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1.
Clin Case Rep ; 8(9): 1791-1792, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898586

ABSTRACT

This is the first report of a case of COVID-19 after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Our case suggests that COVID-19 may exist without characteristic CT images, especially in immunocompromised hosts, such as patients after transplantation.

3.
Mod Rheumatol Case Rep ; 5(2): 226-228, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493585

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 61-year old female with a 20-year history of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who developed acute hepatitis. Her arthritis had been treated with methotrexate (MTX) since 2003 and, following an increase in disease activity, Rituximab (RTX) was commenced in January 2017. In May 2020, routine blood tests showed a new elevation in her liver profile, although synthetic function was preserved. A standard liver screen found no cause for her acutely abnormal lab values. Upon additional serological testing, the patient was confirmed to have acute hepatitis E virus (HEV). Her primary complaint at the time was fatigue. Within a month, her liver blood tests spontaneously improved and her symptoms resolved with conservative management.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Hepatitis E , Immunocompromised Host , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Female , Hepatitis E/diagnosis , Hepatitis E/immunology , Humans , Methotrexate/therapeutic use , Middle Aged , Rituximab/therapeutic use
4.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 56(9): 2212-2220, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387241

ABSTRACT

The SARS-COV-2 pandemic has led to strict and generalized transmission prevention measures that may have changed the epidemiological landscape of common seasonal respiratory virus (CSRV). Through a prospective CSRV survey program conducted from 2016 onwards in allogeneic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) recipients with respiratory symptoms, we aimed to analyze and compare the epidemiology and characteristics of CSRV over three consecutive periods [from February 1 to September 30 of 2018 (P1), 2019 (P2), and 2020 (P3)]. CSRV screening was performed through multiplex PCR assays during the study period. We identified 188 consecutive allo-HSCT recipients with 406 episodes screened for CSRV during the study period, of which 147 developed 300 CSRV. In P1 and P2 we diagnosed 115 (38.3%) and 145 (48.3%) CSRV episodes, respectively, whereas in P3 only 40 (13.3%) episodes were detected (p < 0.001). During P3, we observed a reduction of 80.2% in Ev/Rh, 93.3% in RSV, 80% in hIV, 96.3% HPIV, 68.4% in hMPV, 77.7% in ADV, 100% in HBoV, and 53.6% in HCoV as compared to P1 and P2. Consequently, we also observed a decline in absolute numbers of lower respiratory tract disease (68.1%), co-infections (91.7%), and hospitalizations (72.6%) during P3. We diagnosed SARS-COV-2 in nine allo-HSCT recipients, representing 23% of all CSRV detections in that period. In conclusion, we provide evidence of a significant drop in CSRV circulation during the SARS-COV-2 pandemic in our allo-HSCT recipients, indicating that prevention measures in the general population are highly effective in reducing CSRV prevalence and its complications in immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Respiratory Tract Infections , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Transplant Recipients
5.
J Clin Med ; 10(10)2021 May 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335109

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The spread of multidrug-resistant pathogens is a serious problem and challenge for the whole medical community. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) infections in immunocompromised patients have a severe course and may be fatal. Increasingly, these bacteria are exhibiting resistance to carbapenem antibiotics, which have been used as so-called drugs of last resort. The emergence of the new coronavirus and the pandemic that it has caused require changes to protect against the spread of the new SARS-CoV-2. These changes paradoxically may contribute to the spread of other infections. METHODS: PubMed, Cochrane Library databases were searched using relevant keywords. A literature review of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infection in patients hospitalized for COVID-19 was conducted according to PRISMA recommendations. A written review protocol was not prepared. RESULTS: 1016 studies in scientific databases were searched. After rejecting duplicate studies, 964 results were obtained. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were then applied, and studies were qualitatively analyzed. Finally, 11 studies were included in the review. The results of infected patients were from six countries. The prevalence of CRKP in Covid-19 patients ranged from 0.35-53%. The majority of CRKP infected patients were male (85%), with a mean age of 61 years. Among isolates, the predominant genes were KPC, OXY-48, CTX-M, TEM, NDM and SHV. CONCLUSION: The results presented in our review indicate the necessity of paying attention to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections in patients with COVID-19. In order to prevent the increase of bacterial resistance, rational antibiotic therapy should be used, as well as continuous control and surveillance of hospital infections caused by multidrug-resistant organisms.

6.
J Med Virol ; 93(8): 5182-5187, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298501

ABSTRACT

Infections due to human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) are frequent during early childhood. Usually, they have a favorable clinical course. Conversely, HHV-6 congenital infections occur in about 1% of neonates and may present with more severe clinical pictures. HHV-6 can be found in lung tissues and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from patients with pneumonia and in immunocompromised patients can cause mild to severe pneumonia. In neonates, the role of HHV-6 in the genesis of severe pneumonia is poorly defined still now. We describe a healthy infant with a late-onset (15 days of life) severe interstitial pneumonia and heavy HHV-6 genome load, persistently detected in its BAL fluid. The baby underwent high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, hydroxychloroquine, steroids, and ganciclovir for 6 weeks and at 9 months she died. Next-generation sequencing of genes known to cause neonatal respiratory insufficiency revealed the presence of a "probably pathogenetic" heterozygous variant in the autosomal recessive DRC1 gene, a heterozygous variant of unknown significance (VUS) in the autosomal recessive RSPH9 gene, and a heterozygous VUS in the autosomal recessive MUC5B gene. HHV-6 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of late-onset severe respiratory distress in neonates and the co-occurrence of genetic predisposing factors or modifiers should be tested by specific molecular techniques. The intensity of HHV-6 genome load in BAL fluid could be an indicator of the response to antiviral therapy.


Subject(s)
Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/genetics , Roseolovirus Infections/genetics , Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics , Fatal Outcome , Female , Genetic Variation , Herpesvirus 6, Human/genetics , Herpesvirus 6, Human/isolation & purification , Heterozygote , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/virology , Microtubule-Associated Proteins/genetics , Mucin-5B/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Roseolovirus Infections/therapy , Roseolovirus Infections/virology , Viral Load
7.
Infect Dis (Lond) ; 53(11): 880-882, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunocompromised patients shed SARS-CoV-2 for extended periods, but to our knowledge person-to-person transmission from late shedding has not been reported. THE CASE: We present a case in which a COVID-19 patient infected another over 28 days after the patient's initial symptoms, past current guideline recommendations of 20 days for length of isolation in immunocompromised patients. Whole genome sequencing of their viruses was performed to ascertain the transmission. DISCUSSION: Severely immunocompromised patients, whose clearance of the virus is impaired, may remain infectious for extended periods. Caution should be taken particularly in hospital settings where lapses in isolation procedures might pose increased risk, especially to other immunocompromised patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Shedding
8.
Surv Ophthalmol ; 67(2): 293-306, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1187868

ABSTRACT

The Food and Drug Administration has licensed, approved, and expanded guidelines for dozens of vaccines since 2010. Although advancements in biotechnology have made vaccines more effective and safer, none are completely free from adverse effects. Many vaccines have been implicated in causing ocular adverse events based on the temporal association of exposure and putative complication. Determination of causality is difficult. We provide an overview of vaccine side effects and also examine the English literature and the Vaccine Adverse Events Reporting System (VAERS) from 2010 through 2020 for vaccine-implicated ocular adverse events. While reactions of eyelids and conjunctiva are commonly reported, the most frequently implicated serious adverse events are optic neuritis and various patterns of intraocular inflammation. Live attenuated vaccines have the potential to cause ocular infection from vaccine-strain organisms, particularly in those immunosuppressed. While postmarketing registries for suspect vaccination adverse events, such as VAERS, are unable to determine causal associations, they are a mainstay in signaling suspected trends that require investigation. The majority of probable and possible serious ocular adverse effects are distinctly uncommon.


Subject(s)
Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting Systems , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Humans , United States , Vaccination/adverse effects
9.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(4)2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268373

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 in immunocompromised patients shows a prolonged course and may lead to a poor prognosis. Although data on hyperimmune plasma for treatment of Covid-19 suggest an improved outcome in immunocompetent patients, limited data are currently available in immunocompromised patients. We present the case of a 62-year-old Caucasian woman, who was previously treated with obinutuzumab and bendamustine for follicular lymphoma and showed a prolonged positive test for Covid-19. Since no improvement was observed with standard of care (including remdesivir), the possibility of hyperimmune plasma infusion was discussed. A first dose of hyperimmune plasma was administered, with subsequent onset of fever, increasing inflammatory indexes and worsening radiological findings. Three days later a second dose of plasma was administered. Within twelve hours cough and fever disappeared, and oxygen at rest was discontinued. The patient was discharged 5 days later, and nasopharyngeal swabs resulted negative 16 days after discharge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphoma, Follicular , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Lymphoma, Follicular/drug therapy , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266368

ABSTRACT

We describe a unique case of a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), with recurring infections during chemotherapy from chronic nasal carriage of non-diphtherial Corynebacterium, who was eventually diagnosed as she presented with neutropaenic sepsis. Identifying (often multiple) sources of infection in immunocompromised patients is crucial but deciding whether multiple organisms, which in health are considered as commensals, are actually pathogenic during vulnerable states-can be clinically difficult. Our case highlights the efforts to correctly identify the actual source of this rare organism and the recognition of its pathogenic potential when other illnesses present. We also review the literature of Corynebacteria in patients with haematological malignancies but believe this is the first case of AML to be infected with Corynebacterium presenting during the COVID-19 pandemic with a probable incidental positive swab for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Corynebacterium , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(5): e28594, 2021 05 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first reports of COVID-19 infection, the foremost requirement has been to identify a treatment regimen that not only fights the causative agent but also controls the associated complications of the infection. Due to the time-consuming process of drug discovery, physicians have used readily available drugs and therapies for treatment of infections to minimize the death toll. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to provide a snapshot analysis of the major drugs used in a cohort of 1562 Pakistani patients during the period from May to July 2020, when the first wave of COVID-19 peaked in Pakistan. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was performed to provide an overview of the major drugs used in a cohort of 1562 patients with COVID-19 admitted to the four major tertiary-care hospitals in the Rawalpindi-Islamabad region of Pakistan during the peak of the first wave of COVID-19 in the country (May-July 2020). RESULTS: Antibiotics were the most common choice out of all the therapies employed, and they were used as first line of treatment for COVID-19. Azithromycin was the most prescribed drug for treatment. No monthly trend was observed in the choice of antibiotics, and these drugs appeared to be a random but favored choice throughout the months of the study. It was also noted that even antibiotics used for multidrug resistant infections were prescribed irrespective of the severity or progression of the infection. The results of the analysis are alarming, as this approach may lead to antibiotic resistance and complications in immunocompromised patients with COVID-19. A total of 1562 patients (1064 male, 68.1%, and 498 female, 31.9%) with a mean age of 47.35 years (SD 17.03) were included in the study. The highest frequency of patient hospitalizations occurred in June (846/1562, 54.2%). CONCLUSIONS: Guidelines for a targeted treatment regime are needed to control related complications and to limit the misuse of antibiotics in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Adult , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(20): 2576-2585, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256683

ABSTRACT

Starting from December 2019 the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has extended in the entire world giving origin to a pandemic. Although the respiratory system is the main apparatus involved by the infection, several other organs may suffer coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related injuries. The human tissues expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are all possible targets of viral damage. In fact myocarditis, meningo-encephalitis, acute kidney injury and other complications have been described with regard to SARS-CoV-2 infection. The liver has a central role in the body homeostasis contributing to detoxification, catabolism and also synthesis of important factor such as plasma proteins. ACE2 is significantly expressed just by cholangiocytes within the liver, however transaminases are increased in more than one third of COVID-19 patients, at hospital admission. The reasons for liver impairment in the course of this infection are not completely clear at present and multiple factors such as: Direct viral effect, release of cytokines, ischemic damage, use of hepatotoxic drugs, sepsis, and others, may contribute to damage. While COVID-19 seems to elicit just a transient alteration of liver function tests in subjects with normal hepatic function, of concern, more severe sequelae are frequently observed in patients with a reduced hepatic reserve. In this review we report data regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in subjects with normal or diseased liver. In addition the risks of COVID-19 in immunosuppressed patients (either transplanted or suffering for autoimmune liver diseases) are also described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Transplantation , Humans , Liver , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Cureus ; 13(5): e14916, 2021 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239162

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an ongoing worldwide pandemic infection. The exact incidence of disease re-infection or recurrence remains unknown. One particular at-risk population includes individuals with solid organ transplantation on immunosuppression. We present a case of COVID-19 re-infection in a chronically immunocompromised liver transplant patient. A 53-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and myalgias. She was found to test positive for COVID-19. Her relevant medical history included liver transplantation on chronic immunosuppression. More recently, she had tested positive for COVID-19 approximately three months prior to this and was hospitalized at that time for encephalopathy and treated with remdesivir and convalescent plasma. She had subsequently recovered with negative COVID-19 testing in the interim. On the ED presentation with presumed re-infection, her disease was deemed to be mild with lack of severe symptoms or pulmonary involvement, and she was discharged with outpatient follow-up for monoclonal antibody infusion therapy. We describe a scenario of presumed COVID-19 re-infection in a liver transplant patient. To our knowledge, this is a rare event and has been reported internationally in only a handful of individuals. We surmise that immunosuppression could offer some protection from the inflammatory cascade of the initial disease process in COVID-19 given the relatively mild disease observed in our patient. On the other hand, a less robust immune response may decrease humoral immunity and leave patients at greater risk of re-infection. Further investigation is necessary to delineate COVID-19 disease re-infection versus relapse, especially in the setting of an immunocompromised state.

15.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 629240, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231364

ABSTRACT

Following the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) to a global pandemic, concerns have arisen for the disease impact in at-risk populations, especially in immunocompromised hosts. On the other hand, clinical studies have clarified that the COVID-19 clinical burden is mostly due to over-inflammation and immune-mediated multiorgan injury. This has led to downsizing the role of immunosuppression as a determinant of outcome, and early reports confirm the hypothesis that patients undergoing immunosuppressive treatments do not have an increased risk of severe COVID-19 with respect to the general population. Intriguingly, SARS-CoV-2 natural reservoirs, such as bats and mice, have evolved mechanisms of tolerance involving selection of genes optimizing viral clearance through interferon type I and III responses and also dampening inflammasome response and cytokine expression. Children exhibit resistance to COVID-19 severe manifestations, and age-related features in innate and adaptive response possibly explaining this difference are discussed. A competent recognition by the innate immune system and controlled pro-inflammatory signaling seem to be the pillars of an effective response and the premise for pathogen clearance in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Immunosuppression-if not associated with other elements of fragility-do not represent per se an obstacle to this competent/tolerant phenotype in children. Several reports confirm that children receiving immunosuppressive medications have similar clinical involvement and outcomes as the pediatric general population, indicating that maintenance treatments should not be interrupted in suspect or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.

16.
Case Rep Crit Care ; 2021: 5563071, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231188

ABSTRACT

Clostridium perfringens is a rare cause of septic shock, occurring most frequently in immunocompromised patients. An uncommon cause of Clostridium perfringen septicemia is spontaneous gangrenous gas necrosis of the spleen, where the primary treatment is splenectomy. We present a case of septic shock caused by spontaneous gangrenous gas necrosis of the spleen secondary to Clostridium perfringens in a patient whose profound pancytopenia made obtaining definitive source control extremely difficult.

17.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 42(6): 103080, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230345

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) is aggressive morbidity affecting immunocompromised patients. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may allow secondary fungal disease through a propensity to cause respiratory infection by affecting the immune system leading to dysregulation and reduced numbers of T lymphocytes, CD4+T, and CD8+T cells, altering the innate immunity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the incidence of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFRS) in COVID-19 patients. METHODOLOGY: Data for acute invasive rhinosinusitis was obtained from the Otorhinolaryngology departments at our tertiary hospital at the period from January 2017 to December 2020. Then the risk factors of comorbid diseases and fungal types between post-COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 groups regarding the incidence of AIFRS are compared. RESULTS: Consequently, the incidence of AIFRS showed a more significant difference (P < 0.05) in post-COVID-19 patients than in non-COVID-19 especially in immunocompromised patients, diabetic, renal, and liver dysfunction patients as well as patients with risk factors of AIFRS. The most common organisms affecting patients with AIFRS are Rhizopus oryzae, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Absidia mucor. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of AIFRS is markedly prominent in post-COVID-19 patients than in those of non-COVID-19, especially in immunocompromised, diabetic, renal, and liver dysfunction patients and patients with risk factors for rhinosinusitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Outbreaks , Invasive Fungal Infections , Rhinitis/epidemiology , Rhinitis/microbiology , Sinusitis/epidemiology , Sinusitis/microbiology , Absidia , Acute Disease , Aged , Aspergillus fumigatus , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Incidence , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Rhinitis/diagnostic imaging , Rhinitis/immunology , Rhizopus oryzae , Risk Factors , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Sinusitis/immunology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
18.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(7): 583, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229542

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of a SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in a Swiss 54-years-old immunocompromised patient (lymphoma, therapy with the anti-CD20 antibody Rituximab® ), with initial scarce respiratory symptoms but typical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) radiological presentation, and symptoms onset during a holiday trip to Texas (USA). Three nasopharyngeal swabs in the 96 hours following hospital admission were negative, despite a CT thorax suggestive for an early stage of infection. COVID-infection was finally confirmed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, performed for exclusion of an alternative diagnosis in immunocompromised. In the BAL an increased cellularity with marked lymphocytosis of 35%, a reduced CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.1 and borderline neutrophilia of 3% were found. This finding might be due to the concomitant therapy with anti-CD20 antibodies, but the presence of lymphocytosis in the BAL despite peripheral lymphopenia with decreased CD4/CD8 T-cells ratio are described here for the first time in a SARS-CoV-2 infection. Persistent gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea), fever and initially headache were the predominant symptoms. The respiratory symptoms were scarce (variable mild dyspnea mMRC1). The respiratory conditions worsened during the hospital stay, with tachypnea up to 35/min, increased need for supplemental oxygen up to 8 L/min and worsening lung infiltrates on CT thorax on day 5. A therapy with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and an immunoglobulin-supplementation were given, with clinical and respiratory improvement, without need for intensive care or any ventilator support, and hospital discharge on day 16. Our case highlights some diagnostic and therapeutical challenges occurring in patients with COVID-19 infection. As take-home message, in the presence of clinical and radiological findings compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection we outline the importance of treating patients accordingly, also in presence of repeated negative nasopharyngeal swabs. In selected patients as in our case a bronchoscopic BAL should be considered to exclude other infections, but in our opinion not primarily to confirming COVID-19 infection. Our unique finding of a lymphocytosis in the BAL during a COVID-19 infection needs further investigations.

19.
J Med Cases ; 11(12): 403-406, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1227213

ABSTRACT

There has been increasing evidence of co-infections with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, which increases the severity of the disease. Organisms such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pneumoniae have been previously isolated. We present a case of a COVID-19 patient treated with baricitinib and dexamethasone who later developed Klebsiella pneumoniae-carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and Candida dubliniensis bloodstream infections, treated with meropenem/vaborbactam and micafungin, respectively. These infections are exceedingly rare and are mostly reported in immunosuppressed patients. The finding of these bloodstream infections raises concerns on the cause of immunosuppression in this patient infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) treated with baricitinib and dexamethasone. There has been no report so far of COVID-19 associated with these co-infections.

20.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209683

ABSTRACT

The clinically indistinguishable overlap between pneumonitis caused due to immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) and pneumonia associated with COVID-19 has posed considerable challenges for patients with cancer and oncologists alike. The cancer community continues to face the challenges that lay at the complex immunological intersection of immune-based cancer therapy and immune dysregulation that results from COVID-19. Is there compounded immune dysregulation that could lead to poor outcomes? Could ICIs, in fact, ameliorate SARS-CoV-2-driven T-cell exhaustion?A little more is known about the kinetics of the viral replication in immunocompromised patients now as compared with earlier during the pandemic. Working knowledge of the diagnostic and therapeutic nuances of SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with active cancers, issues related to viability and replication potential of the virus, unclear role of corticosteroids among those with diminished or dysfunctional effector T-cell repertoire, and the type of immunotherapy with differential risk of pneumonitis will inform decision making related to immunotherapy choices and decision for ICI continuation in the era of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Immunotherapy/methods , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/adverse effects , Antineoplastic Agents, Immunological/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Neoplasms/immunology , Pneumonia/chemically induced , Pneumonia/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
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