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1.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(12): 3919-3922, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525534

ABSTRACT

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a clinical condition characterized by acute behavioral and mood changes, abnormal movements, autonomic instability, seizures, and encephalopathy. We describe a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis due to NMDAR antibody in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (coronavirus disease 2019) (COVID-19), without pulmonary involvement or fever. The patient presented with acute ataxia, rapidly developed encephalopathy, and autoimmune encephalitis was suspected. Steroid treatment was withheld because of lymphopenia and intravenous immunoglobulin was started. The absence of clinical response prompted plasmapheresis and, when lymphocyte counts improved, pulse steroid treatment was applied. The latter was followed by significant improvement and the patient was discharged in a conscious and ambulatory state. Autoimmune encephalitis should be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection and steroid treatment should be preferred unless limited by contraindications.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , COVID-19 , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/complications , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
2.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(7): 2305-2312, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384405

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the temporal association of specific acute neurological symptoms in pediatric patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between May and August 2020. METHODS: We performed a recollection of all the clinical and laboratory data of patients having acute neurological symptoms temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection at a third-level referral hospital in Mexico City (Instituto Nacional de Pediatría). Patients in an age group of 0-17 years with acute neurological signs (including ascending weakness with areflexia, diminished visual acuity, encephalopathy, ataxia, stroke, or weakness with plasma creatinine kinase (CK) elevation) were evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 23 patients with neurological manifestations, 10 (43%) had a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the infected patients, 5 (50%) were males aged 2-16 years old (median age 11.8 years old). Four (40%) patients confirmed a close contact with a relative positive for SARS-CoV-2, while 6 (60%) cases had a history of SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms over the previous 2 weeks. The following diagnoses were established: 3 cases of GBS, 2 of ON, 2 of AIS, one of myositis with rhabdomyolysis, one ACA, and one of anti-NMDA-R encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological manifestations temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were noticed in the pediatric population even without respiratory symptoms. In this study, 2 of 6 symptomatic patients had mild respiratory symptoms and 4 had unspecific symptoms. During this pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection should be considered as etiology in patients with acute neurological symptoms, with or without previous respiratory manifestations, particularly in teenagers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
4.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(10)2020 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304206

ABSTRACT

We report the first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in Japan. A 54-year-old woman developed neurological symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We tested for various antiganglioside antibodies, that had not been investigated in previous cases. The patient was diagnosed with GBS based on neurological and electrophysiological findings; no antiganglioside antibodies were detected. In previous reports, most patients with SARS-CoV-2-infection-related GBS had lower limb predominant symptoms, and antiganglioside antibody tests were negative. Our findings support the notion that non-immune abnormalities such as hyperinflammation following cytokine storms and microvascular disorders due to vascular endothelial damage may lead to neurological symptoms in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our case further highlights the need for careful diagnosis in suspected cases of GBS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Electromyography/methods , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Hypesthesia/diagnosis , Hypesthesia/etiology , Japan , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/diagnosis , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Rare Diseases , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
5.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 8(5): 002531, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268422

ABSTRACT

The current SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic has led to a global health crisis. The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection ranges from asymptomatic infection to critical illness affecting almost every organ including the central and peripheral nervous systems. Myoclonus, a less expected and relatively unusual neurological complication, together with ataxia, has lately been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We describe the case of a 67-year-old male patient, admitted to our hospital for interstitial bilateral pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 infection, who progressively developed general myoclonus and later cerebellar ataxia and gait disturbance. Given the timeline from COVID-19 systemic symptoms to neurological manifestations and the normal results of extensive and non-conclusive diagnostic work-up (blood test, lumbar puncture, EEG, cerebral MRI), a para-infectious encephalopathy related to SARS-CoV-2 was contemplated and a high dose of methylprednisolone was started with prompt symptom improvement. Further investigation and neuroepidemiological studies are needed to help define the mechanism of neuroinvasion and the entire spectrum of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in mildly affected patients, in terms of prevention, treatment and possible neurological sequelae. LEARNING POINTS: SARS-CoV-2 infection can be related to neurological symptoms and sequelae.Myoclonus, specifically when associated with ataxia, might represent the expression of COVID-19-related encephalopathy.Myoclonus associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection mostly responds to treatment with steroids.

6.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258081

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244055

ABSTRACT

From the beginning of SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, it was clear that respiratory symptoms are often accompanied with neurological symptoms. Neurological manifestations can occur even after mild forms of respiratory disease, and neurological symptoms are very often associated with worsening of the patient's condition. The aim of this study was to show abnormal brain neuroimaging findings evaluated by MRI in patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection and neurological symptoms. Methods: Sixteen patients after mild forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, twenty-three patients after moderate forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as sixteen healthy participants in the control group underwent MRI 3T brain scan. All subjects in the SARS-CoV-2 group had small, punctuate, strategically located and newly formed hyperintense lesions on T2 and FLAIR sequences. New lesions were formed more often in the bilateral frontal subcortical and bilateral periventricular, correlated with the severity of the clinical picture. These changes indicate an example of silent cerebrovascular disease related to SARS-CoV-2 and once again emphasize the neurotropism of the virus.

8.
Anaerobe ; 70: 102389, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242868

ABSTRACT

Botulism is a neuroparalytic syndrome caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum. We describe a patient with neurological symptoms associated with intoxication by Clostridium botulinum and infection by SARSCoV2. This report underlines that it is mandatory, even in case of SARS-CoV-2 positivity, to investigate all the causes of a clinical pattern.


Subject(s)
Botulism/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Botulism/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Clostridium botulinum/genetics , Clostridium botulinum/isolation & purification , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
9.
Transl Neurodegener ; 10(1): 15, 2021 04 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215126

ABSTRACT

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has emerged as a key comorbidity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 are elevated in AD due to multiple pathological changes in AD patients such as the excessive expression of viral receptor angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and pro-inflammatory molecules, various AD complications including diabetes, lifestyle alterations in AD, and drug-drug interactions. Meanwhile, COVID-19 has also been reported to cause various neurologic symptoms including cognitive impairment that may ultimately result in AD, probably through the invasion of SARS-CoV-2 into the central nervous system, COVID-19-induced inflammation, long-term hospitalization and delirium, and post-COVID-19 syndrome. In addition, the COVID-19 crisis also worsens behavioral symptoms in uninfected AD patients and poses new challenges for AD prevention. In this review, we first introduce the symptoms and pathogenesis of COVID-19 and AD. Next, we provide a comprehensive discussion on the aggravating effects of AD on COVID-19 and the underlying mechanisms from molecular to social levels. We also highlight the influence of COVID-19 on cognitive function, and propose possible routes of viral invasion into the brain and potential mechanisms underlying the COVID-19-induced cognitive impairment. Last, we summarize the negative impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on uninfected AD patients and dementia prevention.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease/complications , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Humans
10.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 42(7): 1196-1200, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1200067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is associated with hypercoagulability. We sought to evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of cerebral venous thrombosis among patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at 6 tertiary care centers in the New York City metropolitan area. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicenter cohort study of 13,500 consecutive patients with COVID-19 who were hospitalized between March 1 and May 30, 2020. RESULTS: Of 13,500 patients with COVID-19, twelve had imaging-proved cerebral venous thrombosis with an incidence of 8.8 per 10,000 during 3 months, which is considerably higher than the reported incidence of cerebral venous thrombosis in the general population of 5 per million annually. There was a male preponderance (8 men, 4 women) and an average age of 49 years (95% CI, 36-62 years; range, 17-95 years). Only 1 patient (8%) had a history of thromboembolic disease. Neurologic symptoms secondary to cerebral venous thrombosis occurred within 24 hours of the onset of the respiratory and constitutional symptoms in 58% of cases, and 75% had venous infarction, hemorrhage, or both on brain imaging. Management consisted of anticoagulation, endovascular thrombectomy, and surgical hematoma evacuation. The mortality rate was 25%. CONCLUSIONS: Early evidence suggests a higher-than-expected frequency of cerebral venous thrombosis among patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Cerebral venous thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of neurologic syndromes associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Intracranial Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Causality , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Intracranial Thrombosis/diagnosis , Male , Middle Aged , New York City/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology
11.
eNeurologicalSci ; 23: 100338, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and characteristics of the most common neurological manifestations in Peruvian patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a single-center prospective, cross-sectional study at an isolation center functioning as a public acute-care hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lima, the capital city of Peru. This was a convenience sample of patients with acute COVID-19 infection and mild-to-moderate respiratory symptoms who presented for hospital admission between September 25 and November 25, 2020. We interviewed participants and collected demographic, medical history and clinical presentation data; all participants underwent a complete physical and neurological examination. Descriptive statistics and prevalence ratios (PR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals and p-values were calculated to explore between-groups differences. RESULTS: Of 199 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 enrolled in this study, 83% presented with at least one neurological symptom (mean symptom duration 8 +/- 6 days). The most common neurological symptoms were headache (72%), hypogeusia or ageusia (41%), hyposmia or anosmia (40%) and dizziness (34%). Only 2.5% of the cohort had an abnormal neurological examination. The majority (42%) had no prior comorbidities. Presence of at least 1 neurological symptom was independently associated with fever, dyspnea, cough, poor appetite, sore throat, chest tightness or diarrhea, but not with comorbid conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study found that headaches, and smell and taste dysfunction are common among patients presenting with mild-to-moderate acute COVID-19 in Lima, Peru. International longitudinal studies are needed to determine the long-term neurological sequelae of COVID-19 during the acute and post-infectious period.

12.
Curr Opin Neurol ; 34(3): 417-422, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1183108

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the course of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, it has become increasingly clear that there is a high prevalence of neurological complications in people infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). RECENT FINDINGS: Studies of central nervous system (CNS) tissue in brain model systems and from adults with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection have begun to uncover potential mechanisms for neurological damage during COVID-19. These studies suggest that direct viral invasion of the CNS occurs in a subset of cases but does not frequently cause overt viral meningoencephalitis. Vascular abnormalities including microvascular thrombi and endothelial activation, as well as parainfectious processes, including CNS specific immune responses, may contribute to neurological symptoms during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. SUMMARY: Neuroimmune perturbations and vascular inflammation observed in people with COVID-19 may warrant investigation of immune-modulating interventions to ameliorate neurological complications associated with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. These therapies may also impact the trajectory of potential long-term complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Vasculitis/etiology , Vasculitis/immunology
13.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(12): 3919-3922, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182245

ABSTRACT

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a clinical condition characterized by acute behavioral and mood changes, abnormal movements, autonomic instability, seizures, and encephalopathy. We describe a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis due to NMDAR antibody in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (coronavirus disease 2019) (COVID-19), without pulmonary involvement or fever. The patient presented with acute ataxia, rapidly developed encephalopathy, and autoimmune encephalitis was suspected. Steroid treatment was withheld because of lymphopenia and intravenous immunoglobulin was started. The absence of clinical response prompted plasmapheresis and, when lymphocyte counts improved, pulse steroid treatment was applied. The latter was followed by significant improvement and the patient was discharged in a conscious and ambulatory state. Autoimmune encephalitis should be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection and steroid treatment should be preferred unless limited by contraindications.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , COVID-19 , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/complications , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
14.
Front Aging Neurosci ; 13: 632673, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1170101

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread around the globe causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Because it affects the respiratory system, common symptoms are cough and breathing difficulties with fever and fatigue. Also, some cases progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The acute phase of COVID-19 has been also related to nervous system symptoms, including loss of taste and smell as well as encephalitis and cerebrovascular disorders. However, it remains unclear if neurological complications are due to the direct viral infection of the nervous system, or they appear as a consequence of the immune reaction against the virus in patients who presented pre-existing deficits or had a certain detrimental immune response. Importantly, the medium and long-term consequences of the infection by SARS-CoV-2 in the nervous system remain at present unknown. This review article aims to give an overview of the current neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19, as well as attempting to provide an insight beyond the acute affectation.

15.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(6): 1400-1404, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164371

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been noted to present with neurological symptoms in nearly 30% of patients. While children are more likely to be asymptomatic, neurological involvement has been observed. We present the case of a 23-month-old previously healthy female who was brought to the emergency room for a new-onset facial droop. The patient tested positive for COVID-19 but was otherwise asymptomatic. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain with and without contrast revealed abnormal enhancement along the canalicular segment of the right cranial VII extending to the first genu suggestive of cranial nerve neuritis. Given that our case involves a pediatric patient with no significant comorbidities presenting with facial drop, COVID-19 should be considered on the differential when evaluating causes of new onset peripheral nerve palsies.

16.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 41(6): 960-975, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1104705

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of pandemic severe respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) initially occurred in China, has spread the world resulted in serious threats to human public health. Uncommon neurological manifestations with pathophysiological symptoms were observed in infected patients including headache, seizures, and neuroimmunological disorders. Regardless of whether these neurological symptoms are direct or indirect casual infection relationship, this novel viral infection has a relevant impact on the neuroimmune system that requires a neurologist's careful assessment. Recently, the use of immunotherapy has been emerged in fighting against COVID-19 infection despite the uncertain efficiency in managing COVID-19 related disorders or even its proven failure by increasing its severity. Herein, the author is addressing the first approaches in using immunotherapies in controlling COVID-19 viral impact on the brain by highlighting their role in decreasing or increasing infection risks among subjects. This point of view review article supports the use of immunotherapies in managing COVID-19 neurological disorders but in optimal timing and duration to ensure the maximum therapeutic outcome by reducing morbidity and mortality rate. Based on recently published data, the current review article highlights the beneficial effects and drawbacks of using immunotherapies to combat COVID-19 and its neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Immunotherapy/methods , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/therapy , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/complications , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Cytokine Release Syndrome/therapy , Cytokines/immunology , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Headache/virology , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interferon-beta/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pandemics
17.
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol ; 130(11): 1228-1235, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute neurological sequela in patients with COVID-19 infection include acute thromboembolic infarcts related to cytokine storm and post infectious immune activation resulting in a prothrombotic state. Radiologic imaging studies of the sinonasal tract and mastoid cavity in patients with COVID-19 infection are sparse and limited to case series. In this report, we investigate the radiologic involvement of nasal cavity, nasopharynx, paranasal sinuses, and mastoid cavity in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms. METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records and neuroradiologic imaging in patients diagnosed with acute COVID-19 infection who presented with acute neurological symptoms to assess radiologic prevalence of sinus and mastoid disease and its correlation to upper respiratory tract symptoms. RESULTS: Of the 55 patients, 23 (42%) had partial sinus opacification, with no evidence for complete sinus opacification. The ethmoid sinus was the most commonly affected (16/55 or 29%). An air fluid level was noted in 6/55 (11%) patients, most commonly in the maxillary sinus. Olfactory recess and mastoid opacification were uncommon. There was no evidence of bony destruction in any of the studies, Cough, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, and sore throat were not significantly associated with any radiological findings. CONCLUSION: In patients who present with acute neurological symptoms, COVID-19 infection is characterized by limited and mild mucosal disease within the sinuses, nasopharynx and mastoid cavity. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Mastoid/diagnostic imaging , Nasopharynx/diagnostic imaging , Paranasal Sinuses/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Correlation of Data , Diagnostic Techniques, Neurological , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuroimaging/methods , Neurologic Examination/methods , New York/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment/methods
18.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3324-3331, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035403

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Neurological symptoms have been frequently reported in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and biomarkers of central nervous system (CNS) injury are reported to be increased in plasma but not extensively studied in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study examined CSF for biomarkers of CNS injury and other pathology in relation to neurological symptoms and disease severity in patients with neurological manifestations of COVID-19. METHODS: Nineteen patients with neurological symptoms and mild to critical COVID-19 were prospectively included. Extensive analysis of CSF, including measurement of biomarkers of CNS injury (neurofilament light chain [NfL] protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein [GFAp], and total tau), was performed and compared to neurological features and disease severity. RESULTS: Neurological symptoms included altered mental status (42%), headache (42%), and central (21%) and peripheral weakness (32%). Two patients demonstrated minor pleocytosis, and four patients had increased immunoglobulin G levels in CSF. Neuronal autoantibody testing using commercial tests was negative in all patients. Increased CSF levels of NfL protein, total tau, and GFAp were seen in 63%, 37%, and 16% of patients, respectively. Increased NfL protein correlated with disease severity, time in intensive care, and level of consciousness. NfL protein in CSF was higher in patients with central neurological symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited by the small sample size, our data suggest that levels of NfL protein, GFAp, and total tau in CSF are commonly elevated in patients with COVID-19 with neurological symptoms. This is in contrast to the standard CSF workup where pathological findings are scarce. NfL protein, in particular, is associated with central neurological symptoms and disease severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neurofilament Proteins , Biomarkers , Central Nervous System , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 104: 390-397, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014554

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited literature exists on Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings in COVID-19 patients with neurological symptoms. In this review, we conducted a descriptive analysis of CSF findings in patients with COVID-19 to understand prognosis and explore therapeutic options. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases using the keywords "SARS-CoV-2 in cerebrospinal fluid" and "SARS-CoV-2 and CNS Complications"" for reports of CSF findings in COVID-19 related neurological manifestations. Descriptive analyses were conducted to observe the CSF protein and cell counts based on age, gender, severity, fatality of COVID-19, and whether central (CNS) or peripheral nervous system (PNS) was associated. RESULTS: A total of 113 patients were identified from 67 studies. Of these, 7 patients (6.2%) were fatal COVID-19 cases and 35 patients (31%) were considered severe COVID-19 cases. CSF protein was elevated in 100% (7/7) of the fatal cases with an average of 61.28 mg/dl and in 65.0% (52/80) in non-fatal cases with an average 56.73 mg/dl. CSF protein levels were elevated in 74.5% (38/51) patients with non-severe COVID-19 and 68.6% (24/35) in those with a severe COVID-19 infection. CSF cell count was increased in 43% of fatal cases, 25.7% severe cases, and 29.4% of non-severe cases. CONCLUSION: Our analysis showed that the most common CSF findings situation in COVID-19 infection is elevated protein with, very occasionally, mild lymphocyte predominant pleocytosis. Further studies to elucidate the pathophysiology of neurological complications in COVID-19 are recommended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , Leukocytosis/cerebrospinal fluid , Nervous System Diseases/cerebrospinal fluid , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Leukocytosis/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology
20.
Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep ; 20: 100992, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941134

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We detail a unique case of a healthy 33-year-old suspected COVID-19 patient who presented with unilateral Central Retinal Vein Occlusion, possibly as a complication of COVID-19. OBSERVATIONS: A 33-year-old healthy male was referred to the emergency department due to blurred vision in his left eye for the past month, accompanied by flashes of light without any accompanying neurological symptoms. The patient reported a three-week period of fatigue, dry cough, and shortness of breath ended about 2 weeks prior to the ocular symptoms. He was not tested for COVID-19 at the time of his respiratory complaints.The clinical examination and the ancillary tests confirmed the diagnosis of a left eye Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.During admission, a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for SARS-CoV-2 from a nasopharyngeal swab was performed and was found to be negative, however, an IgG/IgM Rapid Test (Inzek International Trading, the Netherlands) was performed and was found to be IgM negative and IgG Positive for SARS-CoV-2, confirming recovery from COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPORTANCE: To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of CRVO in association with COVID-19.As the literature on human ocular manifestations of COVID-19 is still sparse, our case emphasizes the need for further investigation of ocular complication associated with this novel disease.

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