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1.
J Neurol Res ; 10(5): 164-172, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227227

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease caused by a new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been associated with many neurological symptoms. The purpose of this article is to describe the neurological manifestations so far reported and their probable pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review on EMBASE, MEDLINE and SCIELO databases using the terms "COVID-19", "COVID", "neurological", "neurologic", "manifestations", "implications", "Guillain-Barre syndrome", "encephalopathy". A total of 33 articles including clinical series, retrospective studies, and case reports were selected and thoroughly reviewed to describe neurological manifestations of COVID-19. There are several neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection with different clinical presentations, severity, and prevalence. The most critical ones, such as cerebrovascular disease, encephalopathy, and Guillain-Barre syndrome, were less common and usually associated with previous medical history, known risk factors for cerebrovascular disease or advanced age. The main hypotheses for the spread of the virus are through the hematogenous route or the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone or a disseminated severe immune response by a cytokine storm. The presence of neurological disturbances associated with laboratory tests alterations is an important clue for the physicians to promptly recognize neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 18(6): 523-531, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221433

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In this review, we will summarize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on neurointerventional care for patients with cerebrovascular disease, with a particular emphasis on epidemiology, neurointerventional processes, and lessons learned from paradigm shifts in endovascular care.Areas covered: Peer-reviewed research is summarized regarding the complications of COVID-19 as related to the pandemic's impact on hospital admissions, imaging capabilities, treatment times, and outcomes of neurointerventional cases.Expert opinion: In the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a global decline in neuroimaging, use of intravenous thrombolysis, thrombectomy, and coil embolization for ruptured intracranial aneurysms. An early recommendation to utilize general anesthesia and intubate all patients undergoing intervention to avoid an emergent aerosolizing procedure was found to have worse outcomes. The decline in new stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage diagnoses may be related to patient and/or family fear of seeking acute medical care. A true shift in stroke epidemiology is also possible. As several vaccines become more readily available and the world rebounds from this pandemic, we hope to transform the neurointerventional experiences discussed in this paper into strategies that may improve care delivery of neurologically ill patients during a global crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/trends , Humans , Pandemics , Stroke/epidemiology , Thrombectomy
3.
Front Med ; 15(4): 629-637, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204955

ABSTRACT

Cardio-cerebrovascular disease (CCVD) is a major comorbidity of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the clinical characteristics and outcomes remain unclear. In this study, 102 cases of COVID-19 from January 22, 2020 to March 26, 2020 in Xixi Hospital of Hangzhou were included. Twenty cases had pre-existing CCVD. Results showed that compared with non-CCVD patients, those with CCVD are more likely to develop severe disease (15% versus 1%), and the proportion of pneumonia severity index grade IV was significantly higher (25% versus 3.6%). Computed tomography images demonstrated that the proportion of multiple lobe lesion involvement was significantly higher in the CCVD group than in the non-CCVD group (90% versus 63.4%). Compared with non-CCVD group, the levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, and serum amyloid-A were higher, whereas the total protein and arterial partial PaO2 were lower in the CCVD group. Although no statistical difference was observed in the outcomes between groups, CCVD patients received more intensive comprehensive treatment to improve COVID-19 symptoms compared with non-CCVD patients. Integrated Chinese and Western medicine treatments have certain advantages in controlling the severe conversion rate and mortality of COVID-19. In addition, given that COVID-19 patients are usually related to coagulation disorders and thrombosis risk, the application of Chinese medicine in promoting blood circulation and removing stasis should be strengthened.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
4.
Front Neurol ; 12: 642912, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202073

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Patients with comorbidities are at increased risk for poor outcomes in COVID-19, yet data on patients with prior neurological disease remains limited. Our objective was to determine the odds of critical illness and duration of mechanical ventilation in patients with prior cerebrovascular disease and COVID-19. Methods: A observational study of 1,128 consecutive adult patients admitted to an academic center in Boston, Massachusetts, and diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. We tested the association between prior cerebrovascular disease and critical illness, defined as mechanical ventilation (MV) or death by day 28, using logistic regression with inverse probability weighting of the propensity score. Among intubated patients, we estimated the cumulative incidence of successful extubation without death over 45 days using competing risk analysis. Results: Of the 1,128 adults with COVID-19, 350 (36%) were critically ill by day 28. The median age of patients was 59 years (SD: 18 years) and 640 (57%) were men. As of June 2nd, 2020, 127 (11%) patients had died. A total of 177 patients (16%) had a prior cerebrovascular disease. Prior cerebrovascular disease was significantly associated with critical illness (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.14-2.07), lower rate of successful extubation (cause-specific HR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.33-0.98), and increased duration of intubation (restricted mean time difference = 4.02 days, 95% CI = 0.34-10.92) compared to patients without cerebrovascular disease. Interpretation: Prior cerebrovascular disease adversely affects COVID-19 outcomes in hospitalized patients. Further study is required to determine if this subpopulation requires closer monitoring for disease progression during COVID-19.

5.
J Neurovirol ; 27(3): 507-509, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193170

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) represents respiratory symptoms as the most common clinical manifestations. Similar to some other viral infections, it can cause severe neurological damages. Here, we describe a 40-year-old man case who initially was admitted to a major hospital with presenting 7 days with weak flu-like symptoms (cough) and fever then presented neurology signs for 3 days. Physical examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral vasculopathy. Molecular testing was performed on nasopharyngeal swab by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) which was positive for SARS-CoV-2. The patient received supportive cares and was treated with routine antiplatelet therapy. He was improved and discharged 10 days after admission with no symptoms. Our findings report a 40-year-old man with flu-like symptoms that indicate cerebral vasculopathy that was discharged with no symptoms. Therefore, physicians should be monitor patients with worsening or progressive central nervous system results. The pathobiology of this virus is still incompletely known; therefore, extensive studies are needed to reveal the effect of COVID-19 on the nervous system.


Subject(s)
Arteritis/virology , Brain Diseases/virology , COVID-19/complications , Adult , Humans , Iran , Male , SARS-CoV-2
6.
J Clin Neurol ; 17(2): 155-163, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175631

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can reportedly manifest as an acute stroke, with most cases presenting as large vessel ischemic stroke in patients with or without comorbidities. The exact pathomechanism of stroke in COVID-19 remains ambiguous. The findings of previous studies indicate that the most likely underlying mechanisms are cerebrovascular pathological conditions following viral infection, inflammation-induced endothelial dysfunction, and hypercoagulability. Acute endothelial damage due to inflammation triggers a coagulation cascade, thrombosis propagation, and destabilization of atherosclerosis plaques, leading to large-vessel occlusion and plaque ulceration with concomitant thromboemboli, and manifests as ischemic stroke. Another possible mechanism is the downregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 as the target action of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Acute stroke management protocols need to be modified during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to adequately manage stroke patients with COVID-19.

7.
Front Neurol ; 12: 635856, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1172971

ABSTRACT

Background and Purpose: There is little information on the acute cerebrovascular complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of acute cerebrovascular disease (CVD) among COVID-19 patients and evaluate their clinical and radiological characteristics in comparison with non-COVID-19 CVD. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, COVID-19 patients whom presented with CVD in Assiut and Aswan University Hospitals were compared with non-COVID-19, CVD patients, admitted to Qena University Hospital, prior to the pandemic. The following data were collected: clinical history and presentation, risk factors, comorbidities, brain imaging (MRI or CT), chest CT, and some laboratory investigations. Results: Fifty-five (12.5%) of the 439 patients with COVID-19 had acute CVD. Of them, 42 (9.6%) had ischemic stroke while 13 patients (2.9%) had hemorrhagic CVD. In the 250 cases of the non-COVID-19 group, 180 had ischemic stroke and 70 had hemorrhagic stroke. A large proportion of patients with COVID-19 who presented with ischemic stroke had large vessel occlusion (LVO), which was significantly higher than in non-COVID-19 patients with CVD (40 vs. 7.2%, P < 0.001). Comorbidities were recorded in 44 (80%) cases. In COVID-19 ischemic stroke patients, risk factors [hypertension and ischemic heart disease (IHD)] and comorbidities (hepatic and renal) were significantly higher than those in non-COVID-19 patients. In addition, 23.5% had hemorrhagic CVD, and six patients with LVO developed hemorrhagic transformation. Conclusion: Acute CVD among patients with COVID-19 was common in our study. LVO was the commonest. Hypertension, IHD, and anemia are the most common risk factors and could contribute to the worsening of clinical presentation. Comorbidities were common among patients with CVD, although a large number had elevated liver enzymes and creatinine that were partially due to COVID-19 infection itself. The current results begin to characterize the spectrum of CVD associated with COVID-19 in patients in Upper Egypt. Registration ID: The ID number of this study is IRB no: 17300470.

8.
Arch Virol ; 166(8): 2071-2087, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1163058

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), has affected more than 50 million patients worldwide and caused a global public health emergency. Therefore, there is a recognized need to identify risk factors for COVID-19 severity and mortality. A systematic search of electronic databases (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library) for studies published before September 29, 2020, was performed. Studies that investigated risk factors for progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients were included. A total 344,431 participants from 34 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Regarding comorbidities, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), chronic kidney disease (CKD), coronary heart disease (CHD), and malignancy were associated with an increased risk of progression and mortality in COVID-19 patients. Regarding clinical manifestations, sputum production was associated with a dramatically increased risk of progression and mortality. Hemoptysis was a risk factor for death in COVID-19 patients. In laboratory examinations, increased neutrophil count, decreased lymphocyte count, decreased platelet count, increased C-reactive protein (CRP), coinfection with bacteria or fungi, increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK), increased N-terminal pronatriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and bilateral pneumonia in CT/X-ray were significantly more frequent in the severe group compared with the non-severe group. Moreover, the proportion of patients with increased CRP and total bilirubin (TBIL) was also significantly higher in the deceased group than in the survival group. CVD, CKD, sputum production, increased neutrophil count, decreased lymphocyte count, decreased platelet count, increased CRP, coinfection with bacteria or fungi, increased ALT and CK, increased NT-proBNP, and bilateral pneumonia in CT/X-ray were associated with an increased risk of progression in COVID-19 patients. Moreover, the proportion of patients with increased sputum production, hemoptysis, CRP and TBIL was also significantly higher in the deceased group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
9.
J Neuroimaging ; 31(2): 228-243, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015550

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ongoing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). COVID-19 is occasionally associated with manifold diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We sought to present the neuroimaging features of such CNS involvement. In addition, we sought to identify typical neuroimaging patterns that could indicate possible COVID-19-associated neurological manifestations. METHODS: In this systematic literature review, typical neuroimaging features of cerebrovascular diseases and inflammatory processes associated with COVID-19 were analyzed. Reports presenting individual patient data were included in further quantitative analysis with descriptive statistics. RESULTS: We identified 115 studies reporting a total of 954 COVID-19 patients with associated neurological manifestations and neuroimaging alterations. A total of 95 (82.6%) of the identified studies were single case reports or case series, whereas 660 (69.2%) of the reported cases included individual information and were thus included in descriptive statistical analysis. Ischemia with neuroimaging patterns of large vessel occlusion event was revealed in 59.9% of ischemic stroke patients, whereas 69.2% of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage exhibited bleeding in a location that was not associated with hypertension. Callosal and/or juxtacortical location was identified in 58.7% of cerebral microbleed positive images. Features of hemorrhagic necrotizing encephalitis were detected in 28.8% of patients with meningo-/encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: Manifold CNS involvement is increasingly reported in COVID-19 patients. Typical and atypical neuroimaging features have been observed in some disease entities, so that familiarity with these imaging patterns appears reasonable and may assist clinicians in the differential diagnosis of COVID-19 CNS manifestations.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging , Pandemics , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
10.
Life (Basel) ; 11(1)2020 Dec 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006946

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) is currently recognized as one of the geriatric syndromes due to its high frequency in older people and its associated complications, which have a direct impact on quality of life. The main objective is to determine the effectiveness of telehealth consultation for the re-evaluation of nutritional status and quality of life assessment in older people diagnosed with OD associated with active use of thickeners to prevent hospital admissions in a COVID-19 pandemic. (2) Methods: an observational, descriptive, and longitudinal study that included a sample of 33 subjects with age equal or superior to 65 years diagnosed with OD with conserved cognitive capacity. The nutritional status was evaluated through the Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire and biochemical parameters and, the quality of life was determined through the Swallowing Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) questionnaire. (3) Results: Thirty-three older patients with OD were recruited (54.5% women), with a mean age of 83.5 ± 7.6 years. The main cause of OD in the study population was neurodegenerative disease (51.5%), followed by cerebrovascular disease (33.3%), and other causes (15.2%). Sixty point six percent of patients were found to be at risk of malnutrition. The MNA score was significantly correlated to albumin (r: 0.600, p < 0.001) and total proteins (r: 0.435, p = 0.015), but not to total cholesterol (r: -0.116, p = 0.534) or lymphocytes (r: -0.056, p = 0.758). The mean total score of the SWAL-QOL was 75.1 ± 16.4 points. (4) Conclusions: the quality of life of the subjects related to the use of a thickener is good. Although the body mass index (BMI) and average biochemical, nutritional parameters of the subjects are within the range of normality, the MNA has detected a high percentage of subjects with the risk of malnutrition, which suggests the need for continuous re-evaluation in these patients, demonstrating the viability of the telematic route in this research.

11.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2(1): e12332, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1001845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to evaluate the mechanisms of stroke development during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and analyze the related characteristics, such as etiology, age group, associated comorbidities, and prognosis. METHODS: A narrative was performed using the descriptors ["novel coronavirus"] AND ["stroke"] in the PubMed, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Lilacs, and Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS) databases, including studies published between December 1, 2019, and April 28, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 142 articles were identified, with 89 of them in the PubMed database, 46 in Science Direct, and 7 in Google Scholar. No articles were found using the defined keywords in the Lilacs and BVS databases. A total of 22 articles were included for final evaluation. We observed that infection by the novel coronavirus caused a greater risk of the occurrence of stroke, with several studies suggesting etiological mechanisms, such as the involvement of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, viral invasion, and hypoxia as well as the increase in D-dimer and the reduction in platelets, which had been commonly observed in COVID-19 cases. The most common complication of stroke was found among the elderly with preexisting comorbidities, mainly cardiovascular disease. We detected reports of strokes among young people with no preexisting risk factors for thromboembolic events, in which the mechanism related to the viral infection was the most probable cause. In this review, we confirmed that stroke is part of the spectrum of clinical manifestations resulting from COVID-19 and is associated with a worse prognosis. Cerebrovascular lesions resulting from complications of the infection by the novel coronavirus occurred as a result of ischemic, hemorrhagic, and/or thromboembolic etiologies. CONCLUSION: The occurrence of stroke during the pandemic as a result of the novel coronavirus has a multifactorial character, and emergency physicians should focus on systematic measures for its screening and accurate diagnosis as well as on appropriate interventions based on early decisionmaking that may have a favorable impact on reducing damage and saving lives.

12.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(12): 2583-2594, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-938655

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new zoonotic infectious disease that was first reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) on December 31, 2019, and declared as a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020. Due to the increased incidence of multimorbidity in geriatric age groups, COVID-19 disease leads to more severe consequences in the elderly. We aimed to determine the effects of age, comorbidity factors, symptoms, laboratory findings, and radiological results on prognosis by dividing our patients into 3 different geriatric age groups, using a retrospective descriptive analysis method. Patients included in the retrospective study (n = 483) were divided into the following three different geriatric age groups: young-old (65-74 years), middle-aged (75-84 years), and the oldest-elderly (85 years and over).The length of stay in the intensive care unit of the patients between the ages of 75-84 was higher than the other two groups (p = 0.013). Mortality rates were lowest in patients aged 65-74 years (p < 0.001). The rate of ground glass opacity in thorax CT was higher in patients with mortality (p < 0.001). While the rate of COPD-bronchial asthma was higher in surviving patients (p = 0.001), malignancy (p = 0.005) and cerebrovascular disease (p < 0.001) were higher in patients who died. Patients aged between 75 and 84 (OR: 2.602; 95% CI: 1.306-5.183; p = 0.007) or ≥ 85 (OR: 4.086; 95% CI: 1.687-9.9; p = 0.002) had higher risk for mortality compared to patients aged between 65 and 74. The lowest mortality rates were observed in patients aged 65-74 years. Among the supportive diagnostic methods in 3 different geriatric age groups, PCR positivity has no effect on mortality, while the ground glass opacity on tomography is closely related to the need for intensive care and increased mortality. In patients with COPD-bronchial asthma comorbidity and those with symptoms of fatigue, dry cough, and sore throat, transfer to intensive care and mortality rates were lower, while patients who were transferred to intensive care and who developed mortality had higher malignancy and cerebrovascular disease comorbidities and dyspnea symptoms.

13.
Brain Nerve ; 72(10): 1039-1043, 2020 Oct.
Article in Japanese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-869292

ABSTRACT

Cerebrovascular disease and vasculitis-related diseases have been reported as systemic complications of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). A proposed underlying mechanism is that SARS-CoV-2 infects vascular endothelial cells via the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and causes inflammation. Cerebrovascular disease and vasculitis are often observed in severe COVID-19 cases, and they may be associated with critical systemic conditions, such as the cytokine storm and thrombotic tendencies. Several other mechanisms have been proposed, and diverse pathological conditions may be associated with COVID-19-related cerebrovascular disease and vasculitis. Clarifying the pathophysiology and establishing a better therapeutic regimen will facilitate favorable outcomes.


Subject(s)
Cerebrovascular Disorders , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Vasculitis , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Endothelial Cells , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasculitis/etiology
14.
Curr Opin Ophthalmol ; 31(6): 489-494, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-793681

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide a summary of the neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), documented in the literature thus far. RECENT FINDINGS: A small but growing literature documents cases of new onset neuro-ophthalmic disease, in the setting of COVID-19 infection. Patients with COVID-19 have experienced acute onset vision loss, optic neuritis, cranial neuropathies, and Miller Fisher syndrome. In addition, COVID-19 increases the risk of cerebrovascular diseases that can impact the visual system. SUMMARY: The literature on COVID-19 continues to evolve. Although COVID-19 primarily impacts the respiratory system, there are several reports of new onset neuro-ophthalmic conditions in COVID-infected patients. When patients present with new onset neuro-ophthalmic issues, COVID-19 should be kept on the differential. Testing for COVID-19 should be considered, especially when fever or respiratory symptoms are also present. When screening general patients for COVID-19-associated symptoms, frontline physicians can consider including questions about diplopia, eye pain, pain with extraocular movements, decreased vision, gait issues, and other neurologic symptoms. The presence of these symptoms may increase the overall probability of viral infection, especially when fever or respiratory symptoms are present. More research is needed to establish a causal relationship between COVID-19 and neuro-ophthalmic disease, and better understand pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Animals , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diplopia/etiology , Eye Pain/etiology , Humans , Optic Neuritis/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 197: 106183, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Past history of stroke has been associated with an increased risk of a new ischemic stroke. Several studies have indicated increased prevalence of strokes among coronavirus patients. However, the role of past history of stroke in COVID19 patients is still unclear. The purpose of this systematic review is to evaluate and summarize the level of evidence on past history of stroke in COVID19 patients. METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines was performed in PubMed, Embase, EBSCO Host, Scopus, Science Direct, Medline, and LILACS. Eligibility criteria: We evaluated studies including patients with diagnosis of COVID 19 and a past history of stroke. Risk of bias: was evaluated with the Newcastle- Ottawa Scale (NOS) and experimental studies were evaluated using the ROBINS-I scale. RESULTS: Seven articles out of the total 213 articles were evaluated and included, involving 3244 patients with SARS VOC 2 Disease (COVID19) of which 198 had a history of cerebrovascular disease. Meta-analysis of the data was performed, observing an increase in mortality in patients with a history of cerebrovascular disease compared to those with different comorbidities or those without underlying pathology (OR 2.78 95 % CI [1.42-5.46] p = 0.007; I2 = 49 %) showing adequate heterogeneity. The presence of publication bias was evaluated using the Egger test in a funnel plot, showing adequate. Asymmetry, indicating that there is no publication bias; however, due to the low number of included studies, we could not rule out or confirm the presence of bias. CONCLUSIONS: The history of cerebrovascular disease was associated with a 2.78-fold increased risk of mortality compared to patients with other comorbidities or without underlying pathologies.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
17.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3112-3114, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705921

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) occurred in China, and evolved into a worldwide pandemic. It remains unclear whether the history of cerebrovascular disease is associated with in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, multicenter cohort study at Mount Sinai Health System in New York City. Using our institutional data warehouse, we identified all adult patients who were admitted to the hospital between March 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020 and had a positive nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in the emergency department. Using our institutional electronic health record, we extracted clinical characteristics of the cohort, including age, sex, and comorbidities. Using multivariable logistic regression to control for medical comorbidities, we modeled the relationship between history of stroke and all-cause, in-hospital death. RESULTS: We identified 3248 patients, of whom 387 (11.9%) had a history of stroke. Compared with patients without history of stroke, patients with a history of stroke were significantly older, and were significantly more likely to have a history of all medical comorbidities except for obesity, which was more prevalent in patients without a history of stroke. Compared with patients without history of stroke, patients with a history of stroke had higher in-hospital death rates during the study period (48.6% versus 31.7%, P<0.001). In the multivariable analysis, history of stroke (adjusted odds ratio, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.01-1.63]) was significantly associated with in-hospital death. CONCLUSIONS: We found that history of stroke was associated with in-hospital death among hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Further studies should confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Stroke/epidemiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , New York City/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Case Rep Neurol ; 12(2): 199-209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638529

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state causing cardiovascular and neurovascular complications. To further characterize cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in COVID-19, we review the current literature of published cases and additionally report the clinical presentation, laboratory and diagnostic testing results of 12 cases with COVID-19 infection and concurrent CVD from two academic medical centers in Houston, TX, USA, between March 1 and May 10, 2020. To date, there are 12 case studies reporting 47 cases of CVD in COVID-19. However, only 4 small case series have described the clinical and laboratory findings in patients with COVID-19 and concurrent stroke. Viral neurotropism, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and inflammation are plausible proposed mechanisms of CVD in COVID-19 patients. In our case series of 12 patients, 10 patients had an ischemic stroke, of which 1 suffered hemorrhagic transformation and two had intracerebral hemorrhage. Etiology was determined to be embolic without a clear cause identified in 6 ischemic stroke patients, while the remaining had an identifiable source of stroke. The majority of the patients had elevated inflammatory markers such as D-dimer and interleukin-6. In patients with embolic stroke of unclear etiology, COVID-19 may have played a direct or indirect role in the processes that eventually led to the strokes while in the remaining cases, it is unclear if infection contributed partially or was an incidental finding.

20.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 1359-1367, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-590338

ABSTRACT

The global spread of COVID-19 has caused a substantial societal burden and become a major global public health issue. The COVID-19 elderly population with hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular, and cerebrovascular diseases are at risk. Mortality rates are highest in these individuals if infected with COVID-19. Although the lungs are the main organs involved in acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by COVID-19 infection, COVID-19 triggers inflammatory and immune mechanisms, inducing a "cytokine storm" that aggravates disease progression and may lead to death. Presently, effective drugs are lacking, although current studies have confirmed that drugs with therapeutic potential include redaciclovir, lopinavir/ritonavir combined with interferon-ß, convalescent plasma, and monoclonal antibodies. Currently, the most reasonable and effective way to prevent COVID-19 is to control the source of infection, terminate routes of transmission, and protect susceptible populations. With the rise of COVID-19 in China and worldwide, further prevention, diagnosis, and treatment measures are a critical unmet need. Cerebrovascular disease has high incidence, disability rate, and fatality rate. COVID-19 patient outcomes may also be complicated with acute stroke. This paper summarizes the influence of COVID-19 on cerebrovascular disease and discusses possible pathophysiological mechanisms to provide new angles for the prevention and diagnosis of this disease.

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