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1.
Curr Psychol ; 41(2): 1057-1064, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748411

ABSTRACT

As in the whole world, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic poses many threats to healthcare workers in our country too, which leads to anxiety in healthcare workers. This study was conducted to explore the anxiety levels of healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study is a cross-sectional study. The population consisted of health care workers employed in hospitals in seven regions in Turkey. All volunteer healthcare workers were included in the study, and 356 healthcare workers responded to the questionnaire. The data were collected using the State Anxiety Inventory and a questionnaire created by the researchers using an online questionnaire between 10 May 2020 and 15 May 2020. In the evaluation of the data, mean, standard deviation, percentages, t-test, one-way ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple regression analysis were used. 33% of healthcare workers did not have anxiety, 50% had mild, and 17% had severe anxiety. The anxiety scores of those who were nurses (p < 0.001), who were working in the emergency room (p < 0.001), who were involved in treatment for COVID-19 patients (p = 0.040), who left their homes to prevent transmission to their families and relatives during the pandemic (p = 0.038), and whose working hours had changed (p = 0.036) were found to be significantly higher. It was observed that there was a positive and significant relationship between the fear of death and disease transmission, uncertainty, loneliness, anger, and hopelessness, and anxiety levels in healthcare workers. The main factors that significantly affected the anxiety levels of healthcare workers were male gender, weekly working hours, the presence of chronic diseases, and feelings of anger and uncertainty. In conclusion, during the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers experienced some negative emotions, their anxiety levels increased, and they were psychologically affected. Planning psychosocial interventions for healthcare workers in the high-risk group will make significant contributions to the health system.

2.
Life Sci ; 284: 119201, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cytokine storm is the exaggerated immune response often observed in viral infections. It is also intimately linked with the progression of COVID-19 disease as well as associated complications and mortality. Therefore, targeting the cytokine storm might help in reducing COVID-19-associated health complications. The number of COVID-19 associated deaths (as of January 15, 2021; https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/) in the USA is high (1199/million) as compared to countries like India (110/million). Although the reason behind this is not clear, spices may have some role in explaining this difference. Spices and herbs are used in different traditional medicines, especially in countries such as India to treat various chronic diseases due to their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. AIM: To evaluate the literature available on the anti-inflammatory properties of spices which might prove beneficial in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 associated cytokine storm. METHOD: A detailed literature search has been conducted on PubMed for collecting information pertaining to the COVID-19; the history, origin, key structural features, and mechanism of infection of SARS-CoV-2; the repurposed drugs in use for the management of COVID-19, and the anti-inflammatory role of spices to combat COVID-19 associated cytokine storm. KEY FINDINGS: The literature search resulted in numerous in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials that have reported the potency of spices to exert anti-inflammatory effects by regulating crucial molecular targets for inflammation. SIGNIFICANCE: As spices are derived from Mother Nature and are inexpensive, they are relatively safer to consume. Therefore, their anti-inflammatory property can be exploited to combat the cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients. This review thus focuses on the current knowledge on the role of spices for the treatment of COVID-19 through suppression of inflammation-linked cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Cytokines/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Spices , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
3.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
4.
Headache ; 60(10): 2389-2405, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this experimental study, we aimed to determine whether guided music listening (GML) - a music intervention based on models of mood mediation and attention modulation - modulates masticatory muscle activity and awake bruxism in subjects with chronic painful muscular temporomandibular disorders (TMD myalgia, mTMD), a condition causing a significant burden to patients, their families, and healthcare systems. BACKGROUND: Awake bruxism - a stress behavior characterized by clenching of the teeth - is a strong contributor to chronic mTMD. GML modulates psychological stress and motor responses and could thus reduce muscle activity in chronic musculoskeletal conditions, including mTMD. METHODS: We recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the right masseter of 14 women with chronic (>6 months) mTMD (median [IQR] = 39.5.3 [24.3] years) and 15 pain-free women (median [IQR] = 30.0 [3.5] years) during a GML session, including 3 music (stressful, relaxing, and participants' favorite music) and a no-music (pink noise) control blocks, each lasting 15 minutes. We measured the motor effort of the right masseter relative to the participants' maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the muscular effort to maintain mandibular posture (EMGposture ), and to produce spontaneous awake bruxism episodes (EMGbruxism ), and the duration and frequency of spontaneous awake bruxism episodes. We tested between-group and within-group (between blocks) differences, as well as the effect of the interaction group by experimental block on these outcome measures. RESULTS: In both groups, EMGposture was significantly affected by the interaction group by experimental block (P < .001). Compared to pink noise [mean (95% CI); mTMD: 2.2 (1.6-2.8) %MVC; Controls: 1.1 (0.5-1.7) %MVC], EMGposture increased during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI); mTMD: +0.8 (0.7-0.8) %MVC; Controls: +0.3 (0.3-0.4) %MVC; both P < .001], and decreased during the relaxing [mTMD: -0.4 (-0.5 to -0.4) %MVC; Controls: -0.3 (-0.4 to -0.3) %MVC; both P < .001] and favorite [mTMD: -0.5 (-0.6 to -0.5) %MVC; Controls: -0.5 (-0.5 to -0.4) %MVC; both P < .001] music blocks. EMGposture was greater in mTMD individuals than controls during the favorite music [contrast estimate (95% CI): +1.1 (0.2-1.9) %MVC; P = .019] and the pink noise [+1.1 (0.2-2.0) %MVC; P = .014] blocks. EMGbruxism was significantly affected by the interaction group by experimental block (P < .001). In mTMD participants, compared to the pink noise block [mean (95% CI); 23.8 (16.0-31.6) %MVC], EMGbruxism increased during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI); +10.2 (8.6-11.8) %MVC], and decreased during the relaxing [-6.2 (-8.1 to -4.3) %MVC; P < .001] and favorite [-10.2 (-12.2 to -9.1) %MVC; P < .001] music blocks. These effects were not observed in the control group [mean (95% CI); pink noise: 19.3 (10.9-27.6); stressful: 21.2 (12.9-29.4) %MVC; relaxing: 21.6 (13.3-29.9) %MVC; favorite: 24.2 (15.8-32.7) %MVC; all P > .05]. EMGbruxism was significantly greater in mTMD participants than controls during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI): +12.9 (1.6-24.2) %MVC; P = .026). GML did not affect the duration or the frequency of awake bruxism in either group (median [IQR], mTMD: 23.5 [96.7] s, range 1-1300 seconds; Controls: 5.5 [22.5], range 0-246 seconds; P = .108). The frequency of awake bruxism episodes was greater in the mTMD group compared to controls only during the pink noise block (median [IQR], mTMD: 5 [15.3] episodes, range 0-62 episodes; Controls: 1 [3] episode, range 0-27 episodes; P = .046). No significant between-group differences were found in either the overall time spent engaging in awake bruxism (median [IQR], mTMD: 23.5 [96.7] s, range 1-1300 seconds; Controls: 5.5 [22.5], range 0-246 seconds; P = .108), or during each block (all P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with chronic mTMD, relaxing music and the individual's favorite music decreased the muscular effort during spontaneous awake bruxism episodes by 26% and 44% (relative changes), respectively. In contrast, stressful music increases it by about 43%. Because of its positive effects on awake bruxism, GML with selected music could be a promising and non-invasive component of a multimodal approach for the management of chronic mTMD.


Subject(s)
Bruxism , Chronic Pain , Music Therapy , Music , Myalgia , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Adult , Bruxism/complications , Bruxism/physiopathology , Bruxism/psychology , Bruxism/therapy , Chronic Pain/etiology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Chronic Pain/therapy , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Masseter Muscle/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myalgia/psychology , Myalgia/therapy , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/physiopathology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/psychology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/therapy
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389392

ABSTRACT

Alveolar type II (ATII) cells are a key structure of the distal lung epithelium, where they exert their innate immune response and serve as progenitors of alveolar type I (ATI) cells, contributing to alveolar epithelial repair and regeneration. In the healthy lung, ATII cells coordinate the host defense mechanisms, not only generating a restrictive alveolar epithelial barrier, but also orchestrating host defense mechanisms and secreting surfactant proteins, which are important in lung protection against pathogen exposure. Moreover, surfactant proteins help to maintain homeostasis in the distal lung and reduce surface tension at the pulmonary air-liquid interface, thereby preventing atelectasis and reducing the work of breathing. ATII cells may also contribute to the fibroproliferative reaction by secreting growth factors and proinflammatory molecules after damage. Indeed, various acute and chronic diseases are associated with intensive inflammation. These include oedema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, fibrosis and numerous interstitial lung diseases, and are characterized by hyperplastic ATII cells which are considered an essential part of the epithelialization process and, consequently, wound healing. The aim of this review is that of revising the physiologic and pathologic role ATII cells play in pulmonary diseases, as, despite what has been learnt in the last few decades of research, the origin, phenotypic regulation and crosstalk of these cells still remain, in part, a mystery.


Subject(s)
Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/physiology , Lung Diseases/physiopathology , Lung/physiology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/cytology , Animals , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Ions/metabolism , Lung/anatomy & histology , Lung Diseases/etiology , Lung Diseases/pathology , Pulmonary Surfactant-Associated Proteins/metabolism , Regeneration
6.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 9(7): e1726, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1361220

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is a mostly autosomal recessive, genetic disease of abnormal motile cilia function, resulting in bronchiectasis, infertility, organ laterality defects, and chronic otolaryngology disease. Though motile, ependymal cilia influencing cerebrospinal fluid flow in the central nervous system share many aspects of structure and function with motile cilia in the respiratory tract, hydrocephalus is rarely associated with PCD. Recently, pathogenic variants in FOXJ1 (Chr 17q25.1) were identified causing PCD associated with hydrocephalus, reduced respiratory cilia number, axonemal microtubule disorganization, and occurring in a de novo, autosomal dominant inheritance pattern. METHOD: Two patients with chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease and hydrocephalus underwent candidate testing of FOXJ1. Coding region and splice junctions were sequenced and analyzed under the auspices of Genetic Disorders of Mucociliary Clearance Consortium. RESULTS: Upon sequencing of the entire coding region and splice-junctions, heterozygous, pathogenic variants in FOXJ1 were discovered in exon 3 of two patients: an 11-month-old female with situs inversus totalis (NM_001454.4: c.945delC (p.Phe315Leufs*18)) and a 51 year-old male, post-double lung transplantation (NM_001454.4: c.929_932delACTG (p.Asp310Glyfs*22)). FOXJ1 variants were not detected in the available parents and the siblings of these probands. CONCLUSION: FOXJ1 pathogenic variants cause PCD in a de novo, autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and are associated with hydrocephalus. Physicians treating patients with hydrocephalus and chronic oto-sino-pulmonary disease should be aware of this PCD association and test for FOXJ1 variants.


Subject(s)
Ciliary Motility Disorders/genetics , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics , Hydrocephalus/genetics , Ciliary Motility Disorders/pathology , Female , Genes, Dominant , Humans , Hydrocephalus/pathology , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation , Phenotype
7.
JMIR Diabetes ; 6(3): e25820, 2021 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1311338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With increasing type 2 diabetes prevalence, there is a need for effective programs that support diabetes management and improve type 2 diabetes outcomes. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have shown promising results. With advances in wearable sensors and improved integration, mHealth programs could become more accessible and personalized. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a personalized mHealth-anchored intervention program in improving glycemic control and enhancing care experience in diabetes management. The program was coincidentally implemented during the national-level lockdown for COVID-19 in Singapore, allowing for a timely study of the use of mHealth for chronic disease management. METHODS: Patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were enrolled from the Singapore Armed Forces and offered a 3-month intervention program in addition to the usual care they received. The program was standardized to include (1) in-person initial consultation with a clinical dietitian; (2) in-person review with a diabetes specialist doctor; (3) 1 continuous glucose monitoring device; (4) access to the mobile app for dietary intake and physical activity tracking, and communication via messaging with the dietitian and doctor; and (5) context-sensitive digital health coaching over the mobile app. Medical support was rendered to the patients on an as-needed basis when they required advice on adjustment of medications. Measurements of weight, height, and glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) were conducted at 2 in-person visits at the start and end of the program. At the end of the program, patients were asked to complete a short acceptability feedback survey to understand the motivation for joining the program, their satisfaction, and suggestions for improvement. RESULTS: Over a 4-week recruitment period, 130 individuals were screened, the enrollment target of 30 patients was met, and 21 patients completed the program and were included in the final analyses; 9 patients were lost to follow-up (full data were not available for the final analyses). There were no differences in the baseline characteristics between patients who were included and excluded from the final analyses (age category: P=.23; gender: P=.21; ethnicity: P>.99; diabetes status category: P=.52, medication adjustment category: P=.65; HbA1c category: P=.69; BMI: P>.99). The 21 patients who completed the study rated a mean of 9.0 out of 10 on the Likert scale for both satisfaction questions. For the Yes-No question on benefit of the program, all of the patients selected "Yes." Mean HbA1c decreased from 7.6% to 7.0% (P=.004). There were no severe hypoglycemia events (glucose level <3.0 mmol/L) reported. Mean weight decreased from 76.8 kg to 73.9 kg (P<.001), a mean decrease of 3.5% from baseline weight. Mean BMI decreased from 27.8 kg/m2 to 26.7 kg/m2 (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The personalized mHealth program was feasible, acceptable, and produced significant reductions in HbA1c (P=.004) and body weight (P<.001) in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Such mHealth programs could overcome challenges posed to chronic disease management by COVID-19, including disruptions to in-person health care access.

8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(9)2021 04 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1302246

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The utilization rate of herbal and dietary supplements among the Saudi population is reported to be high. However, the utilization rate and types of herbal and dietary supplements during the COVID-19 pandemic are largely unknown. METHODS: This was an online questionnaire-based cross-sectional study that used convenience sampling and social media platforms (Telegram®, Twitter®, and WhatsApp®) to disseminate a 12-item questionnaire across the Saudi general public aged 18 years and above. The questionnaire inquired about the sociodemographic characteristics (e.g., age, gender, education, geographical location), presence of chronic health conditions and the use of prescription medications, awareness of the viral nature of COVID-19 infection and its common symptoms, and the commonly utilized herbal and/or dietary supplements. RESULTS: Sixty-four percent of the 1473 participants reported using herbal and/or dietary supplements for the purpose of boosting their immune system to prevent COVID-19 infection. In addition, 88.2% of the respondents were misinformed about the manifestation of COVID-19 symptoms. Most of the participants were Saudi (91.9%), aged 49 years and younger (83%), female (52%), and healthy (81%). Honey (46%), lemon (45%), ginger (36%), vitamin C (32%), black seed (26%), garlic (26%), and turmeric (19%) were the most commonly used herbal and/or dietary supplements by the participants. Saudi nationals (OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.08 to 2.6, p = 0.02), older adults (OR = 1.30, 95% CI:1.10 to 1.55, p = 0.002), and those taking prescription medications had higher odds of using dietary and/or herbal supplements (OR = 3.31, 95% CI: 2.61 to 4.18, p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The utilization rate of herbal and dietary supplements among the Saudi public during the COVID-19 pandemic is high. Future studies should examine the impact of different public awareness campaigns aimed at improving the public knowledge of the risk and benefits associated with the use of different commonly utilized herbal and dietary products identified in this study.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(6): e28708, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278304

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a rapid shift from center-based rehabilitation to telerehabilitation for chronic respiratory disease and lung transplantation due to infection control precautions. Clinical experience with this delivery model on a large scale has not been described. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe usage and satisfaction of providers and lung transplant (LTx) candidates and recipients and functional outcomes following the broad implementation of telerehabilitation with remote patient monitoring during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This study was a program evaluation of providers, LTx candidates, and early LTx recipients who used a web-based, remote monitoring app for at least four weeks between March 16 and September 1, 2020, to participate in telerehabilitation. Within-subjects analysis was performed for physical activity, Self-efficacy For Exercise (SEE) scale score, aerobic and resistance exercise volumes, 6-minute walk test results, and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) results. RESULTS: In total, 78 LTx candidates and 33 recipients were included (57 [51%] males, mean age 58 [SD 12] years, 58 [52%] with interstitial lung disease, 34 [31%] with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). A total of 50 (64%) LTx candidates and 17 (51%) LTx recipients entered ≥10 prescribed exercise sessions into the app during the study time frame. In addition, 35/42 (83%) candidates agreed the app helped prepare them for surgery and 18/21 (85%) recipients found the app helpful in their self-recovery. The strongest barrier perceived by physiotherapists delivering the telerehabilitation was patient access to home exercise and monitoring equipment. Between the time of app registration and ≥4 weeks on the waiting list, 26 LTx candidates used a treadmill, with sessions increasing in mean duration (from 16 to 22 minutes, P=.002) but not speed (from 1.7 to 1.75 mph, P=.31). Quadriceps weight (pounds) for leg extension did not change (median 3.5, IQR 2.4-5 versus median 4.3, IQR 3-5; P=.08; n=37). On the Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity questionnaire (RAPA), 57% of LTx candidates scored as active, which improved to 87% (P=.02; n=23). There was a decrease in pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) from 346 (SD 84) meters to 307 (SD 85) meters (P=.002; n=45) and no change in the SPPB result (12 [IQR 9.5-12] versus 12 [IQR 10-12]; P=.90; n=42). A total of 9 LTx recipients used a treadmill that increased in speed (from 1.9 to 2.7 mph; P=.003) between hospital discharge and three months posttransplant. Quadriceps weight increased (3 [IQR 0-3] pounds versus 5 [IQR 3.8-6.5] pounds; P<.001; n=15). At three months posttransplant, 76% of LTx recipients scored as active (n=17), with a high total SEE score of 74 (SD 11; n=12). In addition, three months posttransplant, 6MWD was 62% (SD 18%) predicted (n=8). CONCLUSIONS: We were able to provide telerehabilitation despite challenges around exercise equipment. This early experience will inform the development of a robust and equitable telerehabilitation model beyond the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Transplantation , Telerehabilitation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Program Evaluation , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Metabolism ; 121: 154814, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265810

ABSTRACT

Diabetes, one of the most prevalent chronic diseases in the world, is strongly associated with a poor prognosis in COVID-19. Scrupulous blood sugar management is crucial, since the worse outcomes are closely associated with higher blood sugar levels in COVID-19 infection. Although recent observational studies showed that insulin was associated with mortality, it should not deter insulin use in hospitalized patients requiring tight glucose control. Back and forth dilemma in the past with regards to continue/discontinue certain medications used in diabetes have been mostly resolved. The initial fears of consequences related to continuing certain medications have been largely dispelled. COVID-19 also necessitates the transformation in diabetes care through the integration of technologies. Recent advances in health-related technologies, notably telemedicine and remote continuous glucose monitoring, have become essential in the management of diabetes during the pandemic. Today, these technologies have changed the landscape of medicine and become more important than ever. Being a high-risk population, patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, should be prioritized for vaccination. In the future, as the pandemic fades, the prevalence of non-communicable diseases is expected to rise due to lifestyle changes and medical issues/dilemma encountered during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
Healthcare (Basel) ; 9(5)2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic dermatological condition characterized by lesions on extensor surfaces, hands, feet, and genital areas. Chronic renal failure is often associated with metabolic syndrome and inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis. CASE REPORT: In this paper, we report a patient with stage-three chronic renal failure that improved his renal condition after treatment with ixekizumab, an anti-IL17A drug used in the treatment of various cutaneous and rheumatological conditions. CONCLUSIONS: IL17A blockage may help to treat various autoimmune and inflammatory conditions, such as psoriasis, that may lead to renal impairment. Further investigation is necessary in order to prove the effectiveness of this drug in renal conditions.

12.
Aust Health Rev ; 2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238057

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveThis study investigated the experience of patients with chronic diseases regarding access to and utilisation of multidisciplinary care during COVID-19 in South Australia.MethodsTelephone interviews were conducted with 30 patients with chronic conditions attending nine general practices in metropolitan Adelaide. Supplementary data were obtained from the Medicare Benefit Schedule (MBS) to compare health services activity data provided by different health professionals before and after COVID-19 (from January 2019 to June 2020).ResultsThere was variation in access to different health services by patients with chronic conditions during COVID-19. The introduction of telehealth facilitated continuity of general practitioner (GP) services, with a high level of satisfaction among patients. Changes in medicines regulation, including the home delivery of medications, enabled timely access to medications for patients. The use of telehealth was less common for specialist and particularly allied health services. Dental check-ups that are important for the management of some chronic conditions were disrupted the most during COVID-19.ConclusionThe findings of this study suggest that the policy measures introduced in Australia provided an opportunity to maintain multidisciplinary care for patients with chronic diseases during COVID-19. GPs, as core members of the primary healthcare team, as well as pharmacy and pathology services, were highly accessible. Telehealth was less accessed for chronic care services provided by specialists and allied health professionals.What is known about the topic?Access to multidisciplinary care is critical to ensure continuity and quality of care for patients with chronic health conditions. Evidence suggests disruptions in health services can occur during pandemics. To continue access to routine care, the Australian Government introduced several policy initiatives during COVID-19 to enhance access to multidisciplinary care.What does this paper add?Telehealth policy was particularly effective in facilitating patients' access to general practice services during COVID-19 particularly those services that did not need physical examinations. This policy complemented changes in medicines regulations that enabled timely and convenient access to medications for patients with chronic conditions. Allied health services, as important elements of multidisciplinary care, were more likely to be disrupted during COVID-19.What are the implications for practitioners?Continuation of telehealth services is likely to enhance access to general practice services. The acceptability and use of telehealth for allied health services may require more flexibility, and training for both practitioners and patients.

13.
Perspect Psychiatr Care ; 58(1): 149-158, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238470

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the anxiety levels of COVID-19 patients, individuals under quarantine, and healthy individuals in society. DESIGN AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 25, 2020 to June 25, 2020 in a city located in the northwest of Turkey. The data were collected using a personal information form, the Beck Anxiety Scale, administered in face-to-face interviews, and online questionnaires. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and logistic regression analyses. FINDINGS: The anxiety level of individuals under quarantine (Median: min-max = 1: 0-55) was significantly lower statistically compared to that of the rest of the society (Median: min-max = 6: 0-63) and hospitalized COVID-19 patients (Median: min-max = 5: 0-42) (p = 0.0001). Female gender, being 61 years of age and older, having psychiatric and chronic illnesses, and experiencing disrupted sleep patterns were determined to be the factors associated with high levels of anxiety. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: This study found that society in general and hospitalized COVID-19 patients had high anxiety levels. The study results can be useful for creating training and population-based screening programs to control the anxiety of individuals under quarantine, hospitalized COVID-19 patients, and the rest of the society during the pandemic. Additionally, the finding from this study on groups at risk for anxiety will provide important data for future research on this subject and for the planning of health services offered to these groups.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(10)2021 05 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although some studies have explored the effects of responses to COVID-19 on mortality, there are limited data on their effects on more immediate health risk factors and the trends of chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence of some behavioral health risk factors, intermediate risk factors, and chronic diseases at different timepoints during 2020 using the data available from a currently used surveillance system in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This study undertook a secondary analysis of data from the Sharik Health Indicators Surveillance System (SHISS). The SHISS employs short cross-sectional phone interviews, conducted in all 13 administrative regions of Saudi Arabia on a quarterly basis. Each interview lasts approximately 4 min and is conducted by a trained data collector. The SHISS collects demographic data, as well as data on the major behavioral and intermediate chronic disease risk factors and the major chronic diseases, including diabetes, heart disease, stroke, cancer, and chronic respiratory diseases. RESULTS: Of the 44,782 potential participants contacted in 2020, 30,134 completed the interview, with a response rate of 67.29%. Out of the total participants, 51.2% were female. The mean age was 36.5. The behavioral risk factors in this period exhibited significant changes compared to those in the first quarter (Q1) of 2020, when there were no significant restrictions on daily activities. These significant changes are related to reductions in fruit and vegetable intake (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.23) and physical activity (AOR, 0.483), and a significant increase in e-cigarette use (AOR 1.531). In terms of the intermediate risk factors observed in the SHISS, significant increases in hypercholesterolemia (AOR, 1.225) and hypertension (AOR, 1.190) were observed. Finally, heart disease (AOR, 1.279) and diabetes (AOR, 1.138) displayed significant increases compared to Q1. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows some evidence of the impact of responses to COVID-19 on the health of the population in Saudi Arabia. Significant reductions in fruit and vegetable intake and physical activity, and significant increases in e-cigarette use, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia may increase the burden of chronic diseases in Saudi Arabia in the near future. Thus, continuous monitoring of the health risk factors within the population, and early interventions, are recommended to prevent future increases in chronic diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Population Health , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology
15.
Public Health Pract (Oxf) ; 2: 100141, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233591

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Socioeconomic factors such as elevated incidence of chronic disease, overcrowding, and increased occupational exposure result in higher risk of infectious disease. The COVID-19 pandemic has appeared to disproportionately affect communities affected by deprivation and discrimination, who also appear to be at greater risk of severe disease. Our aim was to investigate the evolution of the socioeconomic groups affected by COVID-19 over the course of the first wave of the pandemic by examining patients presenting to an acute NHS trust. STUDY DESIGN: and methods: A retrospective study using the postcodes of patients presenting to the Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust who tested PCR-positive for COVID-19 were used to determine average house price and index of multiple deprivation. These were used as markers of affluence to examine the trend in the socioeconomic status of affected patients from February to May 2020. RESULTS: 384 cases were included. The postcodes of those individuals who were initially infected had higher average house prices and index of multiple deprivation, both of which followed downward trends as the outbreak progressed. CONCLUSION: Our data shows that the outbreak spread from higher to lower affluence groups through the course of the pandemic. We hypothesise that this was due to wealthier individuals initially transmitting the virus from abroad. Therefore, an earlier and more effective quarantine could have reduced spread to members of the community at greater risk of infection and harm. We suggest that hospitals systematically record the socioeconomic status of affected individuals in order to monitor trends, identify those who may be at risk of severe disease, and to push for more equitable public health policy.

16.
J Asthma ; 59(7): 1484-1490, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232110

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is limited information in literature on how coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic period affects people with asthma. This study aimed to compare levels of physical activity, stress, and fear and quality of life and sleep quality between patients with asthma and healthy individuals during the pandemic. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with asthma and 22 healthy individuals aged between 18 and 65 years were included. Physical activity level using "International Physical Activity Questionnaire"; stress level, using "Perceived Stress Scale-14"; fear level, using "Fear of COVID-19 Scale"; sleep quality, using "Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index"; and quality of life, using "World Health Organization Quality of Life" were evaluated. RESULTS: Total physical activity level, vigorous physical activity level, and walking score of patients with asthma were lower than healthy individuals (p < .05). Sitting time of patients with asthma was higher than healthy individuals (p < .05). Subjective sleep quality, latency, duration, efficiency, sleeping medication use, and daytime dysfunction of both were similar (p > .05). Only sleep disturbance score of patients with asthma were higher than healthy individuals (p < .05). Quality of life, stress, and fear levels of both were similar (p > .05). CONCLUSION: During pandemic, patients with asthma are more inactive than healthy individuals regardless of the presence of a chronic disease; pandemic negatively affected stress, fear levels, sleep, and quality of life. To minimize the effects of restrictions and psychological burden caused by pandemic and to encourage patients with asthma to perform physical activities, conducting studies to control stress levels and increasing quality of life and sleep of all individuals are important.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asthma/epidemiology , Asthma/psychology , Exercise , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life/psychology , Sleep , Young Adult
17.
Respirology ; 26(6): 552-565, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1218177

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first detected in Wuhan, China, in late 2019 and continues to spread worldwide. Persistent questions remain about the relationship between the severity of COVID-19 and comorbid diseases, as well as other chronic pulmonary conditions. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to examine in detail whether the underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD), asthma and chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) were associated with an increased risk of more severe COVID-19. A comprehensive literature search was performed using five international search engines. In the initial search, 722 articles were identified. After eliminating duplicate records and further consideration of eligibility criteria, 53 studies with 658,073 patients were included in the final analysis. COPD was present in 5.2% (2191/42,373) of patients with severe COVID-19 and in 1.4% (4203/306,151) of patients with non-severe COVID-19 (random-effects model; OR = 2.58, 95% CI = 1.99-3.34, Z = 7.15, p < 0.001). CRD was present in 8.6% (3780/44,041) of patients with severe COVID-19 and in 5.7% (16,057/280,447) of patients with non-severe COVID-19 (random-effects model; OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.74-2.64, Z = 7.1, p < 0.001). Asthma was present in 2.3% (1873/81,319) of patients with severe COVID-19 and in 2.2% (11,796/538,737) of patients with non-severe COVID-19 (random-effects model; OR = 1.13, 95% CI = 0.79-1.60, Z = 0.66, p = 0.50). In conclusion, comorbid COPD and CRD were clearly associated with a higher severity of COVID-19; however, no association between asthma and severe COVID-19 was identified.


Subject(s)
Asthma/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Patient Acuity , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Asthma/physiopathology , Chronic Disease/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 145(5): 529-535, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207909

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT.­: This study represents the largest compilation to date of clinical and postmortem data from decedents with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It will augment previously published small series of autopsy case reports, refine clinicopathologic considerations, and improve the accuracy of future vital statistical reporting. OBJECTIVE.­: To accurately reflect the preexisting diseases and pathologic conditions of decedents with SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) infection through autopsy. DESIGN.­: Comprehensive data from 135 autopsy evaluations of COVID-19-positive decedents is presented, including histologic assessment. Postmortem examinations were performed by 36 pathologists at 19 medical centers or forensic institutions in the United States and Brazil. Data from each autopsy were collected through the online submission of multiple-choice and open-ended survey responses. RESULTS.­: Patients dying of or with COVID-19 had an average of 8.89 pathologic conditions documented at autopsy, spanning a combination of prior chronic disease and acute conditions acquired during hospitalization. Virtually all decedents were cited as having more than 1 preexisting condition, encompassing an average of 2.88 such diseases each. Clinical conditions during terminal hospitalization were cited 395 times for the 135 autopsied decedents and predominantly encompassed acute failure of multiple organ systems and/or impaired coagulation. Myocarditis was rarely cited. CONCLUSIONS.­: Cause-of-death statements in both autopsy reports and death certificates may not encompass the severity or spectrum of comorbid conditions in those dying of or with COVID-19. If supported by additional research, this finding may have implications for public health decisions and reporting moving forward through the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cause of Death , Chronic Disease , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(16): e25634, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195758

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Spain is one of the European countries most largely affected by COVID-19, being Madrid the epicenter. A good knowledge of the main features of hospitalized patients during the complete lockdown should improve the management of new COVID-19 surges.All patients hospitalized at one large tertiary hospital in Madrid for suspected COVID-19 pneumonia from March 1 to May 31 were retrospectively identified.A total of 1752 patients were admitted with suspected pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection during the 3-month study period. The peak of daily admissions (n = 84) was reached on March 24, whereas the maximal cumulative number of hospitalized patients (n = 626) occurred on March 30. Overall, 85.3% had a positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 at least once during admission. Their median age was 65 (54-77) and 59.9% were male. The median length of hospitalization was of 7 (4-13) days. Roughly 6.5% were admitted at the intensive care unit.Death occurred in 242 (13.8%). Overall, 75% of deaths occurred in patients older than 75 years-old. It was 38.2% in patients hospitalized older than 80 years-old versus 2.2% in patients younger than 60 years-old (p < 0.001). Up to 94 (38.8%) of deceased patients had been transferred from nursing homes. The median Charlson co-morbidity score was 6 in deceased patients.The in-hospital mortality rate during the first wave of COVID-19 in Madrid was 14%. It was largely driven by older age, the presence of underlying chronic conditions (≥2) and living at nursing homes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Hospital Mortality , Pandemics , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology
20.
Public Health ; 194: 36-41, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179972

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has serious social, economic and health consequences. Particularly in these times, it is important to maintain individual health. Therefore, it is important to take part in routine health checkups. Consequently, our objective was to describe the frequency and to identify the determinants of postponed routine health checkups. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional data from the nationally representative online-survey "COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring in Germany (COSMO)" was used (wave 17; July 2020). METHODS: In sum, 974 individuals were included in our analytical sample (average age was 45.9 years, SD: 16.5, 18-74 years). Postponed routine health checkups (yes or no) since March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic were assessed. RESULTS: More than 16% of the individuals reported postponed routine health checkups in the past few months due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Particularly, individuals aged 30-49 years had postponed health checkups (21%). The probability of postponed health checkups was positively associated with the presence of chronic diseases (odds ratio [OR]: 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15-2.47), higher affect regarding COVID-19 (OR: 1.44, 95%-CI: 1.16-1.78), and higher presumed severity of COVID-19 (OR: 1.17, 95%-CI: 1.01-1.35), whereas the outcome measure was not associated with socioeconomic factors. Data showed that a sizeable part (about one of six individuals) of the population reported postponed routine health checkups due to the COVID-19 pandemic between March and July 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Postponed checkups should not be neglected during the COVID-19 pandemic. Individuals at risk for postponed health checkups should be appropriately addressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Physical Examination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , Time Factors , Young Adult
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