Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 1.197
Filter
Add filters

Document Type
Year range
1.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 2020 12 16.
Article | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625155

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected more than seven million individuals in 213 countries worldwide with a basic reproduction number ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 and an estimated case fatality rate ranging from 2% to 7%. A substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients are asymptomatic; however, symptomatic cases might present with fever, cough, and dyspnoea or severe symptoms up to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Currently, RNA RT-PCR is the screening tool, while bilateral chest CT is the confirmatory clinical diagnostic test. Several drugs have been repurposed to treat COVID-19, including chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine with or without azithromycin, lopinavir/ritonavir combination, remdesivir, favipiravir, tocilizumab, and EIDD-1931. Recently, Remdesivir gained FDA emergency approval based on promising early findings from the interim analysis of 1063 patients. The recently developed serology testing for SARSCoV-2 antibodies opened the door to evaluate the actual burden of the disease and to determine the rate of the population who have been previously infected (or developed immunity). This review article summarizes current data on the COVID-19 pandemic starting from the early outbreak, viral structure and origin, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, discharge criteria, and future research.

2.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 570748, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573664

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) has raised considerable concern on the entire planet. On March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was categorized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic infection, and by March 18, 2020, it has spread to 146 countries. The first internal defense line against numerous diseases is personalized immunity. Although it cannot be claimed that personalized nutrition will have an immediate impact on a global pandemic, as the nutritional interventions required a long time to induce beneficial outcomes on immunity development, nutritional strategies are still able to clarify and have a beneficial influence on the interplay between physiology and diet, which could make a positive contribution to the condition in the next period. As such, a specific goal for every practitioner is to evaluate different tests to perceive the status of the patient, such as markers of inflammation, insulin regulation, and nutrient status, and to detect possible imbalances or deficiencies. During the process of disease development, the supplementation and addition of different nutrients and nutraceuticals can influence not only the viral replication but also the cellular mechanisms. It is essential to understand that every patient has its individual needs. Even though many nutrients, nutraceuticals, and drugs have beneficial effects on the immune response and can prevent or ameliorate viral infections, it is essential to detect at what stage in COVID-19 progression the patient is at the moment and decide what kind of nutrition intervention is necessary. Furthermore, understanding the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection is critical to make proper recommendations.

3.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 59(8): 610-617, 2020 Aug 01.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555470

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the feasibility of direct renin inhibitor aliskiren for the treatment of severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with hypertension. Methods: The antihypertensive effects and safety of aliskiren was retrospectively analyzed in three severe and one critical COVID-19 patients with hypertension. Results: Four patients, two males and two females, with an average age of 78 years (66-87 years), were referred to hospital mainly because of respiratory symptoms. Three were diagnosed by positive novel coronavirus 2019 (2019-nCoV) nucleic acid or antibody, and the critical patient with cardiac insufficiency was clinically determined. Two patients were treated with calcium channel antagonist (CCB), one with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), and one with angiotensin Ⅱ receptor antagonist (ARB). After admission, ACEI and ARB were discontinued, one patient with heart failure was treated by aliskiren combined with diuretic.Three patients were treated with aliskiren combined with CCB among whom two withdrew CCB due to low blood pressure after 1 to 2 weeks. Based on comprehensive treatment including antiviral and oxygenation treatment, blood pressure was satisfactorily controlled by aliskiren after three to four weeks without serious adverse events. All patients were finally discharged. Conclusion: Our preliminary clinical data shows that antihypertensive effect of aliskiren is satisfactory and safe for severe COVID-19 patients complicated with hypertension.

4.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2284-2296, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451948

ABSTRACT

Current literature addressing the pharmacological principles guiding glucocorticoid (GC) administration in ARDS is scant. This paucity of information may have led to the heterogeneity of treatment protocols and misinterpretation of available findings. GCs are agonist compounds that bind to the GC receptor (GR) producing a pharmacological response. Clinical efficacy depends on the magnitude and duration of exposure to GR. We updated the meta-analysis of randomized trials investigating GC treatment in ARDS, focusing on treatment protocols and response. We synthesized the current literature on the role of the GR in GC therapy including genomic and non-genomic effects, and integrated current clinical pharmacology knowledge of various GCs, including hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone and dexamethasone. This review addresses the role dosage, timing of initiation, mode of administration, duration, and tapering play in achieving optimal response to GC therapy in ARDS. Based on RCTs' findings, GC plasma concentration-time profiles, and pharmacodynamic studies, optimal results are most likely achievable with early intervention, an initial bolus dose to achieve close to maximal GRα saturation, followed by a continuous infusion to maintain high levels of response throughout the treatment period. In addition, patients receiving similar GC doses may experience substantial between-patient variability in plasma concentrations affecting clinical response. GC should be dose-adjusted and administered for a duration targeting clinical and laboratory improvement, followed by dose-tapering to achieve gradual recovery of the suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These findings have practical clinical relevance. Future RCTs should consider these pharmacological principles in the study design and interpretation of findings.


Subject(s)
Glucocorticoids , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System , Methylprednisolone , Pituitary-Adrenal System , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy
5.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 7: 598400, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485042

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has reportedly infected over 31.5 million individuals and caused over 970,000 deaths worldwide (as of 22nd Sept 2020). This novel coronavirus, officially named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), although primarily causes significant respiratory distress, can have significant deleterious effects on the cardiovascular system. Severe cases of the virus frequently result in respiratory distress requiring mechanical ventilation, often seen, but not confined to, individuals with pre-existing hypertension and cardiovascular disease, potentially due to the fact that the virus can enter the circulation via the lung alveoli. Here the virus can directly infect vascular tissues, via TMPRSS2 spike glycoprotein priming, thereby facilitating ACE-2-mediated viral entry. Clinical manifestations, such as vasculitis, have been detected in a number of vascular beds (e.g., lungs, heart, and kidneys), with thromboembolism being observed in patients suffering from severe coronavirus disease (COVID-19), suggesting the virus perturbs the vasculature, leading to vascular dysfunction. Activation of endothelial cells via the immune-mediated inflammatory response and viral infection of either endothelial cells or cells involved in endothelial homeostasis, are some of the multifaceted mechanisms potentially involved in the pathogenesis of vascular dysfunction within COVID-19 patients. In this review, we examine the evidence of vascular manifestations of SARS-CoV-2, the potential mechanism(s) of entry into vascular tissue and the contribution of endothelial cell dysfunction and cellular crosstalk in this vascular tropism of SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, we discuss the current evidence on hypercoagulability and how it relates to increased microvascular thromboembolic complications in COVID-19.

6.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
7.
World J Psychiatry ; 10(7): 162-174, 2020 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most prevalent forms of dementia in the world and neuropathological studies suggest similar high prevalence of mixed (AD + vascular) dementias. Approximately 25%-50% of individuals with AD develop psychosis sometime during their illness. The presence of psychosis in AD worsens outcomes. Currently there are no United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved medications for the treatment of psychosis in AD. Pimavanserin, a novel atypical antipsychotic medication, was approved by the FDA for the treatment of hallucinations and delusions associated with Parkinson disease psychosis and is currently in clinical trials for the treatment of psychosis in AD. AIM: To evaluate the existing literature regarding the use of pimavanserin for treating psychosis among individuals with AD. METHODS: A literature review of clinical studies of pimavanserin treatment for psychosis in individuals with AD was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Trials were identified by systematically searching PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Scopus through October 2019. The 5-point Jadad scoring system was used to assess the methodologic quality of the randomized placebo-controlled trials. RESULTS: A total of 499 citations were retrieved and pooled in EndNote and de-duplicated to 258 citations. This set was uploaded to Covidence for screening. Two separate screeners (Srinivasan S and Tampi RR) evaluated the titles, abstracts, and full text of eligible articles. Of the identified 258 abstracts, 98 articles underwent full text review and 2 publications from 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) were included in the final analysis. The quality of evidence was assessed to be of good methodologic quality, scoring 4 out of 5 using the 5-point Jadad questionnaire with the Jadad Scoring calculation. This systematic review found only one RCT that evaluated the use of pimavanserin for the treatment of psychosis among individuals with AD. This phase 2 trial resulted in two publications, the second of which was a subgroup analysis from the original study. The evidence from these two publications showed that pimavanserin improves psychotic symptoms among individuals with AD when compared to placebo at week 6. CONCLUSION: Pimavanserin may be a pharmacologic consideration for the treatment for psychosis in AD. Additional RCTs are needed to assess the evidence of effectiveness before pimavanserin is considered a standard treatment.

8.
Headache ; 60(10): 2389-2405, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this experimental study, we aimed to determine whether guided music listening (GML) - a music intervention based on models of mood mediation and attention modulation - modulates masticatory muscle activity and awake bruxism in subjects with chronic painful muscular temporomandibular disorders (TMD myalgia, mTMD), a condition causing a significant burden to patients, their families, and healthcare systems. BACKGROUND: Awake bruxism - a stress behavior characterized by clenching of the teeth - is a strong contributor to chronic mTMD. GML modulates psychological stress and motor responses and could thus reduce muscle activity in chronic musculoskeletal conditions, including mTMD. METHODS: We recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the right masseter of 14 women with chronic (>6 months) mTMD (median [IQR] = 39.5.3 [24.3] years) and 15 pain-free women (median [IQR] = 30.0 [3.5] years) during a GML session, including 3 music (stressful, relaxing, and participants' favorite music) and a no-music (pink noise) control blocks, each lasting 15 minutes. We measured the motor effort of the right masseter relative to the participants' maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the muscular effort to maintain mandibular posture (EMGposture ), and to produce spontaneous awake bruxism episodes (EMGbruxism ), and the duration and frequency of spontaneous awake bruxism episodes. We tested between-group and within-group (between blocks) differences, as well as the effect of the interaction group by experimental block on these outcome measures. RESULTS: In both groups, EMGposture was significantly affected by the interaction group by experimental block (P < .001). Compared to pink noise [mean (95% CI); mTMD: 2.2 (1.6-2.8) %MVC; Controls: 1.1 (0.5-1.7) %MVC], EMGposture increased during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI); mTMD: +0.8 (0.7-0.8) %MVC; Controls: +0.3 (0.3-0.4) %MVC; both P < .001], and decreased during the relaxing [mTMD: -0.4 (-0.5 to -0.4) %MVC; Controls: -0.3 (-0.4 to -0.3) %MVC; both P < .001] and favorite [mTMD: -0.5 (-0.6 to -0.5) %MVC; Controls: -0.5 (-0.5 to -0.4) %MVC; both P < .001] music blocks. EMGposture was greater in mTMD individuals than controls during the favorite music [contrast estimate (95% CI): +1.1 (0.2-1.9) %MVC; P = .019] and the pink noise [+1.1 (0.2-2.0) %MVC; P = .014] blocks. EMGbruxism was significantly affected by the interaction group by experimental block (P < .001). In mTMD participants, compared to the pink noise block [mean (95% CI); 23.8 (16.0-31.6) %MVC], EMGbruxism increased during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI); +10.2 (8.6-11.8) %MVC], and decreased during the relaxing [-6.2 (-8.1 to -4.3) %MVC; P < .001] and favorite [-10.2 (-12.2 to -9.1) %MVC; P < .001] music blocks. These effects were not observed in the control group [mean (95% CI); pink noise: 19.3 (10.9-27.6); stressful: 21.2 (12.9-29.4) %MVC; relaxing: 21.6 (13.3-29.9) %MVC; favorite: 24.2 (15.8-32.7) %MVC; all P > .05]. EMGbruxism was significantly greater in mTMD participants than controls during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI): +12.9 (1.6-24.2) %MVC; P = .026). GML did not affect the duration or the frequency of awake bruxism in either group (median [IQR], mTMD: 23.5 [96.7] s, range 1-1300 seconds; Controls: 5.5 [22.5], range 0-246 seconds; P = .108). The frequency of awake bruxism episodes was greater in the mTMD group compared to controls only during the pink noise block (median [IQR], mTMD: 5 [15.3] episodes, range 0-62 episodes; Controls: 1 [3] episode, range 0-27 episodes; P = .046). No significant between-group differences were found in either the overall time spent engaging in awake bruxism (median [IQR], mTMD: 23.5 [96.7] s, range 1-1300 seconds; Controls: 5.5 [22.5], range 0-246 seconds; P = .108), or during each block (all P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with chronic mTMD, relaxing music and the individual's favorite music decreased the muscular effort during spontaneous awake bruxism episodes by 26% and 44% (relative changes), respectively. In contrast, stressful music increases it by about 43%. Because of its positive effects on awake bruxism, GML with selected music could be a promising and non-invasive component of a multimodal approach for the management of chronic mTMD.


Subject(s)
Bruxism , Chronic Pain , Music Therapy , Music , Myalgia , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Adult , Bruxism/complications , Bruxism/physiopathology , Bruxism/psychology , Bruxism/therapy , Chronic Pain/etiology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Chronic Pain/therapy , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Masseter Muscle/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myalgia/psychology , Myalgia/therapy , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/physiopathology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/psychology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/therapy
9.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(6): 1287-1294, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate 62 subjects in Wuhan, China, with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia and describe the CT features of this epidemic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective study of 62 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia was performed. CT images and clinical data were reviewed. Two thoracic radiologists evaluated the distribution and CT signs of the lesions and also scored the extent of involvement of the CT signs. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare lesion distribution and CT scores. The chi-square test was used to compare the CT signs of early-phase versus advanced-phase COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS. A total of 62 patients (39 men and 23 women; mean [± SD] age, 52.8 ± 12.2 years; range, 30-77 years) with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. Twenty-four of 30 patients who underwent routine blood tests (80.0%) had a decreased lymphocyte count. Of 27 patients who had their erythrocyte sedimentation rate and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level assessed, 18 (66.7%) had an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and all 27 (100.0%) had an elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. Multiple lesions were seen on the initial CT scan of 52 of 62 patients (83.9%). Forty-eight of 62 patients (77.4%) had predominantly peripheral distribution of lesions. The mean CT score for the upper zone (3.0 ± 3.4) was significantly lower than that for the middle (4.5 ± 3.8) and lower (4.5 ± 3.7) zones (p = 0.022 and p = 0.020, respectively), and there was no significant difference in the mean CT score of the middle and lower zones (p = 1.00). The mean CT score for the anterior area (4.4 ± 4.1) was significantly lower than that for the posterior area (7.7 ± 6.3) (p = 0.003). CT findings for the patients were as follows: 25 patients (40.3%) had ground-glass opacities (GGO), 21 (33.9%), consolidation; 39 (62.9%), GGO plus a reticular pattern; 34 (54.8%), vacuolar sign; 28 (45.2%), microvascular dilation sign; 35 (56.5%), fibrotic streaks; 21 (33.9%), a subpleural line; and 33 (53.2%), a subpleural transparent line. With regard to bronchial changes seen on CT, 45 patients (72.6%) had air bronchogram, and 11 (17.7%) had bronchus distortion. In terms of pleural changes, CT showed that 30 patients (48.4%) had pleural thickening, 35 (56.5%) had pleural retraction sign, and six (9.7%) had pleural effusion. Compared with early-phase disease (≤ 7 days after the onset of symptoms), advanced-phase disease (8-14 days after the onset of symptoms) was characterized by significantly increased frequencies of GGO plus a reticular pattern, vacuolar sign, fibrotic streaks, a subpleural line, a subpleural transparent line, air bronchogram, bronchus distortion, and pleural effusion; however, GGO significantly decreased in advanced-phase disease. CONCLUSION. CT examination of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia showed a mixed and diverse pattern with both lung parenchyma and the interstitium involved. Identification of GGO and a single lesion on the initial CT scan suggested early-phase disease. CT signs of aggravation and repair coexisted in advanced-phase disease. Lesions presented with a characteristic multifocal distribution in the middle and lower lung regions and in the posterior lung area. A decreased lymphocyte count and an increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level were the most common laboratory findings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
10.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 160, 2020 05 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Understanding of the role of ethnicity and socioeconomic position in the risk of developing SARS-CoV-2 infection is limited. We investigated this in the UK Biobank study. METHODS: The UK Biobank study recruited 40-70-year-olds in 2006-2010 from the general population, collecting information about self-defined ethnicity and socioeconomic variables (including area-level socioeconomic deprivation and educational attainment). SARS-CoV-2 test results from Public Health England were linked to baseline UK Biobank data. Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to assess risk ratios (RRs) between the exposures and dichotomous variables for being tested, having a positive test and testing positive in hospital. We also investigated whether ethnicity and socioeconomic position were associated with having a positive test amongst those tested. We adjusted for covariates including age, sex, social variables (including healthcare work and household size), behavioural risk factors and baseline health. RESULTS: Amongst 392,116 participants in England, 2658 had been tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 948 tested positive (726 in hospital) between 16 March and 3 May 2020. Black and south Asian groups were more likely to test positive (RR 3.35 (95% CI 2.48-4.53) and RR 2.42 (95% CI 1.75-3.36) respectively), with Pakistani ethnicity at highest risk within the south Asian group (RR 3.24 (95% CI 1.73-6.07)). These ethnic groups were more likely to be hospital cases compared to the white British. Adjustment for baseline health and behavioural risk factors led to little change, with only modest attenuation when accounting for socioeconomic variables. Socioeconomic deprivation and having no qualifications were consistently associated with a higher risk of confirmed infection (RR 2.19 for most deprived quartile vs least (95% CI 1.80-2.66) and RR 2.00 for no qualifications vs degree (95% CI 1.66-2.42)). CONCLUSIONS: Some minority ethnic groups have a higher risk of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in the UK Biobank study, which was not accounted for by differences in socioeconomic conditions, baseline self-reported health or behavioural risk factors. An urgent response to addressing these elevated risks is required.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Biological Specimen Banks , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Status Disparities , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS Virus , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
J Travel Med ; 27(8)2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387946

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Numerous publications focus on fever in returning travellers, but there is no known systematic review considering all diseases, or all tropical diseases causing fever. Such a review is necessary in order to develop appropriate practice guidelines. OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives of this review were (i) to determine the aetiology of fever in travellers/migrants returning from (sub) tropical countries as well as the proportion of patients with specific diagnoses, and (ii) to assess the predictors for specific tropical diseases. METHOD: Embase, MEDLINE and Cochrane Library were searched with terms combining fever and travel/migrants. All studies focusing on causes of fever in returning travellers and/or clinical and laboratory predictors of tropical diseases were included. Meta-analyses were performed on frequencies of etiological diagnoses. RESULTS: 10 064 studies were identified; 541 underwent full-text review; 30 met criteria for data extraction. Tropical infections accounted for 33% of fever diagnoses, with malaria causing 22%, dengue 5% and enteric fever 2%. Non-tropical infections accounted for 36% of febrile cases, with acute gastroenteritis causing 14% and respiratory tract infections 13%. Positive likelihood ratios demonstrated that splenomegaly, thrombocytopenia and hyperbilirubinemia were respectively 5-14, 3-11 and 5-7 times more likely in malaria than non-malaria patients. High variability of results between studies reflects heterogeneity in study design, regions visited, participants' characteristics, setting, laboratory investigations performed and diseases included. CONCLUSION: Malaria accounted for one-fifth of febrile cases, highlighting the importance of rapid malaria testing in febrile returning travellers, followed by other rapid tests for common tropical diseases. High variability between studies highlights the need to harmonize study designs and to promote multi-centre studies investigating predictors of diseases, including of lower incidence, which may help to develop evidence-based guidelines. The use of clinical decision support algorithms by health workers which incorporate clinical predictors, could help standardize studies as well as improve quality of recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Fever , Travel Medicine/methods , Tropical Medicine/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , Humans , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Transients and Migrants/statistics & numerical data
13.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 4(9): 669-677, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386995

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In April, 2020, clinicians in the UK observed a cluster of children with unexplained inflammation requiring admission to paediatric intensive care units (PICUs). We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics, course, management, and outcomes of patients admitted to PICUs with this condition, which is now known as paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS). METHODS: We did a multicentre observational study of children (aged <18 years), admitted to PICUs in the UK between April 1 and May 10, 2020, fulfilling the case definition of PIMS-TS published by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health. We analysed routinely collected, de-identified data, including demographic details, presenting clinical features, underlying comorbidities, laboratory markers, echocardiographic findings, interventions, treatments, and outcomes; serology information was collected if available. PICU admission rates of PIMS-TS were compared with historical trends of PICU admissions for four similar inflammatory conditions (Kawasaki disease, toxic shock syndrome, haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and macrophage activation syndrome). FINDINGS: 78 cases of PIMS-TS were reported by 21 of 23 PICUs in the UK. Historical data for similar inflammatory conditions showed a mean of one (95% CI 0·85-1·22) admission per week, compared to an average of 14 admissions per week for PIMS-TS and a peak of 32 admissions per week during the study period. The median age of patients was 11 years (IQR 8-14). Male patients (52 [67%] of 78) and those from ethnic minority backgrounds (61 [78%] of 78) were over-represented. Fever (78 [100%] patients), shock (68 [87%]), abdominal pain (48 [62%]), vomiting (49 [63%]), and diarrhoea (50 [64%]) were common presenting features. Longitudinal data over the first 4 days of admission showed a serial reduction in C-reactive protein (from a median of 264 mg/L on day 1 to 96 mg/L on day 4), D-dimer (4030 µg/L to 1659 µg/L), and ferritin (1042 µg/L to 757 µg/L), whereas the lymphocyte count increased to more than 1·0 × 109 cells per L by day 3 and troponin increased over the 4 days (from a median of 157 ng/mL to 358 ng/mL). 36 (46%) of 78 patients were invasively ventilated and 65 (83%) needed vasoactive infusions; 57 (73%) received steroids, 59 (76%) received intravenous immunoglobulin, and 17 (22%) received biologic therapies. 28 (36%) had evidence of coronary artery abnormalities (18 aneurysms and ten echogenicity). Three children needed extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and two children died. INTERPRETATION: During the study period, the rate of PICU admissions for PIMS-TS was at least 11-fold higher than historical trends for similar inflammatory conditions. Clinical presentations and treatments varied. Coronary artery aneurysms appear to be an important complication. Although immediate survival is high, the long-term outcomes of children with PIMS-TS are unknown. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/etiology , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 33(6): 444-447, 2020 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390020

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Co-circulation of the two Influenza B lineages hinders forecast of strain to include in trivalent vaccine. Autonomous Communities such as Cantabria continue without supplying tetravalent vaccine. The aim of this study was to analyse epidemiological characteristics of influenza type B in Cantabria (2019-2020 season) as well as to establish the predominant lineage and its relation to the recommended vaccine. METHODS: Retrospective study whereby flu diagnosis and lineage analysis were determined by RT-PCR. RESULTS: All samples belonged to the Victoria lineage. Most prevalent viral co-infection was due to SARS-CoV-2. The population affected by influenza B was mainly paediatric and non-vaccinated patients more frequently required hospital admittance. CONCLUSIONS: Influenza type B has a higher incidence in the paediatric population and type A affects more the adult population. Only 28.8% of patients with Influenza B that presented with some underlying condition or risk factor were vaccinated. This shows the need to increase coverage with tetravalent vaccines in order to reduce the burden of disease associated with the Influenza B virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Influenza B virus , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/virology , Chi-Square Distribution , Child , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Epidemics , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Retrospective Studies , Seasons , Spain/epidemiology , Statistics, Nonparametric
15.
Heart Views ; 21(3): 220-224, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389617

ABSTRACT

Review of the literature and reported case series has not reported an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in heart transplant recipients. However, this population is at increased risk of a more severe infection with increased mortality because of age and the presence of multiple comorbid conditions There is no significant difference in presenting symptoms in transplant recipients as compared to nontransplant patients, although diarrhea has been reported to be more frequent in transplant patients, a common side effect of immunosuppressive medications. Standard preventive measures have been shown to be equally protective in heart transplant recipients. Risk factors for severe disease and mortality are similar in both transplant recipients and nontransplant patients and include older age and the presence of comorbidities hypertension being the most common. The SARS-CoV-2 infection did not increase the risk of transplant allograft rejection. Currently, there are no specific treatment recommendations for SARS-CoV-2 infection in transplant recipients. However, the International Society of Heart and Lung and Transplant has issued guidance on how to modulate immunosuppressive therapy during SARS-CoV-2 infection.

16.
Ann Indian Acad Neurol ; 23(3): 261-264, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389615

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent respiratory infection including SARS-CoV-2 is an independent risk factor for acute cerebrovascular disease. Purpose: There have been reports linking haemorrhagic strokes to SARS-CoV-2 infection during this pandemic, which lead us to evaluate if SARS-CoV-2 infection could be associated with increased risk of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH). Methods: A retrospective observational study evaluating all stroke cases admitted in our centre in the past one month. Results: More than half (56%) had ICH, compared to 22% last year. Two patients with ICH were SARS-CoV-2 positive and they had no or mild respiratory symptoms and had higher occurrence of renal dysfunction. Conclusion: There could be possible association between ICH and SARS-CoV-2 infections. However, a prospective study with larger sample size is needed to elucidate the pathogenesis.

17.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389523

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is highly pathogenic in humans and poses a great threat to public health worldwide. Clinical data shows a disturbed type I interferon (IFN) response during the virus infection. In this study, we discovered that the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 plays an important role in the inhibition of interferon beta (IFN-ß) production. N protein repressed IFN-ß production induced by poly(I:C) or upon Sendai virus (SeV) infection. We noted that N protein also suppressed IFN-ß production, induced by several signaling molecules downstream of the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) pathway, which is the crucial pattern recognition receptor (PRR) responsible for identifying RNA viruses. Moreover, our data demonstrated that N protein interacted with the RIG-I protein through the DExD/H domain, which has ATPase activity and plays an important role in the binding of immunostimulatory RNAs. These results suggested that SARS-CoV-2 N protein suppresses the IFN-ß response through targeting the initial step, potentially the cellular PRR-RNA-recognition step in the innate immune pathway. Therefore, we propose that the SARS-CoV-2 N protein represses IFN-ß production by interfering with RIG-I.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Interferon-beta/metabolism , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , A549 Cells , Animals , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , HEK293 Cells , HeLa Cells , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Receptors, Immunologic , Signal Transduction
18.
Front Physiol ; 11: 802, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389234

ABSTRACT

We dissect the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 in human lung host from the initial phase of receptor binding to viral replication machinery. Two independent lung protein interactome were constructed to reveal the signaling process on receptor activation and host protein hijacking machinery in the pathogenesis of virus. Further, we test the functional role of the hubs derived from the interactome. Most hubs proteins were differentially regulated on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Also, the proteins in viral replication hubs were related with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension confirming the vulnerability and severity of infection in the risk individual. Additionally, the hub proteins were closely linked with other viral infection, including MERS and HCoVs which suggest similar infection pattern in SARS-CoV-2. We identified five hubs that interconnect both networks that show the preparation of optimal environment in the host for viral replication process upon receptor attachment. Interestingly, we propose that seven potential miRNAs, targeting the intermediate phase that connects receptor and viral replication process a better choice as a drug for SARS-CoV-2.

19.
Front Immunol ; 11: 604759, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389169

ABSTRACT

Objective: To first describe and estimate the potential pathogenic role of Ig4 autoantibodies in complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) in a patient with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Methods: This study is a case report presenting a retrospective review of the patient's medical chart. Plasma complement C3 and C4 levels, immunoglobulin isotypes and subclasses were determined by nephelometry, the complement pathways' activity (CH50, AP50, MBL) using WIESLAB® Complement System assays. Human complement factor H levels, anti-complement factor H auto-antibodies were analyzed by ELISA, using HRP-labeled secondary antibodies specific for human IgG, IgG4, and IgA, respectively. Genetic analyses were performed by exome sequencing of 14 gens implicated in complement disorders, as well as multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification looking specifically for CFH, CFHR1-2-3, and 5. Results: Our brief report presents the first case of IgG4-RD with complement-mediated TMA originating from both pathogenic CFHR 1 and CFHR 4 genes deletions, and inhibitory anti-complement factor H autoantibodies of the IgG4 subclass. Remission was achieved with plasmaphereses, corticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide. Following remission, the patient was diagnosed with lymphocytic meningitis and SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia with an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: IgG4-RD can be associated with pathogenic IgG4 autoantibodies. Genetic predisposition such as CFHR1 and CFHR4 gene deletions enhance the susceptibility to the formation of inhibitory anti-Factor H IgG4 antibodies.


Subject(s)
Apolipoproteins/genetics , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/genetics , Autoantibodies/immunology , Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins/genetics , Complement Factor H/immunology , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/genetics , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/immunology , Atypical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome/pathology , Female , Gene Deletion , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/immunology , Immunoglobulin G4-Related Disease/pathology , Middle Aged , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/immunology , Thrombotic Microangiopathies/pathology
20.
Nature ; 584(7821): 457-462, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373437

ABSTRACT

Memory T cells induced by previous pathogens can shape susceptibility to, and the clinical severity of, subsequent infections1. Little is known about the presence in humans of pre-existing memory T cells that have the potential to recognize severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Here we studied T cell responses against the structural (nucleocapsid (N) protein) and non-structural (NSP7 and NSP13 of ORF1) regions of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals convalescing from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (n = 36). In all of these individuals, we found CD4 and CD8 T cells that recognized multiple regions of the N protein. Next, we showed that patients (n = 23) who recovered from SARS (the disease associated with SARS-CoV infection) possess long-lasting memory T cells that are reactive to the N protein of SARS-CoV 17 years after the outbreak of SARS in 2003; these T cells displayed robust cross-reactivity to the N protein of SARS-CoV-2. We also detected SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in individuals with no history of SARS, COVID-19 or contact with individuals who had SARS and/or COVID-19 (n = 37). SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in uninfected donors exhibited a different pattern of immunodominance, and frequently targeted NSP7 and NSP13 as well as the N protein. Epitope characterization of NSP7-specific T cells showed the recognition of protein fragments that are conserved among animal betacoronaviruses but have low homology to 'common cold' human-associated coronaviruses. Thus, infection with betacoronaviruses induces multi-specific and long-lasting T cell immunity against the structural N protein. Understanding how pre-existing N- and ORF1-specific T cells that are present in the general population affect the susceptibility to and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection is important for the management of the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cross Reactions/immunology , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL
...