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1.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2181-2185, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic has forced a decrease in physical activity (PA), an increase in sedentary behavior (SB) and a possibly worsening of fat accumulation in already obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate how social restriction may have contributed to weight changes in adolescents with obesity. Secondary aim was to evaluate possible parameters influencing weight changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Parameters of 51 obese adolescents were compared between two visits: within 2 months before 8 March, start of lockdown, and within 40 days after the end of it. RESULTS: Mean weight gain during lockdown was 2.8 ± 3.7 kg (p < 0.001). Weight increase was higher in males than in females (3.8 ± 3.4 kg vs 1.2 ± 3.7 kg, p = 0.02). The hours dedicated to SB increased (+2.9 ± 2.8 h/day; p < 0.001) while the hours of PA decreased (-1.0 ± 1.6 h/week; p < 0.001). Males spent more hours in SB than females (+3.8 ± 2.7 h/day vs +1.5 ± 2.5 h/day; p = 0.003). There were minor changes in diet during lockdown. The most significant variables influencing both delta BMI and waist/height ratio increase were hours devoted to SB during lockdown and differences in mild and moderate PA before and after lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents showed a worsening of obesity during lockdown, with males mainly affected, mainly due to a reduced mild PA and increased hours spent in SB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Factors , Time Factors
2.
Adv Ther ; 38(7): 3911-3923, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258274

ABSTRACT

INTRODUTION: COVID-19 is associated with an increased risk of thrombotic events. However, the contribution of platelet reactivity (PR) to the aetiology of the increased thrombotic risk associated with COVID-19 remains unclear. Our aim was to evaluate PR in stable patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and hospitalized with respiratory symptoms (mainly dyspnoea and dry cough), in comparison with a control group comprised of non-hospitalized healthy controls. METHODS: Observational, case control study that included patients with confirmed COVID-19 (COVID-19 group, n = 60) and healthy individuals matched by age and sex (control group, n = 60). Multiplate electrode aggregometry (MEA) tests were used to assess PR with adenosine diphosphate (MEA-ADP, low PR defined as < 53 AUC), arachidonic acid (MEA-ASPI, low PR < 86 AUC) and thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (MEA-TRAP, low PR < 97 AUC) in both groups. RESULTS: The rates of low PR with MEA-ADP were 27.5% in the COVID-19 group and 21.7% in the control group (OR = 1.60, p = 0.20); with MEA-ASPI, the rates were, respectively, 37.5% and 22.5% (OR = 3.67, p < 0.001); and with MEA-TRAP, the incidences were 48.5% and 18.8%, respectively (OR = 9.58, p < 0.001). Levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) were higher in the COVID-19 group in comparison with the control group (all p < 0.05). Thromboelastometry was utilized in a subgroup of patients and showed a hypercoagulable state in the COVID-19 group. CONCLUSION: Patients hospitalized with non-severe COVID-19 had lower PR compared to healthy controls, despite having higher levels of D-dimer, fibrinogen, and PAI-1, and hypercoagulability by thromboelastometry. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT04447131.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Platelets , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Platelet Aggregation , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 219, 2021 Jun 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255963

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep quality and psychological effects on pediatric healthcare workers during the first wave of COVID-19 epidemic in Italy and to evaluate differences between primary and secondary care operators. Pediatric healthcare workers were involved in an online survey to assess sleep quality, stress and anxiety level, self-efficacy and social support in Italian pediatric healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: We found that 67.4% of our sample suffered from sleep disturbance and 19.4% of subjects suffered from anxiety. Lower values of anxiety and social support were found in primary care staff compared to secondary care one. The associations between healthcare professional figures (being primary or secondary care operators) and mental health outcomes were not statistically significant. However, sex, age and having a SARS-CoV-2 infected relative/friend had an independent effect on mental health outcomes. It is crucial to provide social and psychological support to pediatric healthcare workers. A tailored psychological screening would be desirable for female healthcare workers and for those who have a SARS-CoV-2 infected relative/friend.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep
4.
Cells ; 9(11)2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256431

ABSTRACT

Secondary immunodeficiency is observed in all patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in varying degrees. The aim of the study was to review the available literature data on patients with CLL, with particular regard to the pathogenesis of the disease and the impact of humoral immunity deficiency on the clinical and therapeutic approach. A systematic literature review was carried out by two independent authors who searched PubMed databases for studies published up to January 2020. Additionally, Google Scholar was used to evaluate search results and support manual research. The search resulted in 240 articles eligible for analysis. After all criteria and filters were applied, 22 studies were finally applied to the analysis. The data analysis showed that the clinical heterogeneity of CLL patients correlates with the diversity of molecular abnormalities determining the clinical picture of the disease, the analysis of which enables setting therapeutic targets. Additionally, in improving the therapeutic method, it is worth introducing supportive therapies with the use of vaccines, antibiotics and/or immunoglobins. Moreover, humoral immunodeficiency in CLL has a strong influence on the risk of infection in patients for whom infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Immunity, Humoral , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/immunology , Humans , Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell/diagnosis , Prognosis
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234754

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new strain of coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease, which emerged as a global pandemic. Data regarding the implications of COVID-19 disease at early gestation on fetal and obstetric outcomes is scarce. Thus, our aim was to investigate the effect of first and second trimester maternal COVID-19 disease on fetal and perinatal outcomes. This was a prospective cohort study of pregnant women with a laboratory-proven SARS-COV-2 infection contracted prior to 26 weeks gestation. Women were followed at a single tertiary medical center by serial sonographic examinations every 4-6 weeks to assess fetal well-being, growth, placental function, anatomic evaluation and signs of fetal infection. Amniocentesis was offered to assess amniotic fluid SARS-COV-2-PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and fetal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was offered at 30-32 weeks gestation. Demographic, obstetric and neonatal data were collected from history intake, medical charts or by telephone survey. Perinatal outcomes were compared between women infected at first vs. second trimester. 55 women with documented COVID-19 disease at early gestation were included and followed at our center. The mean maternal age was 29.6 ± 6.2 years and the mean gestational age at viral infection was 14.2 ± 6.7 weeks with 28 (51%) women infected at the first trimester and 27 (49%) at the second trimester. All patients but one experienced asymptomatic to mild symptoms. Of 22 patients who underwent amniocentesis, none had evidence of vertical transmission. None of the fetuses exhibited signs of central nervous system (CNS) disease, growth restriction and placental dysfunction on serial ultrasound examinations and fetal MRI. Pregnancies resulted in perinatal survival of 100% to date with mean gestational age at delivery of 38.6 ± 3.0 weeks and preterm birth <37 weeks rate of 3.4%. The mean birthweight was 3260 ± 411 g with no cases of small for gestational age infants. The obstetric and neonatal outcomes were similar among first vs. second trimester infection groups. We conclude SARS-CoV-2 infection at early gestation was not associated with vertical transmission and resulted in favorable obstetric and neonatal outcomes.

6.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(4): e12525, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233232

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with activation of coagulation that mainly presents as thrombosis. Sepsis is also associated with activation of coagulation that mainly presents as disseminated intravascular coagulation. Many studies have reported increased levels of plasma d-dimer in patients with COVID-19 that is associated with severity, thrombosis, and mortality. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare levels of circulating extracellular vesicle tissue factor (EVTF) activity and active plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) in plasma from patients with COVID-19 or sepsis. METHODS: We measured levels of d-dimer, EVTF activity, and active PAI-1 in plasma samples from patients with COVID-19 (intensive care unit [ICU], N = 15; and non-ICU, N = 20) and patients with sepsis (N = 35). RESULTS: Patients with COVID-19 had significantly higher levels of d-dimer, EVTF activity, and active PAI-1 compared with healthy controls. Patients with sepsis had significantly higher levels of d-dimer and EVTF activity compared with healthy controls. Levels of d-dimer were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 compared with patients with sepsis. Levels of EVTF activity were significantly higher in ICU patients with COVID-19 compared with patients with sepsis. Levels of active PAI-1 were significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 compared with patients with sepsis. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of both EVTF activity and active PAI-1 may promote thrombosis in patients with COVID-19 due to simultaneous activation of coagulation and inhibition of fibrinolysis. The high levels of active PAI-1 in patients with COVID-19 may limit plasmin degradation of crosslinked fibrin and the release of d-dimer. This may explain the lower levels of D-dimer in patients with COVID-19 compared with patients with sepsis.

7.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103080, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is aggressive morbidity affecting immunocompromised patients. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may allow secondary fungal disease through a propensity to cause respiratory infection by affecting the immune system leading to dysregulation and reduced numbers of T lymphocytes, CD4+T, and CD8+T cells, altering the innate immunity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) in COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: Data for acute invasive rhinosinusitis was obtained from the Otorhinolaryngology departments at our tertiary hospital at the period from January 2017 to December 2020. Then the risk factors of comorbid diseases and fungal types between post-COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups regarding the incidence of AIFRS are compared. RESULTS: Consequently, the incidence of AIFRS showed a more significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-COVID-19 patients than in non-COVID-19 especially in immunocompromised patients, diabetic, renal, and liver dysfunction patients as well as patients with risk factors of AIFRS. The most common organisms affecting patients with AIFRS are Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Absidia mucor. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AIFRS is markedly prominent in post-COVID-19 patients than in those of non-COVID-19, especially in immunocompromised, diabetic, renal, and liver dysfunction patients and patients with risk factors for rhinosinusitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Outbreaks , Invasive Fungal Infections , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Sinusitis/microbiology , Absidia , Acute Disease , Aged , Aspergillus fumigatus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Rhinitis/diagnostic imaging , Rhinitis/immunology , Rhizopus oryzae , Risk Factors , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Sinusitis/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
8.
J Lasers Med Sci ; 11(Suppl 1): S23-S29, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231655

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Currently, the COVID-19 pandemic is an important health challenge worldwide. Due to the cytokine storm, the mortality rate in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is high, but until now no therapy for these patients was approved. The aim of this review was to discuss the possible anti-inflammatory effect of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) on ARSD patients and present the potential role of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the improvement of respiratory symptoms associated with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods: Studies about PBMT in inflammation and ARSD patients were examined. A primary search with reviewing English-language citations between 2005 and 2020 using the keywords COVID-19, ADRS, cytokine storm, low-level laser therapy, anti-inflammatory, and photobiomodulation was performed. The initial search yielded 818 articles; however, 60 articles were selected and discussed in the present study. Results: The results of the selected studies showed the usefulness of PBMT in the treatment of inflammation and ARSD in patients with COVID-19 infection. This therapy is non-invasive and safe to modulate the immune responses in ARSD patients. Conclusion: PBMT can potentially reduce the viral load and bacterial super-infections in patients with COVID-19 infection and control the inflammatory response. Therefore, the use of PBMT could be an efficient strategy for preventing severe and critical illness in SARS-COV2 infection.

9.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 621676, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221961

ABSTRACT

Objectives: No specific treatment has been approved for COVID-19. Lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used with poor results, and a trial showed advantages of combined antiviral therapy vs. single antivirals. The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the combination of antivirals (LPV/r and HCQ) or their single use in COVID-19 hospitalized patients vs. standard of care (SoC). Methods: Patients ≥18 years with SARS-CoV-2 infection, defined as positive RT-PCR from nasal/oropharyngeal (NP/OP) swab or positive serology, admitted at L. Spallanzani Institute (Italy) were included. Primary endpoint: time to invasive ventilation/death. Secondary endpoint: time to two consecutive negative SARS-CoV-2 PCRs in NP/OP swabs. In order to control for measured confounders, a marginal Cox regression model with inverse probability weights was used. Results: A total of 590 patients were included in the analysis: 36.3% female, 64 years (IQR 51-76), and 91% with pneumonia. Cumulative probability of invasive ventilation/death at 14 days was 21.2% (95% CI 17.6, 24.7), without difference between SOC, LPV/r, hydroxychloroquine, HCQ + LPV/r, and SoC. The risk of invasive ventilation/death in the groups appeared to vary by baseline ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2). Overall cumulative probability of confirmed negative nasopharyngeal swabs at 14 days was 44.4% (95% CI 38.9, 49.9), without difference between groups. Conclusion: In this retrospective analysis, we found no difference in the rate of invasive ventilation/death or viral shedding by different strategies, as in randomized trials performed to date. Moreover, even the combination HCQ + LPV/r did not show advantages vs. SoC.

10.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(1): 105-112, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219264

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF), the most frequent arrhythmia of older patients, associates with serious thromboembolic complications and high mortality. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely affects aged subjects, determining an important prothrombotic status. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality-related factors in older AF patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Between March and June 2020, we enrolled ≥60 year-old in-hospital COVID-19 patients (n = 806) in GeroCovid, a multicenter observational study promoted by the Italian Society of Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine. RESULTS: The prevalence of AF was 21.8%. In-hospital mortality was higher in the AF group (36.9 vs. 27.5%, p = 0.015). At admission, 51.7, 10.2, and 38.1% of AF cases were taking, respectively, oral anticoagulants (OACs), antiplatelet agents, and no antithrombotic therapy. During hospitalization, 51% patients switched to low-molecular-weight heparins. AF patients who survived were younger (81 ± 8 vs. 84 ± 7 years; p = 0.002) and had a lower CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.9 ± 1.6 vs. 4.4 ± 1.3; p = 0.02) than those who died. OAC use before (63.1 vs. 32.3%; p < 0.001) and during hospitalization (34.0 vs. 12.7%; p = 0.002) was higher among survivors. At multivariable analysis, lower age, higher self-sufficiency, less severe initial COVID-19 presentation, and the use of vitamin K antagonists (odds ratio [OR] = 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.03-0.84) or direct OACs (OR = 0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.56) at admission, or the persistence of OAC during hospitalization (OR = 0.05, 95% CI: 0.01-0.24), were associated with a lower chance of in-hospital death. CONCLUSION: AF is a prevalent and severe condition in older COVID-19 patients. Advanced age, dependency, and relevant clinical manifestations of disease characterized a worse prognosis. Preadmission and in-hospital anticoagulant therapies were positively associated with survival.


Subject(s)
Atrial Fibrillation/complications , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Administration, Oral , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Atrial Fibrillation/drug therapy , Atrial Fibrillation/mortality , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Odds Ratio , Prevalence , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
11.
Neurol Neurochir Pol ; 55(3): 295-299, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217146

ABSTRACT

AIM OF THE STUDY: The 4C Mortality Score was created to predict mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 and has to date been evaluated only in respiratory system disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate its application in patients with COVID-19-associated acute ischaemic stroke (AIS). CLINICAL RATIONALE FOR STUDY: COVID-19 is a risk factor for AIS. COVID-19-associated AIS results in higher mortality and worse functional outcome. Predictors of functional outcome in COVID-19-associated AIS are required. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational study of patients with AIS hospitalised in seven neurological wards in Malopolska Voivodship (Poland) between August and December 2020. We gathered data concerning the patients' age, sex, presence of cardiovascular risk factors, type of treatment received, and the presence of stroke-associated infections (including pneumonia, urinary tract infection and infection of unknown source). We calculated 4C Mortality Score at stroke onset, and investigated whether there was a correlation with neurological deficit measured using the National Health Institute Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and functional outcome assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. RESULTS: The study included 52 patients with COVID-19-associated AIS. The 4C Mortality Score at stroke onset correlated with mRS (rs = 0.565, p < 0.01) at discharge. There was also a statistically significant difference in the mean 4C Mortality Score between patients who died and patients who survived the stroke (13.08 ± 2.71 vs. 9.85 ± 3.47, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: 4C Mortality Score predicts functional outcome at discharge in COVID-19-associated AIS patients.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Hospitals , Humans , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(4): 1476-1483, 2021 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197599

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has now imposed an enormous global burden as well as a large mortality in a short time period. Although there is no promising treatment, identification of early predictors of in-hospital mortality would be critically important in reducing its worldwide mortality. We aimed to suggest a prediction model for in-hospital mortality of COVID-19. In this case-control study, we recruited 513 confirmed patients with COVID-19 from February 18 to March 26, 2020 from Isfahan COVID-19 registry. Based on extracted laboratory, clinical, and demographic data, we created an in-hospital mortality predictive model using gradient boosting. We also determined the diagnostic performance of the proposed model including sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) as well as their 95% CIs. Of 513 patients, there were 60 (11.7%) in-hospital deaths during the study period. The diagnostic values of the suggested model based on the gradient boosting method with oversampling techniques using all of the original data were specificity of 98.5% (95% CI: 96.8-99.4), sensitivity of 100% (95% CI: 94-100), negative predictive value of 100% (95% CI: 99.2-100), positive predictive value of 89.6% (95% CI: 79.7-95.7), and an AUC of 98.6%. The suggested model may be useful in making decision to patient's hospitalization where the probability of mortality may be more obvious based on the final variable. However, moderate gaps in our knowledge of the predictors of in-hospital mortality suggest further studies aiming at predicting models for in-hospital mortality in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Case-Control Studies , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
13.
Minerva Pediatr (Torino) ; 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190732

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Serum D-dimer levels, as well as other biomarkers related to coagulation, are significantly elevated during severe community acquired pneumonia. The aim of this study is to investigate the utility of plasma D-dimer levels determining the severity of inflammation and prognosis in pediatric patients with COVID-19 infection. METHODS: We retrospectively chart reviewed medical records of pediatric patients (< 18 years of age) admitted to Istanbul Fcaulty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics Infectious Disease Service between March 11, and June 30, 2020. We collected demographic, clinical, biochemical and radiographic data. RESULTS: A hundred and seventy-one pediatric patients (1 - 216 months of age) admitted to pediatric infecitous disease service included in this study. Patients were classified into 4 categories; 1) COVID-19 infection confirmed by PCR, 2) Suspected COVID-19 infection due to close exposure history and radiographic findings, 3) Lower respiratory tract infection other than COVID-19 confirmed with multiplex respiratory viral panel, and 4) Systemic infections other than lower respiratory tract infection. Lymphopenia was observed significantly higher in patients with COVID-19 infection compared to patients with other respiratory viral infections (p=0.06). In patients with radiographic findings concerning for COVID-19 infection, elevated serum D-dimer levels were detected significantly higher than lymphopenia (p=0.07). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated serum D-dimer levels at baseline are associated with inflammation especially in patients with COVID-19 infection with radipgraphic findings. Monitoring serum D-dimer levels may be used for early identification of severe cases in children.

14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e24552, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1177923

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telemedicine use in chronic disease management has markedly increased during health emergencies due to COVID-19. Diabetes and technologies supporting diabetes care, including glucose monitoring devices, software analyzing glucose data, and insulin delivering systems, would facilitate remote and structured disease management. Indeed, most of the currently available technologies to store and transfer web-based data to be shared with health care providers. OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, we provided our patients the opportunity to manage their diabetes remotely by implementing technology. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of 2 virtual visits on glycemic control parameters among patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) during the lockdown period. METHODS: This prospective observational study included T1D patients who completed 2 virtual visits during the lockdown period. The glucose outcomes that reflected the benefits of the virtual consultation were time in range (TIR), time above range, time below range, mean daily glucose, glucose management indicator (GMI), and glycemic variability. This metric was generated using specific computer programs that automatically upload data from the devices used to monitor blood or interstitial glucose levels. If needed, we changed the ongoing treatment at the first virtual visit. RESULTS: Among 209 eligible patients with T1D, 166 completed 2 virtual visits, 35 failed to download glucose data, and 8 declined the visit. Among the patients not included in the study, we observed a significantly lower proportion of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) users (n=7/43, 16% vs n=155/166, 93.4% and n=9/43, 21% vs n=128/166, 77.1%, respectively; P<.001) compared to patients who completed the study. TIR significantly increased from the first (62%, SD 18%) to the second (65%, SD 16%) virtual visit (P=.02); this increase was more marked among patients using the traditional meter (n=11; baseline TIR=55%, SD 17% and follow-up TIR=66%, SD 13%; P=.01) than among those using CGM, and in those with a baseline GMI of ≥7.5% (n=46; baseline TIR=45%, SD 15% and follow-up TIR=53%, SD 18%; P<.001) than in those with a GMI of <7.5% (n=120; baseline TIR=68%, SD 15% and follow-up TIR=69%, SD 15%; P=.98). The only variable independently associated with TIR was the change of ongoing therapy. The unstandardized beta coefficient (B) and 95% CI were 5 (95% CI 0.7-8.0) (P=.02). The type of glucose monitoring device and insulin delivery systems did not influence glucometric parameters. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that the structured virtual visits help maintain and improve glycemic control in situations where in-person visits are not feasible.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Adult , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/blood , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/administration & dosage , Insulin/administration & dosage , Male , Pilot Projects , Prospective Studies
15.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 27: 1076029621999099, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175260

ABSTRACT

Among COVID-19 hospitalized patients, high incidence of alterations in inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers correlates with a poor prognosis. Comorbidities such as chronic degenerative diseases are frequently associated with complications in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate inflammatory and procoagulant biomarkers in COVID-19 patients from a public hospital in Mexico. Blood was sampled within the first 48 h after admission in 119 confirmed COVID-19 patients that were classified in 3 groups according to oxygen demand, evolution and the severity of the disease as follows: 1) Non severe: nasal cannula or oxygen mask; 2) Severe: high flow nasal cannula and 3) Death: mechanical ventilation eventually leading to fatal outcome. Blood samples from 20 healthy donors were included as a Control Group. Analysis of inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers including D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, PAI-1, P-selectin and VWF was performed in plasma. Routine laboratory and clinical biomarkers were also included and compared among groups. Concentrations of D-dimer (14.5 ± 13.8 µg/ml) and PAI-1 (1223 ± 889.6 ng/ml) were significantly elevated in severe COVID-19 patients (P < 0.0001). A significant difference was found in interleukin-6, PAI-1 and P-selectin in non-severe and healthy donors when compared to Severe COVID-19 and deceased patients (P < 0.001). VWF levels were also significantly different between severe patients (153.5 ± 24.3 UI/dl) and non-severe ones (133.9 ± 20.2 UI/dl) (P < 0.0001). WBC and glucose levels were also significantly elevated in patients with Severe COVID-19. Plasma concentrations of all prothrombotic biomarkers were significantly higher in patients with a fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Inflammation Mediators/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Interleukin-6/blood , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Middle Aged , P-Selectin/blood , Pandemics , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/blood , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , von Willebrand Factor/metabolism
16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167583

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current research has pointed out an increased risk of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic in women compared to men, however the reason for this difference remains unclear. The aim of this research is to study early psychological responses to the pandemic in the Spanish general population, focusing on gender differences. METHODS: Nine to 14 days after the declaration of a state of emergency an online survey was conducted assessing sociodemographic, health, behavioral and COVID-19-related variables. Mental health status was evaluated by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Self-Care Scale (SCS). RESULTS: The study included 3520 respondents: 2611 women and 909 men. Women scored significantly higher in DASS-21 and IES-R (p < 0.05) and were more likely to somatize, suffer from hypochondriasis, sleeping disturbances and claustrophobia (p < 0.05). Being a woman can be considered a risk factor for intrusive thoughts, avoidance mechanisms, stress and anxiety (Odd Ratio = 2.7/2.3/2.3/1.6). The risk of presenting posttraumatic symptoms and emotional distress was greater in women (Odd Ratio = 6.77/4.59). General linear models to predict IES-R and DASS-21 scores clarified which variables were gender specific, such as main concerns. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that at early stages of the pandemic, women mental health was more impacted and that both genders show different concerns. Gender perspective in secondary and tertiary prevention strategies must be taken into account when facing the distress associated with the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(4): e045699, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1166508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic represents the greatest biopsychosocial emergency the world has faced for a century. The pandemic has changed how individuals live and work, and in particular, frontline healthcare professionals have been exposed to alarming levels of stress. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to understand the professional and personal effects of COVID-19 pandemic on surgeons working in the UK National Health Service (NHS). SETTING: Surgical departments in the NHS. DESIGN: Between May and July 2020, as part of an ongoing study, we asked surgeons two open-ended questions: 'What challenges are the COVID-19 crisis currently presenting to you in your work and home life?' and 'How is this stress affecting you personally?' Thematic analysis was used for the qualitative data. Responses to the second question were also categorised into four groups reflecting valence: positive, neutral, mildly negative and strongly negative. RESULTS: A total of 141 surgeons responded to the survey and the results indicated that 85.8% reported that they were generally negatively affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, of which 7.8% were strongly affected in a negative way. Qualitative thematic analysis identified four key themes from responses relating to the impact of the pandemic: (1) changing and challenging work environment as a result of COVID-19; (2) challenges to professional life and development; (3) management of change and loss in the respondents' personal lives; (4) emotional and psychological impacts. CONCLUSION: The results highlighted the substantial emotional and psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on surgeons' mental health, particularly in relation to fear and anxiety, loss of motivation, low mood, stress and burnout. There is an urgent need for workplace support and mental health interventions to help surgeons cope with the difficulties they face during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Surgeons/psychology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , State Medicine , United Kingdom/epidemiology
18.
Pathogens ; 10(3)2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158393

ABSTRACT

Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative ESKAPE microorganism that poses a threat to public health by causing severe and invasive (mostly nosocomial) infections linked with high mortality rates. During the last years, this pathogen displayed multidrug resistance (MDR), mainly due to extensive antibiotic abuse and poor stewardship. MDR isolates are associated with medical history of long hospitalization stays, presence of catheters, and mechanical ventilation, while immunocompromised and severely ill hosts predispose to invasive infections. Next-generation sequencing techniques have revolutionized diagnosis of severe A. baumannii infections, contributing to timely diagnosis and personalized therapeutic regimens according to the identification of the respective resistance genes. The aim of this review is to describe in detail all current knowledge on the genetic background of A. baumannii resistance mechanisms in humans as regards beta-lactams (penicillins, cephalosporins, carbapenems, monobactams, and beta-lactamase inhibitors), aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, lincosamides, streptogramin antibiotics, polymyxins, and others (amphenicols, oxazolidinones, rifamycins, fosfomycin, diaminopyrimidines, sulfonamides, glycopeptide, and lipopeptide antibiotics). Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance refer mainly to regulation of antibiotic transportation through bacterial membranes, alteration of the antibiotic target site, and enzymatic modifications resulting in antibiotic neutralization. Virulence factors that may affect antibiotic susceptibility profiles and confer drug resistance are also being discussed. Reports from cases of A. baumannii coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of resistance profiles and MDR genes have been investigated.

19.
Prof Inferm ; 73(4): 264-269, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156207

ABSTRACT

The spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has reached a pandemic dimension within a few weeks. Italy has been one of the first countries, together with Cina, dealing with the outbreak of COVID-19 and adopting severe measures to limit viral transmission. The spread of COVID-19 may have several implications in organ transplant activity and medical and nursing personnel should be know these implications. The initial experience gained during the COVID-19 outbreak shows that around 10% of infected patients in Italy need intensive care management to overcome the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Due to the exponential rise of infected patients we are now facing an actual risk of saturation of potential tissue donors which can adversely affect the overall donation activity and reduce the number of transplants. Italian preliminary data show an overall decrease of 40% in March 2020. This paper aim at showing how the pandemic affects procurement of corneal tissues through a comparative analysis 2019-2020 related to the quarter February-April.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cornea , Corneal Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Retrospective Studies
20.
Neurol Sci ; 42(6): 2183-2189, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152024

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common during acute illness and appears to last longer than other symptoms. The aim of this study was to objectively investigate olfactory dysfunction in two cohorts of patients at two different stages: during acute illness and after a median recovery of 4 months. METHODS: Twenty-five acutely ill patients and 26 recovered subjects were investigated. Acute patients had a molecular diagnosis of COVID-19; recovered subjects had a positive antibody assay and a negative molecular test. A 33-item psychophysical olfactory identification test tailored for the Italian population was performed. RESULTS: Median time from symptoms onset to olfactory test was 33 days in acute patients and 122 days in recovered subjects. The former scored a significantly higher number of errors at psychophysical testing (median [IQR]: 8 [13] vs 3 [2], p < 0.001) and were more frequently hyposmic (64% vs 19%, p = 0.002). Recovered subjects reported a variable time to subjective olfactory recovery, from days up to 4 months. Participants included in the study reported no significant nasal symptoms at olfactory testing. Among recovered subject who reported olfactory loss during acute COVID-19, four (27%) were still hyposmic. Demographic and clinical characteristics did not show significant associations with olfactory dysfunction. CONCLUSION: Moderate-to-severe hospitalized patients showed a high level and frequency of olfactory dysfunction compared to recovered subjects. In the latter group, subjects who reported persisting olfactory dysfunction showed abnormal scores on psychophysical testing, indicating that, at least in some subjects, persistent hyposmia may represent a long-term sequela of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell
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