 severity in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. Bats, which host pathogenic CoVs, operate dampened inflammatory responses and show tolerance to these viruses with mild clinical symptoms. Delineating the mechanisms governing these host-specific inflammatory responses is essential to understand host-virus interactions determining the outcome of pathogenic CoV infections. Here, we describe the essential role of inflammasome activation in determining COVID-19 severity in humans and innate immune tolerance in bats that host several pathogenic CoVs. We further discuss mechanisms leading to inflammasome activation in human SARS-CoV-2 infection and how bats are molecularly adapted to suppress these inflammasome responses. We also report an analysis of functionally important residues of inflammasome components that provide new clues of bat strategies to suppress inflammasome signaling and innate immune responses. As spillover of bat viruses may cause the emergence of new human disease outbreaks, the inflammasome regulation in bats and humans likely provides specific strategies to combat the pathogenic CoV infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Immune Tolerance , Immunity, Innate , Inflammasomes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Chiroptera , Humans , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Phylogeny
3.
Med J Armed Forces India ; 77: S437-S442, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In late 2019, the world saw a viral outbreak of unprecedented scale that sent a significant fraction of humankind into either quarantine or lockdown. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory tract infection caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which was first recognized in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. METHODS: We created and administered a 17-item questionnaire for health care professionals (HCPs) to assess their level of knowledge towards this ongoing and evolving pandemic. It was disseminated through Web- and mobile-based social networks. The questions were sourced and created from various standard national and international guidelines available at the time of writing. RESULTS: A total of 827 medical personnel participated in the study. Among them, 65.5% scored between 60% and 79%, indicating a moderate level of knowledge. There was no statistically significant difference in the scores of doctors, nursing officers and dental surgeons (p = 0.200). Participants had good knowledge regarding clinical symptoms, mode of transmission and preventive measures. But the study identified some gaps in knowledge in the implementation of management protocols, handling of dead bodies and biomedical waste management of COVID-19 cases. CONCLUSION: With this understanding, regular training, drills and knowledge dissemination along with skill development through learning correct practices focusing on HCP at all levels are the current needs.

4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(8)2021 04 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453251

ABSTRACT

In Italy, the influenza season lasts from October until April of the following year. Influenza A and B viruses are the two viral types that cocirculate during seasonal epidemics and are the main causes of respiratory infections. We analyzed influenza A and B viruses in samples from hospitalized patients at Le Scotte University Hospital in Siena (Central Italy). From 2015 to 2020, 182 patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Infections were enrolled. Oropharyngeal swabs were collected from patients and tested by means of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to identify influenza A(H3N2), A(H1N1)pdm09 and B. Epidemiological and virological surveillance remain an essential tool for monitoring circulating viruses and possible mismatches with seasonal vaccine strains, and provide information that can be used to improve the composition of influenza vaccines.


Subject(s)
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Italy/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Seasons
5.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 12(5): 1045-1055, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474202

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To evaluate the efficacy of multi-component interventions for prevention of hospital-acquired pneumonia in older patients hospitalized in geriatric wards. METHODS: A randomized, parallel-group, controlled trial was undertaken in patients aged 65 and above who were admitted to a tertiary hospital geriatric unit from January 1, 2016 to June 30, 2018 for an acute non-respiratory illness. Participants were randomized by to receive either a multi-component intervention (consisting of reverse Trendelenburg position, dysphagia screening, oral care and vaccinations), or usual care. The outcome measures were the proportion of patients who developed hospital-acquired pneumonia during hospitalisation, and mean time from randomization to the next hospitalisation due to respiratory infections in 1 year. RESULTS: A total of 123 participants (median age, 85; 43.1% male) were randomized, (n = 59) to intervention group and (n = 64) to control group. The multi-component interventions did not significantly reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia but did increase the mean time to next hospitalisation due to respiratory infection (11.5 months vs. 9.5 months; P = 0.049), and reduced the risk of hospitalisation in 1 year (18.6% vs. 34.4%; P = 0.049). Implementation of multi-component interventions increased diagnoses of oropharyngeal dysphagia (35.6% vs. 20.3%; P < 0.001) and improved the influenza (54.5% vs 17.2%; P < 0.001) and pneumococcal vaccination rates (52.5% vs. 20.3%; P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The nosocomial pneumonia multi-component intervention did not significantly reduce the incidence of hospital-acquired pneumonia during hospitalisation but reduce subsequent hospitalisations for respiratory infections. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrial.gov, NCT04347395.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Female , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Clin Virol ; 136: 104754, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385860

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The four seasonal coronaviruses 229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1 are frequent causes of respiratory infections and show annual and seasonal variation. Increased understanding about these patterns could be informative about the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Results from PCR diagnostics for the seasonal coronaviruses, and other respiratory viruses, were obtained for 55,190 clinical samples analyzed at the Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, between 14 September 2009 and 2 April 2020. RESULTS: Seasonal coronaviruses were detected in 2130 samples (3.9 %) and constituted 8.1 % of all virus detections. OC43 was most commonly detected (28.4 % of detections), followed by NL63 (24.0 %), HKU1 (17.6 %), and 229E (15.3 %). The overall fraction of positive samples was similar between seasons, but at species level there were distinct biennial alternating peak seasons for the Alphacoronaviruses, 229E and NL63, and the Betacoronaviruses, OC43 and HKU1, respectively. The Betacoronaviruses peaked earlier in the winter season (Dec-Jan) than the Alphacoronaviruses (Feb-Mar). Coronaviruses were detected across all ages, but diagnostics were more frequently requested for paediatric patients than adults and the elderly. OC43 and 229E incidence was relatively constant across age strata, while that of NL63 and HKU1 decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Both the Alphacoronaviruses and Betacoronaviruses showed alternating biennial winter incidence peaks, which suggests some type of immune mediated interaction. Symptomatic reinfections in adults and the elderly appear relatively common. Both findings may be of relevance for the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Common Cold/epidemiology , Coronavirus 229E, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus NL63, Human/isolation & purification , Coronavirus OC43, Human/isolation & purification , Deltacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Sweden
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl 1): S110-S117, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infections are common, often seasonal, and caused by multiple pathogens. We assessed whether seasonal respiratory illness patterns changed during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We categorized emergency department (ED) visits reported to the National Syndromic Surveillance Program according to chief complaints and diagnosis codes, excluding visits with diagnosed SARS-CoV-2 infections. For each week during 1 March 2020 through 26 December 2020 ("pandemic period"), we compared the proportion of ED visits in each respiratory category with the proportion of visits in that category during the corresponding weeks of 2017-2019 ("pre-pandemic period"). We analyzed positivity of respiratory viral tests from 2 independent clinical laboratories. RESULTS: During March 2020, cough, shortness of breath, and influenza-like illness accounted for twice as many ED visits compared with the pre-pandemic period. During the last 4 months of 2020, all respiratory conditions, except shortness of breath, accounted for a smaller proportion of ED visits than during the pre-pandemic period. Percent positivity for influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parainfluenza virus, adenoviruses, and human metapneumovirus was lower in 2020 than 2019. Although test volume decreased, percent positivity was higher for rhinovirus/enterovirus during the final weeks of 2020 compared with 2019, with ED visits similar to the pre-pandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: Broad reductions in respiratory test positivity and respiratory ED visits (excluding COVID-19) occurred during 2020. Interventions for mitigating spread of SARS-CoV-2 likely also reduced transmission of other pathogens. Timely surveillance is needed to understand community health threats, particularly when current trends deviate from seasonal norms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Virus Diseases , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 23(8): 1436-1440, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19, a respiratory illness due to SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, was first described in December 2019 in Wuhan, rapidly evolving into a pandemic. Smoking increases the risk of respiratory infections; thus, cessation represents a huge opportunity for public health. However, there is scarce evidence about if and how smoking affects the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: We performed an observational case-control study, assessing the single-day point prevalence of smoking among 218 COVID-19 adult patients hospitalized in seven Italian nonintensive care wards and in a control group of 243 patients admitted for other conditions to seven COVID-19-free general wards. We compared proportions for categorical variables by using the χ 2 test and performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to identify the variables associated with the risk of hospitalization for COVID-19. RESULTS: The percentages of current smokers (4.1% vs 16%, p = .00003) and never smokers (71.6% vs 56.8%, p = .0014) were significantly different between COVID-19 and non-COVID 19 patients. COVID-19 patients had lower mean age (69.5 vs 74.2 years, p = .00085) and were more frequently males (59.2% vs 44%, p = .0011). In the logistic regression analysis, current smokers were significantly less likely to be hospitalized for COVID-19 compared with nonsmokers (odds ratio = 0.23; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.48, p < .001), even after adjusting for age and gender (odds ratio = 0.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.06-0.31, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: We reported an unexpectedly low prevalence of current smokers among COVID-19 patients hospitalized in nonintensive care wards. The meaning of these preliminary findings, which are in line with those currently emerging in literature, is unclear; they need to be confirmed by larger studies. IMPLICATIONS: An unexpectedly low prevalence of current smokers among patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in some Italian nonintensive care wards is reported. This finding could be a stimulus for the generation of novel hypotheses on individual predisposition and possible strategies for reducing the risk of infection from SARS-CoV-2 and needs to be confirmed by further larger studies designed with adequate methodology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Pediatr Hematol Oncol ; 44(2): e543-e545, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270767

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Patients with hematologic malignancies have been shown to have higher risk of mortality due to COVID-19 than reported in the general adult population. Reports on acute lymphoblastic leukemia and COVID in children are scarce. We present a case of an 11-year-old male patient undergoing treatment for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with an atypical course of COVID-19. The patient received a positive result of the syndrome coronavirus-2 polymerase chain reaction test performed due to epidemiologic reasons. The chemotherapy was continued since the patient had no clinical signs of COVID-19. The disease started with intensive gastrointestinal bleeding, followed by severe respiratory tract infection over 2 weeks later.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/pathology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Humans , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/pathology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/virology , Prognosis
10.
Minerva Stomatol ; 69(5): 324-327, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267021

ABSTRACT

A new pandemic classified by the World Health Organization and called COVID-19, is causing widespread respiratory infections and deaths in several countries on the five continents. Although it does not have a high lethality rate, this new virus can present rates of complications and hospitalizations in the intensive care unit in up to 20% of patients, especially the elderly and those with compromised health, which can cause a collapse in the health system national public health. Dentistry is one of the most vulnerable professions due to work in the oral cavity, one of the areas with the highest concentration of the virus, therefore having an important role in controlling the disease. The objective of this work is through a review of the current literature, to establish conducts that can reduce the contamination by COVID-19 between the population and the dental team during the service in the public and private health system.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Dental Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infection Control , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 49(4): 334-338, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262653

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although the virus predominantly causes respiratory system infection, recent reports have shown that it is also associated with many cardiovascular complications. It has been reported that COVID-19 may cause myocarditis, type 1 and 2 acute myocardial infarction, and thrombotic complications.[1] Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare form of coronary artery disease that has recently been associated with COVID-19 in a few case reports. The case reported here is of COVID-19 associated SCAD in a patient with no history of cardiovascular disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coronary Artery Disease , Coronary Vessel Anomalies , Vascular Diseases/congenital , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Coronary Artery Disease/virology , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/physiopathology , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/therapy , Coronary Vessel Anomalies/virology , Electrocardiography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Vascular Diseases/physiopathology , Vascular Diseases/therapy , Vascular Diseases/virology
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 524, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), human coronaviruses (HCoVs) have recently attached worldwide attention as essential pathogens in respiratory infection. HCoV-229E has been described as a rare cause of lower respiratory infection in immunocompetent adults. CASE PRESENTATION: We reported a 72-year-old man infected by HCoV-229E with rapid progression to acute respiratory distress syndrome, in conjunction with new onset atrial fibrillation, intensive care unit acquired weakness, and recurrent hospital acquired pneumonia. Clinical and radiological data were continuously collected. The absolute number of peripheral T cells and the level of complement components diminished initially and recovered after 2 months. The patient was successfully treated under intensive support care and discharged from the hospital after 3 months and followed. CONCLUSION: HCoV-229E might an essential causative agent of pulmonary inflammation and extensive lung damage. Supportive treatment was essential to HCoVs infection on account of a long duration of immunological recovery in critical HCoV-229E infection.


Subject(s)
Common Cold/diagnosis , Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , Common Cold/complications , Common Cold/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Mellitus , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/complications , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/drug therapy , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy
13.
Annu Rev Virol ; 8(1): 393-414, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255635

ABSTRACT

Biological sex affects the outcome of diverse respiratory viral infections. The pathogenesis of respiratory infections caused by viruses ranging from respiratory syncytial virus to influenza viruses and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 differs between the sexes across the life course. Generally, males are more susceptible to severe outcomes from respiratory viral infections at younger and older ages. During reproductive years (i.e., after puberty and prior to menopause), females are often at greater risk than males for severe outcomes. Pregnancy and biological sex affect the pathogenesis of respiratory viral infections. In addition to sex differences in the pathogenesis of disease, there are consistent sex differences in responses to treatments, with females often developing greater immune responses but experiencing more adverse reactions than males. Animal models provide mechanistic insights into the causes of sex differences in respiratory virus pathogenesis and treatment outcomes, where available.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/therapy , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Age Factors , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Sex Characteristics , Sex Factors , Viruses/classification
14.
Lancet Microbe ; 2(8): e354-e365, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1253810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Microbiological characterisation of co-infections and secondary infections in patients with COVID-19 is lacking, and antimicrobial use is high. We aimed to describe microbiologically confirmed co-infections and secondary infections, and antimicrobial use, in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: The International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infections Consortium (ISARIC) WHO Clinical Characterisation Protocol UK (CCP-UK) study is an ongoing, prospective cohort study recruiting inpatients from 260 hospitals in England, Scotland, and Wales, conducted by the ISARIC Coronavirus Clinical Characterisation Consortium. Patients with a confirmed or clinician-defined high likelihood of SARS-CoV-2 infection were eligible for inclusion in the ISARIC WHO CCP-UK study. For this specific study, we excluded patients with a recorded negative SARS-CoV-2 test result and those without a recorded outcome at 28 days after admission. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, therapeutic, and outcome data were collected using a prespecified case report form. Organisms considered clinically insignificant were excluded. FINDINGS: We analysed data from 48 902 patients admitted to hospital between Feb 6 and June 8, 2020. The median patient age was 74 years (IQR 59-84) and 20 786 (42·6%) of 48 765 patients were female. Microbiological investigations were recorded for 8649 (17·7%) of 48 902 patients, with clinically significant COVID-19-related respiratory or bloodstream culture results recorded for 1107 patients. 762 (70·6%) of 1080 infections were secondary, occurring more than 2 days after hospital admission. Staphylococcus aureus and Haemophilus influenzae were the most common pathogens causing respiratory co-infections (diagnosed ≤2 days after admission), with Enterobacteriaceae and S aureus most common in secondary respiratory infections. Bloodstream infections were most frequently caused by Escherichia coli and S aureus. Among patients with available data, 13 390 (37·0%) of 36 145 had received antimicrobials in the community for this illness episode before hospital admission and 39 258 (85·2%) of 46 061 patients with inpatient antimicrobial data received one or more antimicrobials at some point during their admission (highest for patients in critical care). We identified frequent use of broad-spectrum agents and use of carbapenems rather than carbapenem-sparing alternatives. INTERPRETATION: In patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19, microbiologically confirmed bacterial infections are rare, and more likely to be secondary infections. Gram-negative organisms and S aureus are the predominant pathogens. The frequency and nature of antimicrobial use are concerning, but tractable targets for stewardship interventions exist. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, UK Department for International Development, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, EU Platform for European Preparedness Against (Re-)emerging Epidemics, NIHR Health Protection Research Unit (HPRU) in Emerging and Zoonotic Infections at University of Liverpool, and NIHR HPRU in Respiratory Infections at Imperial College London.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Respiratory Tract Infections , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology , World Health Organization
15.
Foods ; 10(4)2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241257

ABSTRACT

Influenza A virus induces severe respiratory tract infection and results in a serious global health problem. Influenza infection disturbs the cross-talk connection between lung and gut. Probiotic treatment can inhibit influenza virus infection; however, the mechanism remains to be explored. The mice received Lactobacillus mucosae 1025, Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1026, and their mixture MIX for 19 days. Effects of probiotics on clinical symptoms, immune responses, and gut microbial alteration were evaluated. L. mucosae 1025 and MIX significantly reduced the loss of body weight, pathological symptoms, and viral loading. B. breve CCFM1026 significantly reduced the proportion of neutrophils and increased lymphocytes, the expressions of TLR7, MyD88, TRAF6, and TNF-α to restore the immune disorders. MIX increased the antiviral protein MxA expression, the relative abundances of Lactobacillus, Mucispirillum, Adlercreutzia, Bifidobacterium, and further regulated SCFA metabolism resulting in an enhancement of butyrate. The correlation analysis revealed that the butyrate was positively related to MxA expression (p < 0.001) but was negatively related to viral loading (p < 0.05). The results implied the possible antiviral mechanisms that MIX decreased viral loading and increased the antiviral protein MxA expression, which was closely associated with the increased butyrate production resulting from gut microbial alteration.

16.
Transl Pediatr ; 10(4): 990-997, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory tract infection (RTIs) is one of common diseases among the children. In recent years, the incidence of mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) infection rate has been increasing, which cause respiratory tract infection. This study sought to analyze the epidemiological characteristics of M. pneumoniae hospitalized children with RTIs to provide a theoretical basis for clinical diagnosis and treatments in Chengdu, China. METHODS: The data of 22,882 cases of children who had been hospitalized for RTIs were collected. M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody was detected using the indirect immunofluorescence method and passive agglutination method. The demographic features of patients, clinical diagnoses and laboratory data were also analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 4,213 children tested positive for M. pneumoniae. The total positive rate was 18.41% (18.30% for males and 22.72% for females). Female children had statistically significant higher positive rates than male children (χ2=198.078, P<0.01). The positive rates of M. pneumoniae differed significantly among children of different ages (F=162.7532, P<0.01). The incidence rate of M. pneumoniae in 2017 and 2019 was significantly higher than the average (F=538.95, P<0.01). There were higher M. pneumoniae positive rates from April to May, and September to October (P<0.05) in 2016, 2017, 2018, and 2019. There was no correlation between M. pneumoniae infection and temperature and humidity (P>0.05). There was negative correlation with PM2.5 (particulate matter in the air <2.5 µm) (R=-0.293, P<0.01) and PM10 (particulate matter in the air <10 µm). (R=-0.285, P<0.01). There were significant differences in the constituent ratios of cases of M. pneumoniae infection between in 2020 and other years (F=159.35, P<0.01). Bronchopneumonia accounted for the highest proportion of cases, followed by acute bronchitis and the exacerbation of asthma in 2020. CONCLUSIONS: The epidemiological distribution of M. pneumoniae in children with RTIs in Chengdu was found to be related to gender, age, year and month; however, no relationship was found to temperature and humidity. There was a higher M. pneumoniae positive rate in children with bronchial pneumonia and asthma in cases. The prevention measures used to control Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) also effectively controlled the M. pneumoniae infection rate.

17.
Popul Health Manag ; 24(S1): S26-S34, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236198

ABSTRACT

Laboratory testing is an important component in the diagnosis of respiratory tract infections such as with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, specimen collection not only risks exposure of health care workers and other patients to infection, but also necessitates use of personal protective equipment that may be in short supply during periods of heightened disease activity. Self-collection of nasal or oropharyngeal swabs offers an alternative to address these drawbacks. Although studies in the past decade have demonstrated the utility of this approach for respiratory infections, it has not been widely adopted in routine clinical practice. The rapid spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2, has focused attention on the need for safe, convenient, timely, and scalable methods for collecting upper respiratory specimens for testing. The goals of this article are to highlight the literature regarding self-collected nasal or oropharyngeal specimens for respiratory pathogen testing; discuss the role of self-collection in helping prevent the spread of the COVID-19 disease from infected patients and facilitating a shift toward "virtual" medicine or telemedicine; and describe the current and future state of self-collection for infectious agents, and the impacts these approaches can have on population health management and disease diagnosis and prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Population Health Management , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Middle Aged , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Telemedicine , Young Adult
18.
J Chin Med Assoc ; 84(5): 545-549, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes infectious symptoms including fever, cough, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, and even loss of smell/taste and to date had caused 489 000 people to be infected with 32 000 deaths. This article aims to develop some strategies in dealing with the COVID-19 epidemic to prevent nosocomial infection and ensure the safety of healthcare workforce and employees. METHODS: This is a prospectively registered and retrospective descriptive study investigating the clinical characteristics, results of diagnostic tests, and patients' disposition from February 1, 2020, to April 30, 2020, at a tertiary medical center in Northern Taiwan. RESULTS: There is no nosocomial spreading of SARS-CoV-2 in our facility. The following strategies were followed: information transparency; epidemic prevention resources planning by authorities; multidisciplinary cooperation; informative technologies; immigration quarantine policies; travel restrictions; management of diversion/subdivision; self-health monitoring; social distancing; screening of travel, occupation, contact, and cluster (TOCC) history; traffic control bundling (TCB); training of using personal protective equipment; real-name visiting management; and employee care. The patients' basic characteristics and diagnostic results were gathered. Of the 3832 cases, about 25.9% had travel history. Most of them were traveling to Asia (419 people/time, 10.9%) and from China (256 people/time, 6.7%). Meanwhile, healthcare personnel accounted for 316 people/time (8.3%) and cleaning personnel, 6 people/time (0.16%). The 36 cases who care or have contact with confirmed cases have negative results from the COVID-19 test. The most frequent symptoms were fever and upper respiratory infection followed by gastrointestinal symptoms. CONCLUSION: The above strategies were followed. Patients were stratified based on the risk of TOCC history assessment to ensure the safety of healthcare personnel and patients' appropriate and timely medical services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Health Resources , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
19.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103080, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is aggressive morbidity affecting immunocompromised patients. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may allow secondary fungal disease through a propensity to cause respiratory infection by affecting the immune system leading to dysregulation and reduced numbers of T lymphocytes, CD4+T, and CD8+T cells, altering the innate immunity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) in COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: Data for acute invasive rhinosinusitis was obtained from the Otorhinolaryngology departments at our tertiary hospital at the period from January 2017 to December 2020. Then the risk factors of comorbid diseases and fungal types between post-COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups regarding the incidence of AIFRS are compared. RESULTS: Consequently, the incidence of AIFRS showed a more significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-COVID-19 patients than in non-COVID-19 especially in immunocompromised patients, diabetic, renal, and liver dysfunction patients as well as patients with risk factors of AIFRS. The most common organisms affecting patients with AIFRS are Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Absidia mucor. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AIFRS is markedly prominent in post-COVID-19 patients than in those of non-COVID-19, especially in immunocompromised, diabetic, renal, and liver dysfunction patients and patients with risk factors for rhinosinusitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Outbreaks , Invasive Fungal Infections , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Sinusitis/microbiology , Absidia , Acute Disease , Aged , Aspergillus fumigatus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Rhinitis/diagnostic imaging , Rhinitis/immunology , Rhizopus oryzae , Risk Factors , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Sinusitis/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
20.
J Virol Methods ; 294: 114183, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the worldwide coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic, starting in late 2019. The standard diagnostic methods to detect SARS-CoV-2 are PCR-based genetic assays. Antigen-antibody-based immunochromatographic assays are alternative methods of detecting this virus. Rapid diagnosis kits to detect SARS-CoV-2 are urgently needed. STUDY DESIGN: Three monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) protein were used to develop an antigen-antibody-based immunochromatographic kit to detect SARS-CoV-2. These assays were evaluated using  nasopharyngeal swab specimens collected from patients suspected of having COVID-19. RESULTS: These assays detected recombinant SARS-CoV-2 N protein at concentrations >0.2 ng/mL within 10 min after protein loading, but did not detect the N proteins of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), human coronaviruses OC43 (HCoV-OC43) and 299E (HCoV-229E) and other pathogens causing respiratory infections. Nasopharyngeal swab specimens obtained 1~3, 4~9, and ≥ 10 days after symptom onset from COVID-19 patients diagnosed by RT-PCR showed positivity rates of 100 %, >80 %, and <30 %, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Kits using this immunochromatographic assay may be a rapid and useful tool for point-of-care diagnosis of COVID-19 when samples are obtained from patients 1~9 days after symptom onset.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Rats , SARS-CoV-2
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