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1.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 279(2): 759-764, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1661677

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to reveal the effect of N95 and surgical masks on mucociliary clearance function and sinonasal complaints. METHODS: Sixty participants were enrolled in this study, including 30 people in N95 mask group and 30 people in surgical mask group. Two interviews, three days apart, were performed with all participants. The participants were asked not to use any mask before the first interview while they were asked to use the determined mask just before the second interview for 8 h. In both interviews, the mucociliary clearance times (MCTs) were measured and participants were asked to score ten distinct sinonasal complaints using visual analog scale (VAS). Data obtained from first interview were named pre-mask data, data obtained from second interview were called after-mask data. In both groups, pre-mask MCTs and VAS scores were compared with after-mask MCTs and VAS scores. RESULTS: After-mask MCTs (mean = 13.03 ± 6.05 min) were significantly longer than pre-mask MCTs (mean = 10.19 ± 4.21 min) in N95 mask group (p = 0.002). No significant difference was found between after-mask and pre-mask MCTs (mean = 12.05 ± 5.21 min, mean = 11.00 ± 5.44 min, respectively) in surgical mask group (p = 0.234). When after-mask VAS scores were compared with pre-mask VAS scores, it was found that N95 mask use increased nasal blockage and postnasal discharge, surgical mask usage increased nasal blockage. CONCLUSION: While the use of N95 mask leads to nasal blockage and postnasal discharge, surgical mask use results in nasal blockage. N95 masks cause impairment in mucociliary clearance function. But all these effects are mild. Surgical masks have not been found to have any effect on mucociliary clearance function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Masks , Humans , Mucociliary Clearance , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
3.
Headache ; 60(10): 2389-2405, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455545

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: In this experimental study, we aimed to determine whether guided music listening (GML) - a music intervention based on models of mood mediation and attention modulation - modulates masticatory muscle activity and awake bruxism in subjects with chronic painful muscular temporomandibular disorders (TMD myalgia, mTMD), a condition causing a significant burden to patients, their families, and healthcare systems. BACKGROUND: Awake bruxism - a stress behavior characterized by clenching of the teeth - is a strong contributor to chronic mTMD. GML modulates psychological stress and motor responses and could thus reduce muscle activity in chronic musculoskeletal conditions, including mTMD. METHODS: We recorded the electromyographic (EMG) activity in the right masseter of 14 women with chronic (>6 months) mTMD (median [IQR] = 39.5.3 [24.3] years) and 15 pain-free women (median [IQR] = 30.0 [3.5] years) during a GML session, including 3 music (stressful, relaxing, and participants' favorite music) and a no-music (pink noise) control blocks, each lasting 15 minutes. We measured the motor effort of the right masseter relative to the participants' maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), the muscular effort to maintain mandibular posture (EMGposture ), and to produce spontaneous awake bruxism episodes (EMGbruxism ), and the duration and frequency of spontaneous awake bruxism episodes. We tested between-group and within-group (between blocks) differences, as well as the effect of the interaction group by experimental block on these outcome measures. RESULTS: In both groups, EMGposture was significantly affected by the interaction group by experimental block (P < .001). Compared to pink noise [mean (95% CI); mTMD: 2.2 (1.6-2.8) %MVC; Controls: 1.1 (0.5-1.7) %MVC], EMGposture increased during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI); mTMD: +0.8 (0.7-0.8) %MVC; Controls: +0.3 (0.3-0.4) %MVC; both P < .001], and decreased during the relaxing [mTMD: -0.4 (-0.5 to -0.4) %MVC; Controls: -0.3 (-0.4 to -0.3) %MVC; both P < .001] and favorite [mTMD: -0.5 (-0.6 to -0.5) %MVC; Controls: -0.5 (-0.5 to -0.4) %MVC; both P < .001] music blocks. EMGposture was greater in mTMD individuals than controls during the favorite music [contrast estimate (95% CI): +1.1 (0.2-1.9) %MVC; P = .019] and the pink noise [+1.1 (0.2-2.0) %MVC; P = .014] blocks. EMGbruxism was significantly affected by the interaction group by experimental block (P < .001). In mTMD participants, compared to the pink noise block [mean (95% CI); 23.8 (16.0-31.6) %MVC], EMGbruxism increased during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI); +10.2 (8.6-11.8) %MVC], and decreased during the relaxing [-6.2 (-8.1 to -4.3) %MVC; P < .001] and favorite [-10.2 (-12.2 to -9.1) %MVC; P < .001] music blocks. These effects were not observed in the control group [mean (95% CI); pink noise: 19.3 (10.9-27.6); stressful: 21.2 (12.9-29.4) %MVC; relaxing: 21.6 (13.3-29.9) %MVC; favorite: 24.2 (15.8-32.7) %MVC; all P > .05]. EMGbruxism was significantly greater in mTMD participants than controls during the stressful music block [contrast estimate (95% CI): +12.9 (1.6-24.2) %MVC; P = .026). GML did not affect the duration or the frequency of awake bruxism in either group (median [IQR], mTMD: 23.5 [96.7] s, range 1-1300 seconds; Controls: 5.5 [22.5], range 0-246 seconds; P = .108). The frequency of awake bruxism episodes was greater in the mTMD group compared to controls only during the pink noise block (median [IQR], mTMD: 5 [15.3] episodes, range 0-62 episodes; Controls: 1 [3] episode, range 0-27 episodes; P = .046). No significant between-group differences were found in either the overall time spent engaging in awake bruxism (median [IQR], mTMD: 23.5 [96.7] s, range 1-1300 seconds; Controls: 5.5 [22.5], range 0-246 seconds; P = .108), or during each block (all P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: In subjects with chronic mTMD, relaxing music and the individual's favorite music decreased the muscular effort during spontaneous awake bruxism episodes by 26% and 44% (relative changes), respectively. In contrast, stressful music increases it by about 43%. Because of its positive effects on awake bruxism, GML with selected music could be a promising and non-invasive component of a multimodal approach for the management of chronic mTMD.


Subject(s)
Bruxism , Chronic Pain , Music Therapy , Music , Myalgia , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders , Adult , Bruxism/complications , Bruxism/physiopathology , Bruxism/psychology , Bruxism/therapy , Chronic Pain/etiology , Chronic Pain/physiopathology , Chronic Pain/psychology , Chronic Pain/therapy , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Masseter Muscle/physiopathology , Middle Aged , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myalgia/psychology , Myalgia/therapy , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/physiopathology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/psychology , Temporomandibular Joint Disorders/therapy
4.
J Surg Case Rep ; 2021(5): rjab198, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254792

ABSTRACT

Although primarily a respiratory virus, coronavirus-19 acts on the gastrointestinal tract to cause symptoms such as anorexia, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. One possible mechanism involves the ACE2 receptor, which serves as the primary receptor for virus entry into the gastrointestinal epithelium. We describe the case of a 54-year-old-male with recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, who later presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain for 1 week. He was diagnosed to have a small bowel obstruction; however, continued to have progressively worsening pain and failed conservative management. No cause for the obstruction was found in the operating room. Gastrointestinal involvement occurs in at least two-thirds of patients with coronavirus infection. Viral entry into the small bowel, triggering an inflammatory response, and virus-induced microthrombosis of the microcirculation have been postulated as a possible mechanism for paralytic ileus/small bowel obstruction.

5.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-7, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252229

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is considered a respiratory disease which has many symptoms associated with the larynx and the lungs infections. COVID-19 has wide spectrum of clinical features starting from mild symptoms to severe illness. Otolaryngological symptoms as nasal obstruction, loss of smell, taste dysfunction, sore throat, sticky mucus, and dysphagia are common in COVID-19 patients. Other vocal symptoms as dysphonia and phonesthenia are common in COVID-19 patients. The aim of this study is to detect the occurrence of vocal symptoms in COVID-19 patients in Egypt and to investigate the videolaryngoscopic findings associated with these symptoms. A total number of 106 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were randomly assessed for vocal symptoms. The following epidemiological and clinical data were collected: age, gender, smoking consumption, general symptoms, otolaryngological and vocal symptoms as dysphonia and phonesthenia. Auditory perceptual assessment of voice and videolaryngoscopic examination were done. The occurrence of dysphonia and phonesthenia were observed in COVID -19 patients. Of the 106 patients, 84 patients (79%) were dysphonic, 20 (18.8%) patients were phonesthenic. The correlation of the different otolaryngological symptoms with dysphonia and phonesthenia were reported. A significant correlation was found between dysphonic patients and rhinorrhea, taste dysfunction, sore throat, and cough. A significant correlation was found between phonesthenic patients and allergic rhinitis. Videolaryngoscopic findings were detected in COVID-19 patients. Vocal fold congestion was found in 42 patients (39.6%), benign vocal fold swellings was found in 18 patients (16.9%), ventricular hypertrophy was found in 6 patients (0.05%), unilateral vocal fold immobility was found in 14 patients (13.2%), and vocal fold congestion associated with ventricular fold hypertrophy was found in 20 patients (18.8%).There was significant correlation of dysphonia and phonesthenia with vocal fold congestion (P value:0.001, P value:0.039 respectively).There was a significant correlation between cough and vocal fold congestion (P value: 0.000). Benign vocal fold swellings were associated with 18 patients (16.9%), but it was not statistically significant (P value: 0.931). Dysphonia and phonesthenia were observed in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19.The vocal symptoms were associated with different laryngoscopic findings, in which, vocal fold congestion was the commonest.

6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(6): 665-672, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230831

ABSTRACT

The emergent 21st century betacoronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2, lead to clinicopathological manifestations with unusual features, such as early-onset chest pain, pulmonary infarction, and pulmonary and systemic thromboembolism that is pathologically linked to extensive capillary, arteriolar, and venular thrombosis. Early ground glass opacities detected by CT, which are reminiscent of lung infarcts associated with pulmonary embolism, point to a novel vascular pathology in COVID-19. Under physiological conditions, normal parenchymal oxygenation is maintained by three sources: the alveolus itself and dual oxygen supply from the pulmonary and bronchial artery circulations. We propose a model in which these three components are disrupted in COVID-19 pneumonia, with severe viral alveolitis and concomitant immunothrombotic obstruction of the pulmonary and bronchiolar circulation. Tricompartmental disruption might have two main consequences: systemic clot embolisation from pulmonary vein territory immunothrombosis, and alveolar-capillary barrier disruption with systemic access of thrombogenic viral material. Our model encompasses the known pathological and clinical features of severe COVID-19, and has implications for understanding patient responses to immunomodulatory therapies, which might exert an anti-inflammatory effect within the vascular compartments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/physiopathology , Models, Biological , Oxygen Consumption , Pulmonary Circulation , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytaa506, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a global pandemic on 11 March 2020. We report a patient with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who presented late due to fears of contracting COVID-19. CASE SUMMARY: A 65-year-old man with a history of hypertension presented late to the emergency department (ED) with AMI. He gave a 2-month history of exertional angina but avoided seeking medical consult due to fears of contracting COVID-19. On the day of admission, he had 4 h of severe chest pain before presenting to the ED. He was hypotensive and tachycardic on arrival. Electrocardiogram showed inferolateral ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Chest radiograph revealed widened superior mediastinum and bedside echocardiogram revealed inferoseptal and inferolateral hypokinesia with features of cardiac tamponade. An urgent computed tomography aortogram showed possible left ventricular (LV) wall perforation with resulting haemopericardium and cardiac tamponade. Subsequent coronary angiogram showed 100% occlusion of mid left circumflex artery and a contained LV wall rupture was confirmed with LV ventriculogram. He was transferred to a tertiary centre and underwent successful emergency surgical repair. DISCUSSION: Our index case demonstrates the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health seeking behaviour due to fears of contracting COVID-19 and the ensuing impact of delayed medical intervention. Cardiologists worldwide are seeing an alarming rate of rare complications of AMI in patients who present late. Physicians need to be aware of this phenomenon and have an active role to play in public education.

8.
Respir Investig ; 59(4): 385-388, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203265

ABSTRACT

The Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) has recommended spirometry for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. It is indispensable for the confirmation of airflow obstruction by spirometry in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis. However, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has made it difficult for many clinics to perform spirometry as it may lead to possible aerosol infections. Thus, the diagnosis of COPD, especially in the early stage, has become difficult. To overcome this situation, JRS issued a "Flowchart of Working Diagnosis and Management of COPD during the COVID-19 Pandemic". This flowchart may help physicians provisionally diagnose COPD patients without performing spirometry, offering them appropriate intervention even in epidemic and pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Medicine/organization & administration , Societies, Medical/organization & administration , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Japan , Muscarinic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Spirometry
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 983-994, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196427

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of mild-to-moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a sample of Italian patients and to investigate the occurrence of smell and taste disorders. Infected individuals with suspected (clinical diagnosis) or laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection were recruited. Patients completed a survey-based questionnaire with the aim of assessing their epidemiological and clinical characteristics, general otorhinolaryngological symptoms, and smell and taste disorders. A total of 294 patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 completed the survey (147 females). The most prevalent general symptoms included fever, myalgia, cough, and headache. A total of 70.4% and 59.2% of patients reported smell and taste disorders, respectively. A significant association between the two above-mentioned disorders was found (rs: 0.412; P < .001). Smell disorders occurred before the other symptoms in 11.6% of patients and was not significantly associated with nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea. Interestingly, our statistical analysis did not show any significant difference, either for general symptoms or otorhinolaryngological features, between the clinical diagnosis group and the laboratory-confirmed diagnosis (polymerase chain reaction) group. The structural equation model confirmed significant standardized paths (P < .05) between general symptoms, comorbidities, and general otorhinolaryngological complaints in the absence of a significant correlation between these elements and smell and taste alterations. The prevalence of smell and taste disorders in mild-to-moderate Italian COVID-19 patients is significant both in suspected and laboratory-confirmed cases and reveals a strong correlation between these clinical signs regardless of the presence of general or otorhinolaryngological symptoms, such as nasal obstruction or rhinorrhea.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/physiopathology , Models, Statistical , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Taste Disorders/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence , Rhinorrhea/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Young Adult
10.
J Thromb Haemost ; 19(7): 1771-1775, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1194162

ABSTRACT

We describe the first Danish case of presumed inflammatory and thrombotic response to vaccination with an adenoviral (ChAdOx1) vector-based COVID-19 vaccine (AZD1222). The case describes a 60-year-old woman who was admitted with intractable abdominal pain 7 days after receiving the vaccine. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed bilateral adrenal hemorrhages. On the following day, she developed a massive right-sided ischemic stroke and magnetic resonance imaging angiography showed occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. The ischemic area was deemed too large to offer reperfusion therapy. During admission, blood tests showed a remarkable drop in platelet counts from 118,000 to 5000 per µl and a substantial increase in D-dimer. The patient died on the sixth day of hospitalization. Blood tests revealed platelet factor 4 reactive antibodies, imitating what is seen in heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. This may be a novel immune-mediated response to the vaccine.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Stroke , Thrombocytopenia , Vaccines , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , COVID-19 Vaccines , Female , Hemorrhage , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/diagnosis
11.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(3)2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158101

ABSTRACT

A 65-year-old man presented to emergency department with progressive worsening dyspnoea, which was preceded by crushing, substernal chest pain 3 weeks prior that lasted for over 2 days. At the time the patient thought that this was a symptom of COVID-19 so he stayed at home and self-quarantined, until his symptoms worsened to the point of needing hospitalisation. The patient was found to have had myocardial infarction, with coronary angiography showing 100% occlusion of the Left Anterior Descending artery (LAD). Medical management was recommended given late presentation and risk of reperfusion injury.


Subject(s)
Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19 , Chest Pain , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Vessels/pathology , Delayed Diagnosis , Dyspnea/etiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Pandemics
12.
Gastroenterology Res ; 14(1): 41-44, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143871

ABSTRACT

While coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is well known to cause significant lower respiratory symptoms, recent literature has documented numerous cases of multi-systemic involvement that can present with atypical symptoms. We report a case of an 83-year-old man, recovering from abdominal aortic aneurysm repair complicated by colonic injury requiring colostomy rendering him dependent on gastrostomy tube feedings for 3 years, who was transferred from a nursing care facility to the emergency department with altered mental status, fever and jaundice. Abdominal imaging and biopsy studies eventually identified duodenitis and ampullitis complicated by a suspected Klatskin tumor leading to biliary obstruction, sepsis and hepatoencephalopathy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for COVID-19 was positive. Despite the severity of the initial presentation, the patient had no respiratory symptoms or abnormal chest X-ray findings on admission and developed hypoxia late into the disease course. Thus, this case is a report of an abnormal initial COVID-19 presentation with gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary involvement leading to hepatoencephalopathy but no lung findings, highlighting the importance of investigating extrapulmonary processes in COVID-19-positive patients regardless of pulmonary symptoms.

13.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 112, 2021 Mar 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115251

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection can lead to a constellation of viral and immune symptoms called coronavirus disease 2019. Emerging literature increasingly supports the premise that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 promotes a prothrombotic milieu. However, to date there have been no reports of acute aortic occlusion, itself a rare phenomenon. We report a case of fatal acute aortic occlusion in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019. CASE REPORT: A 59-year-old Caucasian male with past medical history of peripheral vascular disease presented to the emergency department for evaluation of shortness of breath, fevers, and dry cough. His symptoms started 5-7 days prior to the emergency department visit, and he received antibiotics in the outpatient setting without any effect. He was found to be febrile, tachypneic, and hypoxemic. He was placed on supplemental oxygen via a non-rebreather mask. Chest X-ray showed multifocal opacifications. Intravenous antibiotics for possible pneumonia were initiated. Hydroxychloroquine was initiated to cover possible coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia. During the hospitalization, the patient became progressively hypoxemic, for which he was placed on bilevel positive airway pressure. D-dimer, ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein were all elevated. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was positive. On day 3, the patient was upgraded to the intensive care unit. Soon after he was intubated, he developed a mottled appearance of skin, which extended from his bilateral feet up to the level of the subumbilical plane. Bedside ultrasound revealed an absence of flow from the mid-aorta to both common iliac arteries. The patient was evaluated emergently by vascular surgery. After a discussion with the family, it was decided to proceed with comfort-directed care, and the patient died later that day. DISCUSSION: Viral infections have been identified as a source of prothrombotic states due to direct injury of vascular tissue and inflammatory cascades. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 appears to follow a similar pattern, with numerous institutions identifying elevated levels of thrombotic complications. We believe that healthcare providers should be aware of both venous and arterial thrombotic complications associated with coronavirus disease 2019, including possible fatal outcome.


Subject(s)
Aortic Diseases , Arterial Occlusive Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis , Ultrasonography/methods , Aorta, Abdominal/diagnostic imaging , Aortic Diseases/diagnosis , Aortic Diseases/etiology , Aortic Diseases/physiopathology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/diagnosis , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/etiology , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/physiopathology , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Clinical Deterioration , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Comfort , Point-of-Care Testing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/physiopathology
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(3): 1680-1683, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102755

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although pulmonary involvement represents the primary and most characteristic presentation of Sars-Cov-2 infection, due to its innate tropism for endothelium, it is also associated with systemic pro-coagulative changes and thromboses. This paper describes a COVID-19 atypical presentation with massive thrombotic occlusion of the splenoportal-mesenteric axis and the splenic artery in the absence of clinical or radiological manifestation of pulmonary involvement. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Female patient, with no history of disease, trauma or fever in the last 30 days, was admitted to ER for persistent left subcostal pain. Laboratory exams, including inflammation, coagulation markers and Sars-CoV-2 serology, were requested. Whole-body CT with contrast media injection was performed. RESULTS: Laboratory exams showed elevated reactive C-protein, bilirubin, γ-GT and D-dimer. Whole-body CT showed: splenic artery occlusion, thrombosis of splenic, mesenteric and portal veins with portal intra-hepatic branches ectasia, juxta-hilar portal cavernomatosis of probable acute onset (absence of signs of chronic hepatopathy and of varices), a hypodense area in the spleen indicating ischemic parenchymal suffering. The patient resulted positive for Sars-CoV-2 IgG, thus in the absence of typical clinics or pulmonary parenchymal abnormality at chest CT. CONCLUSIONS: A case of acute venous thrombosis and arterial occlusion as primary manifestations of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/diagnostic imaging , Mesenteric Veins/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Spleen/blood supply , Splenic Artery/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/blood , Mesenteric Vascular Occlusion/etiology , Spleen/diagnostic imaging , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Heart Surg Forum ; 24(1): E022-E030, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079392

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prioritization among patients with coronary artery disease represents a difficult issue during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We present our clinical practices and patients' outcomes after elective, emergent, and urgent cardiovascular surgery and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). We also investigated the rate of nosocomial infection of SARS-CoV-2 in health workers (HWs), including surgeons after cardiovascular procedures and percutaneous interventions (PCI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed 186 cardiovascular operations and PCI between March 15 and October 15. According to the level of priority (LoP), we performed urgent and emergent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and cardiac valve repair or replacement surgery in 44 patients. In one patient with acute chordae rupture with pulmonary edema, we performed mitral valve replacement. We performed the aortic arch repair in two patients with type-I aortic dissection in urgent situations. Therefore, in 47 patients we performed cardiac operations in urgent or emergent situations. Elective CABG (N = 28) and elective cardiac valve (N = 10) surgeries were performed (total: 38). While rescue PCI was urgently performed in 47 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), it was performed in elective or emergent situations in 40 patients with myocardial ischemia. Endovascular treatment was performed in four patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and in four patients with chronic arterial occlusion, respectively. Surgical vascular repair and embolectomy were performed in patients with peripheral artery injury (N = 6) and acute arterial embolic events (N = 4), respectively. We performed thoracic computed tomography followed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test in patients with irregular diffuse reticular opacities with or without consolidation on chest X-ray. Blood coagulation disorders including d-dimer, thromboplastin time (TT), and partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were measured prior to procedures. RESULTS: No mortality and morbidity was seen after percutaneous and surgical arterial or venous procedures. The total mortality rate was 4.1% (8 of 186 CAD patients or valve surgery) after urgent and emergent CABG (N = 4), an urgent valve replacement (N = 1), and PCI (N = 3). Low cardiac output syndrome (LOS) and major adverse cardiac cerebrovascular event (MACCE) were the mortality factors after cardiac surgery. The reasons for death after PCI were sudden cardiac arrest related to the dissection of the left main coronary artery during procedure and pneumonia due to COVID-19 (N = 2). Ground-glass opacities in combination with pulmonary consolidations were detected in seven patients. Interlobular septal and pleural thickening with patchy bronchiectasis in the bilateral lower lobe involvement was found after thoracic computed tomography in these patients. We confirmed in-hospital COVID-19 using a PCR test in two patients with STEMI prior to PCI. PT and aPTT increased, but fibrin degradation products did not in those two patients. We confirmed COVID-19 via phone call in six CABG patients and one PCI patient after discharge from the hospital. None of the patients diagnosed with COVID-19 died after being discharged from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular surgery and PCI can safely be performed with acceptable complications and mortality rates in elective situations, during the COVID-19 pandemic. Preoperative control of OR traffic, careful evaluation of the patient's history, consultation, and precautions taken by healthcare professionals are important, during and after procedures. Also important is wearing a mask and face shield and careful disinfection of equipment and space.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures , Cross Infection/transmission , Elective Surgical Procedures , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiovascular Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 278(8): 2851-2859, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064482

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate prevalence and epidemiological and clinical factors associated with olfactory dysfunction (OD) and gustatory dysfunction (GD) in COVID-19 patients according to the disease severity. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 2579 patients with a positive diagnosis of COVID-19 were identified between March 22 and June 3, 2020 from 18 European hospitals. Epidemiological and clinical data were extracted. Otolaryngological symptoms, including OD and GD, were collected through patient-reported outcome questionnaire and Sniffin'Sticks tests were carried out in a subset of patients. RESULTS: A total of 2579 patients were included, including 2166 mild (84.0%), 144 moderate (5.6%) and 269 severe-to-critical (10.4%) patients. Mild patients presented an otolaryngological picture of the disease with OD, GD, nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea and sore throat as the most prevalent symptoms. The prevalence of subjective OD and GD was 73.7 and 46.8%, and decreases with the severity of the disease. Females had higher prevalence of subjective OD and GD compared with males. Diabetes was associated with a higher risk to develop GD. Among the subset of patients who benefited from psychophysical olfactory evaluations, there were 75 anosmic, 43 hyposmic and 113 normosmic patients. The prevalence of anosmia significantly decreased with the severity of the disease. Anosmia or hyposmia were not associated with any nasal disorder, according to SNOT-22. CONCLUSION: OD and GD are more prevalent in patients with mild COVID-19 compared with individuals with moderate, severe or critical diseases. Females might have a higher risk of developing OD and GD compared with males.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Taste Disorders/diagnosis , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology
17.
J Emerg Med ; 60(1): 103-106, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065310

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 induces a marked prothrombotic state with varied clinical presentations, including acute coronary artery occlusions leading to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, while STEMI on electrocardiogram (ECG) is not always associated with acute coronary occlusion, this diagnostic uncertainty should not delay cardiac catheterization. CASE REPORTS: We present 2 cases of patients with COVID-19 that presented with STEMI on ECG. While both patients underwent cardiac catheterization, a delay in time to intervention in the patient found to have acute coronary artery occlusion may have contributed to a poor outcome. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: These cases highlight the fact that while not all COVID-19 patients with STEMI on ECG will have acute coronary artery occlusions, there is continued need for prompt percutaneous coronary intervention during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electrocardiography/methods , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology
18.
J Inflamm Res ; 14: 175-189, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058337

ABSTRACT

Mucus is an integral part of the respiratory physiology. It protects the respiratory tract by acting as a physical barrier against inhaled particles and microbes. Excessive inflammation in conditions such as COVID-19 can result in over-production of mucus which obstructs the airway. Build-up of mucus can also contribute to recurrent airway infection, causing further obstruction. This article summarizes the current understanding and knowledge of respiratory mucus production and proposes the role of cytokine storm in inducing sudden mucus hypersecretion in COVID-19. Based on these cascades, the active constituents that inhibit or activate several potential targets are outlined for further research. These may be explored for the discovery and design of drugs to combat cytokine storm and its ensuing complications.

19.
Am J Case Rep ; 22: e928471, 2021 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055288

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has become a global pandemic. The typical symptoms are fever, cough, and shortness of breath, but the disease can present with atypical signs, including those associated with a hypercoagulable state. These signs include deep venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, ischemic stroke, and acute coronary syndrome. Herein, we present the case of acute bilateral lower-extremity ischemia as a thromboembolic complication in a patient with COVID-19. CASE REPORT A 76-year-old woman presented with acute bilateral lower-extremity ulcerations covered with eschar formation of several weeks' duration. During her hospital course, she underwent a test for COVID-19 and the result was positive. An angiogram of the patient's lower extremities showed occlusions of the right distal posterior tibial artery, right mid-distal anterior tibial artery, right dorsalis pedis artery, left mid-distal anterior tibial artery, left dorsalis pedis artery, and left popliteal vein. Tissue plasminogen activator was administered to treat the occlusions. On the following day, the patient had an acute decline in her neurologic state and was emergently intubated. A computed tomography scan of the brain confirmed a subarachnoid hemorrhage requiring reversal of tissue plasminogen activator. The patient was transitioned to comfort care and ultimately died. CONCLUSIONS In conclusion, acute limb ischemia should be acknowledged as a rare complication associated with COVID-19. It is important to raise awareness of arterial thrombosis as a possible complication of the hypercoagulable state caused by SARS-CoV-2 because prompt recognition is essential for early diagnosis and treatment. These actions could have a significant impact on patients' overall outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/virology , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Thromboembolism/virology , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/virology
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050387

ABSTRACT

Novel COVID-19 continues to intrigue medical professionals with its varied presentations. Though it affects the respiratory tract primarily, thrombogenesis has been the Achilles' heel. A 44-year-old man diagnosed with COVID-19 presented with upper limb pain at a local hospital and was found to have thrombosis of the right axillary artery. Despite a successful embolectomy at the local hospital, there was re-occlusion of the axillary artery and the limb became ischaemic. He was referred to our institution by which time the limb became gangrenous above the elbow and had to be amputated. Extensive sloughing of the nerves was also seen in the local area. Hypercoagulability presenting with various manifestations is common in COVID-19 and needs early anticoagulation. We present this asymptomatic patient who lost a limb to this COVID-19 sequelae.


Subject(s)
Amputation , Arm/surgery , Axillary Artery , COVID-19/complications , Gangrene/surgery , Ischemia/surgery , Thrombosis/complications , Adult , Arm/blood supply , Arm/pathology , Axillary Artery/surgery , Embolectomy , Gangrene/etiology , Gangrene/pathology , Humans , Ischemia/etiology , Ischemia/pathology , Male , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/surgery
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