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1.
Wirtschaftsdienst ; 100(7): 507-509, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872491

ABSTRACT

In contrast to the economic and financial crisis of 2009, the labour market has been hit harder during the coronavirus crisis in 2020. New hires have declined substantially, which may lead to persistent unemployment and a "generation COVID-19" of graduates. Employment subsidies would be a suitable measure to stabilise the economy and the labour market and to reduce these risks at an early stage.

2.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725878

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus-disease 2019 (COVID-19) was announced as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. Challenges arise concerning how to optimally support the immune system in the general population, especially under self-confinement. An optimal immune response depends on an adequate diet and nutrition in order to keep infection at bay. For example, sufficient protein intake is crucial for optimal antibody production. Low micronutrient status, such as of vitamin A or zinc, has been associated with increased infection risk. Frequently, poor nutrient status is associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, which in turn can impact the immune system. Dietary constituents with especially high anti-inflammatory and antioxidant capacity include vitamin C, vitamin E, and phytochemicals such as carotenoids and polyphenols. Several of these can interact with transcription factors such as NF-kB and Nrf-2, related to anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, respectively. Vitamin D in particular may perturb viral cellular infection via interacting with cell entry receptors (angiotensin converting enzyme 2), ACE2. Dietary fiber, fermented by the gut microbiota into short-chain fatty acids, has also been shown to produce anti-inflammatory effects. In this review, we highlight the importance of an optimal status of relevant nutrients to effectively reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, thereby strengthening the immune system during the COVID-19 crisis.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Diet , Immune System/immunology , Inflammation/immunology , Nutrients/immunology , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Antioxidants , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/prevention & control , Nutritional Status/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e22427, 2021 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of COVID-19, numerous rumors emerged on the internet in China and caused confusion among the public. However, the characteristics of these rumors in different phases of the epidemic have not been studied in depth, and the official responses to the rumors have not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the rumor epidemic and official responses during the COVID-19 outbreak in China and to provide a scientific basis for effective information communication in future public health crises. METHODS: Data on internet rumors related to COVID-19 were collected via the Sina Weibo Official Account to Refute Rumors between January 20 and April 8, 2020, extracted, and analyzed. The data were divided into five periods according to the key events and disease epidemic. Different classifications of rumors were described and compared over the five periods. The trends of the epidemic and the focus of the public at different stages were plotted, and correlation analysis between the number of rumors and the number of COVID-19 cases was performed. The geographic distributions of the sources and refuters of the rumors were graphed, and analyses of the most frequently appearing words in the rumors were applied to reveal hotspots of the rumors. RESULTS: A total of 1943 rumors were retrieved. The median of the response interval between publication and debunking of the rumors was 1 day (IQR 1-2). Rumors in text format accounted for the majority of the 1943 rumors (n=1241, 63.9%); chat tools, particularly WeChat (n=1386, 71.3%), were the most common platform for initial publishing of the rumors (n=1412, 72.7%). In addition to text rumors, Weibo and web pages were more likely to be platforms for rumors released in multimedia formats or in a combination of formats, respectively. Local agencies played a large role in dispelling rumors among social media platforms (1537/1943, 79.1%). There were significant differences in the formats and origins of rumors over the five periods (P<.001). Hubei Province accounted for most of the country's confirmed rumors. Beijing and Wuhan City were the main centers for debunking of disinformation. The words most frequently included in the core messages of the rumors varied by period, indicating shifting in the public's concern. CONCLUSIONS: Chat tools, particularly WeChat, became the major sources of rumors during the COVID-19 outbreak in China, indicating a requirement to establish rumor monitoring and refuting mechanisms on these platforms. Moreover, targeted policy adjustments and timely release of official information are needed in different phases of the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communication , Social Media , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Public Health
4.
Mediterr J Rheumatol ; 31(Suppl 2): 299-303, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1539056

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current crisis COVID-19 has affected the already challenging management of rheumatic diseases. Since no evidence-based approach is yet available, this survey was conducted to explore the Iraqi rheumatologists' attitude in the era of COVID-19 and how they have been managing their patients, especially with the continuously updating and sometimes conflicting reports. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was distributed online via telephone and social media to rheumatologists in Iraq. A questionnaire was conducted about methods of patient education, preventive measures, and methods of arranging visits and treatment. In addition, an inquiry about the similarity of the practice between their local institutions and global ones. RESULTS: 144 rheumatologists answered the 14 obligatory questions, of which the majority were specialists. 122 rheumatologists participated in patient education. Half of participants used online information, social media and websites as a source to communicate and interact with their patients for education about COVID-19-related issues. CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of solid guidelines regarding the management of rheumatic diseases during the COVID-19 crisis, this survey showed the majority of Iraqi rheumatologists to be familiar with the updating recommendations. Also, as the majority are waiting for stronger evidence before attempting to embrace controversial issues, surely this reflects a responsible and scientific attitude.

5.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467465

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of management of the COVID-19 epidemic in a French immigration detention center. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: During containment in France because of COVID-19, the judicial authorities had to deal with the risk of contamination within immigration detention centers (IDC). In the Paris IDC, which can usually receive up to 240 individuals, measures have been taken to limit the risk of contamination by releasing individuals without prior judicial conviction and testing the others by a nasal swab. FINDINGS: The test was done for all the present individuals (48), except two who refused. Eight tests (17.4%) were positive and only one was symptomatic. Individuals testing positive for COVID-19 were transferred into COVID-centers specially created during this health crisis. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Management of the COVID-19 epidemic in this French IDC illustrates the necessity of good cooperation between judicial authorities and medical teams in charge of those centers and the difficulty of balancing public health actions with state security.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emigrants and Immigrants/legislation & jurisprudence , Jails , Public Health , Adult , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 561168, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389192

ABSTRACT

Providing routine healthcare to patients with serious health illnesses represents a challenge to healthcare providers amid the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Treating cancer patients during this pandemic is even more complex due to their heightened vulnerability, as both cancer and cancer treatment weaken the immune system leading to a higher risk of both infections and severe complications. In addition to the need to protect cancer patients from unnecessary exposure to SARS-CoV-2 infection during their routine care, interruption, and discontinuation of cancer treatment can result in negative consequences on patients' health, in addition to the ghost of rationing healthcare resources in high demand during a global health crisis. This article aims to explore the ethical dilemmas faced by decision-makers and healthcare providers caring for cancer patients during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. This includes setting triage criteria for non-infected cancer patients, fairly allocating limited healthcare resources between cancer patients and SARS-CoV-2 patients, prioritizing SARS-CoV-2 treatment or vaccine, once developed, for cancer patients and non-cancer patients, patient-physician communication on matters such as end-of-life and do-not-resuscitate (DNR), and lastly, shifting physicians' priorities from treating their own cancer patients to treating critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Ultimately, no straightforward decision can be easily made at such exceptionally difficult times. Applying different ethical principles can result in very different scenarios and consequences. In the end, we will briefly share the experience of the King Hussein Cancer Center (KHCC), the only standalone comprehensive cancer center in the region.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314324

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
9.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100378, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275075

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity is a major social determinant of health affecting more than 10% of Americans. Social determinants of health are increasingly recognized as a driving force of health inequities. It is well established that food insecurity leads to adverse health outcomes outside of pregnancy, such as obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and mental health problems. However, limited data exist about the impact of food insecurity during pregnancy on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Food insecurity and other social determinants of health are rarely addressed as part of routine obstetrical care. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated the crisis of food insecurity across the country, disproportionally affecting women and racial and ethnic minorities. Women's health providers should implement universal screening for maternal food insecurity and offer resources to women struggling to feed themselves and their families. Reducing maternal health inequities in the United States involves recognizing and addressing food insecurity, along with other social determinants of health, and advocating for public policies that support and protect all women's right to healthy food during pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Female , Food Insecurity , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(6): e26956, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of rapid dissemination of scientific and medical discoveries. Current platforms available for the distribution of scientific and clinical research data and information include preprint repositories and traditional peer-reviewed journals. In recent times, social media has emerged as a helpful platform to share scientific and medical discoveries. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to comparatively analyze activity on social media (specifically, Twitter) and that related to publications in the form of preprint and peer-reviewed journal articles in the context of COVID-19 and gastroenterology during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: COVID-19-related data from Twitter (tweets and user data) and articles published in preprint servers (bioRxiv and medRxiv) as well as in the PubMed database were collected and analyzed during the first 6 months of the pandemic, from December 2019 through May 2020. Global and regional geographic and gastrointestinal organ-specific social media trends were compared to preprint and publication activity. Any relationship between Twitter activity and preprint articles published and that between Twitter activity and PubMed articles published overall, by organ system, and by geographic location were identified using Spearman's rank-order correlation. RESULTS: Over the 6-month period, 73,079 tweets from 44,609 users, 7164 journal publications, and 4702 preprint publications were retrieved. Twitter activity (ie, number of tweets) peaked in March 2020, whereas preprint and publication activity (ie, number of articles published) peaked in April 2020. Overall, strong correlations were identified between trends in Twitter activity and preprint and publication activity (P<.001 for both). COVID-19 data across the three platforms mainly concentrated on pulmonology or critical care, but when analyzing the field of gastroenterology specifically, most tweets pertained to pancreatology, most publications focused on hepatology, and most preprints covered hepatology and luminal gastroenterology. Furthermore, there were significant positive associations between trends in Twitter and publication activity for all gastroenterology topics (luminal gastroenterology: P=.009; hepatology and inflammatory bowel disease: P=.006; gastrointestinal endoscopy: P=.007), except pancreatology (P=.20), suggesting that Twitter activity did not correlate with publication activity for this topic. Finally, Twitter activity was the highest in the United States (7331 tweets), whereas PubMed activity was the highest in China (1768 publications). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the potential of social media as a vehicle for disseminating scientific information during a public health crisis. Sharing and spreading information on COVID-19 in a timely manner during the pandemic has been paramount; this was achieved at a much faster pace on social media, particularly on Twitter. Future investigation could demonstrate how social media can be used to augment and promote scholarly activity, especially as the world begins to increasingly rely on digital or virtual platforms. Scientists and clinicians should consider the use of social media in augmenting public awareness regarding their scholarly pursuits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Information Dissemination , Pandemics , Research/statistics & numerical data , Research/trends , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Social Media/trends , China/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care/trends , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , PubMed/statistics & numerical data , Public Health , Pulmonary Medicine/statistics & numerical data , Pulmonary Medicine/trends , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Interpers Violence ; : 8862605211021968, 2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259117

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic may be experienced as traumatogenic and may fuel or exacerbate psychological distress and trauma-related symptoms. Based on trauma research, one might expect that survivors of childhood abuse would be susceptible to these negative outcomes during the pandemic, and that among this population a stronger relation between emotion regulation difficulties and symptomatology would be found. Aiming to explore these suppositions, an online survey was conducted among 710 Israeli adults. Of them, 370 were childhood abuse survivors. A history of childhood abuse, COVID-19-related stressors, overall psychological distress, and peritraumatic stress symptoms during the pandemic were assessed via self-report measures. Participants with a history of childhood abuse had elevated overall psychological distress as well as peritraumatic stress symptoms during the pandemic, compared to nonabused participants, above and beyond demographic characteristics and COVID-19-related stressors. Emotion regulation difficulties were related to elevated psychological distress and peritraumatic stress symptoms among both childhood abuse survivors and nonabused participants. Nonetheless, a history of childhood abuse moderated the relations between the emotion regulation difficulty of being unable to engage in goal-directed behaviors when distressed (on one hand) and mental outcomes (on the other): Although the associations between inability to engage in goal-directed behaviors, overall psychological distress, and peritraumatic stress symptoms were nonsignificant among nonabused participants, they were significant among childhood abuse survivors. The current findings suggest that a history of childhood abuse might be a risk factor for distress in the face of COVID-19, and that childhood abuse survivors would benefit from clinical interventions that promote emotion regulation skills during this ongoing global health crisis.

12.
Ann Plast Surg ; 86(5S Suppl 3): S354-S359, 2021 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254947

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic. As a response, the United States shut down public gatherings and businesses in an effort to quarantine. This included the stopping of elective operations, which greatly affected plastic surgeons and their practices during the initial shutdown. OBJECTIVES: We aim to study the early impact of COVID-19 on the financial implications and practice patterns of plastic surgeons in the state of California during the initial shutdown of elective surgery and provide guidelines for effective management during future crises. METHODS: A 20-question survey was sent using Qualtrics XM software to 851 surgeon members of the California Society of Plastic Surgeons. The survey was open from May 13, 2020, to May 29, 2020. Standard statistical analysis was completed to compare private practice and nonprivate practice plastic surgeons. RESULTS: We had a total of 140 respondents to our survey for a 16.5% response rate. The majority (77.1%) of the respondents were in a private practice setting. Private practice plastic surgeons reported a higher financial impact with a 79% reduction in financial income compared with nonprivate practice plastic surgeons at a 37% reduction (P < 0.0001). Additionally, private practice plastic surgeons demonstrated a higher reduction in case volume and were more likely to lay off or furlough staff, close their practice, and apply for loans (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our survey study showed that private practice plastic surgeons in the state of California faced the most financial hardship during the early shutdown of the COVID-19 pandemic. It serves as a valuable snapshot in our economic history and depicts the heavy financial impact of the stopping of elective surgery. Since the reopening of practices, new guidelines have been implemented to maintain safe elective surgery while the pandemic continues. Further follow-up studies on both the state and national level need to be completed to see the continued financial effects on private and nonprivate plastic surgery practices since the reopening and resumption of elective surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Surgeons , Surgery, Plastic , California , Humans , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians' , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States
13.
J Alzheimers Dis Rep ; 4(1): 455-458, 2020 Oct 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256346

ABSTRACT

While social distancing may be deemed necessary in order to avoid COVID-19 infections, the lockdown may impact mental health of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We present a case study involving hallucinations in a patient with AD who lives in a nursing home during the COVID-19 crisis. We compared this patient's hallucination scores before and during the lockdown. We observed increased hallucinations during, compared to before, the lockdown. These increased hallucinations can be attributed to a number of elements such as the decreased in daily activities, social distancing, lack of physical contact with family members, and loneliness during the lockdown.

14.
Int J Endocrinol ; 2021: 5563960, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247434

ABSTRACT

Although the numbers of aged populations have risen considerably in the last few decades, the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has revealed an extensive vulnerability among these populations. Sarcopenia is an age-related disorder that increases hospitalization, dependencies, and mortality in older adults. It starts to develop in midlife or even earlier as a result of unbalanced diet/poor nutrition and low levels of physical activity, in addition to chronic disorders such as obesity and diabetes mellitus. Given that social isolation is adopted as the most protective measure against COVID-19, the level of physical activity and the intake of adequate diet have considerably declined, especially among older adults-denoting an increased possibility for developing sarcopenia. Research also shows a higher vulnerability of sarcopenic people to COVID-19 as well as the development of wasting disorders such as sarcopenia and cachexia in a considerable proportion of symptomatic and recovering COVID-19 patients. Muscular wasting in COVID-19 is associated with poor prognosis. Accordingly, early detection and proper management of sarcopenia and wasting conditions in older adults and COVID-19 patients may minimize morbidity and mortality during the current COVID-19 crisis. This review explored different aspects of screening for sarcopenia, stressing their relevance to the detection of altered muscular structure and performance in patients with COVID-19. Current guidelines recommend prior evaluation of muscle strength by simple measures such as grip strength to identify individuals with proven weakness who then would be screened for muscle mass loss. The latter is best measured by MRI and CT. However, due to the high cost and radiation risk entailed by these techniques, other simpler and cheaper techniques such as DXA and ultrasound are given preference. Muscle loss in COVID-19 patients was measured during the acute phase by CT scanning of the pectoralis muscle simultaneously during a routine check for lung fibrosis, which seems to be an efficient evaluation of sarcopenia among those patients with no additional cost. In recovering patients, muscle strength and physical performance have been evaluated by electromyography and traditional tests such as the six-minute walk test. Effective preventive and therapeutic interventions are necessary in order to prevent muscle loss and associated physical decline in COVID-19 patients.

15.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 139-141, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244758

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic might increase suicide behaviors. However, results are still limited and inconclusive, especially in adolescents. METHODS: To provide a preliminary evidence of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide attempts (SA), we compared data from the Catalonia Suicide Risk Code (CRSC), during the first 12 months of Spain COVID-19 pandemic (March 2020 to March 2021) with data of the previous 12 months (March 2019 to March 2020). The CRSC is a well-established population-based registry of suicide attempts (SA) which allows monitoring of the dynamic changes that COVID-19 may produce in a Spanish region. RESULTS: SA among adolescents increased 25% during the COVID-year, whatever, SA among adults decreased 16,5% in the same period. The increase of SA in girls was especially prominent in the starting school period in the COVID-year (September 2020-March 2021), where the increase reached 195%. LIMITATIONS: This study did not evaluate other individual risk factors of SA in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, so is unable to make concrete causal inferences. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that SA increased in adolescent girls during the last period of the COVID-19 pandemic, underscoring the need to implement effective preventive measures by public health systems and stakeholders into response during this public health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Suicide, Attempted
16.
Stud Russ Econ Dev ; 32(3): 229-237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242191

ABSTRACT

The article is devoted to the main directions of the development of economic analysis under the influence of a pandemic crisis. The key features of the pandemic crisis, the formation of economic dynamics in its course, and the main directions of the authorities' response to the deterioration of the medical situation are considered. A description of the main directions of economic analysis during a pandemic crisis is given and the reasons for overestimating or underestimating the forecast estimates made at the beginning of the crisis are assessed. The possibilities of interdisciplinary research aimed at improving the quality of the authorities' response to changes in the epidemiological situation are considered. The principles of separation of tasks of economic analysis are formulated in the framework of policy support during the coronavirus crisis.

17.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 38, 2021 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238721

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus, causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in December, 2019. As drugs and vaccines of COVID-19 remain in development, accurate virus detection plays a crucial role in the current public health crisis. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) kits have been reliably used for detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak, whereas isothermal nucleic acid amplification-based point-of-care automated kits have also been considered as a simpler and rapid alternative. However, as these kits have only been developed and applied clinically within a short timeframe, their clinical performance has not been adequately evaluated to date. We describe a comparative study between a newly developed cross-priming isothermal amplification (CPA) kit (Kit A) and five RT-qPCR kits (Kits B-F) to evaluate their sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and accuracy. METHODS: Fifty-two clinical samples were used including throat swabs (n = 30), nasal swabs (n = 7), nasopharyngeal swabs (n = 7) and sputum specimens (n = 8), comprising confirmed (n = 26) and negative cases (n = 26). SARS-CoV-2 detection was simultaneously performed on each sample using six nucleic acid amplification kits. The sensitivity, specificity, positive/negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy for each kit were assessed using clinical manifestation and molecular diagnoses as the reference standard. Reproducibility for RT-qPCR kits was evaluated in triplicate by three different operators using a SARS-CoV-2 RNA-positive sample. On the basis of the six kits' evaluation results, CPA kit (Kit A) and two RT-qPCR Kits (Kit B and F) were applied to the SARS-CoV-2 detection in close-contacts of COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: For Kit A, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV/NPV and accuracy were 100%. Among the five RT-qPCR kits, Kits B, C and F had good agreement with the clinical diagnostic reports (Kappa ≥ 0.75); Kits D and E were less congruent (0.4 ≤ Kappa < 0.75). Differences between all kits were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The reproducibility of RT-qPCR kits was determined using a coefficients of variation (CV) between 0.95% and 2.57%, indicating good reproducibility. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comparative study to evaluate CPA and RT-qPCR kits' specificity and sensitivity for SARS-CoV-2 detection, and could serve as a reference for clinical laboratories, thus informing testing protocols amid the rapidly progressing COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity
18.
J Ambul Care Manage ; 44(3): 172-183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238266

ABSTRACT

Organizational factors impacting burnout have been underexplored among providers in low-income, minority-serving, safety-net settings. Our team interviewed 14 health care administrators, serving as key decision makers in Federally Qualified Health Center primary care clinics. Using a semistructured interview guide, we explored burnout mitigation strategies and elements of organizational culture and practice. Transcribed interviews were coded and analyzed using the Braun and Clark (2006) Thematic Analysis method. Mission-Driven Ethos to Mitigate Provider Burnout emerged as the primary theme with 2 categories: (1) Promoting the Mission: "Bleeders" and (2) Competing Priorities: "Billers." These categories represent various properties and reflect administrators' use of organizational mission statement as a driver of staff recruitment, training, retention, and stratification. Data collection occurred before and during the COVID-19 global pandemic, as such additional themes associated with administrative behaviors during a prolonged, clinical crisis provide insight into possible strategies that may mitigate burnout in this setting.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospital Administrators , Safety-net Providers , Adult , Female , Humans , Interviews as Topic , Male , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , SARS-CoV-2
19.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0245031, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234580

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection causing the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for more than 2.8 million deaths and nearly 125 million infections worldwide as of March 2021. In March 2020, the World Health Organization determined that the COVID-19 outbreak is a global pandemic. The urgency and magnitude of this pandemic demanded immediate action and coordination between local, regional, national, and international actors. In that mission, researchers require access to high-quality biological materials and data from SARS-CoV-2 infected and uninfected patients, covering the spectrum of disease manifestations. The "Biobanque québécoise de la COVID-19" (BQC19) is a pan-provincial initiative undertaken in Québec, Canada to enable the collection, storage and sharing of samples and data related to the COVID-19 crisis. As a disease-oriented biobank based on high-quality biosamples and clinical data of hospitalized and non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 PCR positive and negative individuals. The BQC19 follows a legal and ethical management framework approved by local health authorities. The biosamples include plasma, serum, peripheral blood mononuclear cells and DNA and RNA isolated from whole blood. In addition to the clinical variables, BQC19 will provide in-depth analytical data derived from the biosamples including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing, proteome and metabolome analyses, multiplex measurements of key circulating markers as well as anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses. BQC19 will provide the scientific and medical communities access to data and samples to better understand, manage and ultimately limit, the impact of COVID-19. In this paper we present BQC19, describe the process according to which it is governed and organized, and address opportunities for future research collaborations. BQC19 aims to be a part of a global communal effort addressing the challenges of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Biological Specimen Banks/organization & administration , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Humans , Information Dissemination/methods , Pandemics , Quebec/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
20.
Curr Opin Psychiatry ; 34(4): 325-331, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232248

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The international, public health crisis caused by the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in unforeseen medical and psychiatric consequences. We reviewed publications from January 2020 to January 2021, given that earlier documents were not relevant, to review findings on changes in substance use and overdoses during the pandemic. Additionally, this review of the literature also documents advocacy efforts, health service modification and challenges, as well as COVID-related health complications associated with substance use. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent work focused on identifying changes in the distribution and use of substances as well as the unique challenges to promoting the health of persons who use substances in the current pandemic. Although COVID-19 has triggered unprecedented innovations in the organizational and public policy, the use of certain substances (alcohol, cannabis, cigarettes, fentanyl, heroin, and opiates) is increasing internationally. Unique associations between substance use and pandemic-related adverse health outcomes were identified. In addition, the pandemic precipitated significant barriers and disruptions to care. SUMMARY: Given increased overdose rates and infections among people who use drugs, continued surveillance and vigilance are needed to assess changes and reduce use and adverse consequences during the continuing COVID-19 crisis. Changes are urgently needed to reduce adverse health outcomes because of treatment barriers and lack of adequate treatment options. Additionally, integrative approaches are necessary to promote the public health of persons who use substances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Internationality , Public Health , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/psychology
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