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1.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 13: 701-704, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793274

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Corona virus (COVID-19) is an outbreak of respiratory disease caused by a novel corona virus and declared to be a global health emergency and a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Prevention strategies to control the transmission of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as closing of schools, refraining from gathering, and social distancing, have direct impacts on mental well-being. SARS-CoV-2 has a devastating psychological impact on the mental health status of the community and, particularly when associated with psychotic symptoms, it could affect the overall quality-of-life. The virus also has the potential to enter and infect the brain. As a result, psychosis symptoms could be an emerging phenomenon associated with the corona virus pandemic. The presence of psychotic symptoms may complicate the management options of patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this article review is to elaborate the relationships between COVID-19 and psychotic symptoms. METHODOLOGY: We independently searched different electronic databases, such as Google scholar, PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychInfo, and other relevant sources published in English globally, by using the search terms "psychosis and COVID-19", "corona virus", "brief psychotic", "schizophrenia", "organic psychosis", "infectious disease", "mental illness", "pandemics", and "psychiatry" in various permutations and combinations. RESULTS: The results of the included studies revealed that patients with a novel corona virus had psychotic symptoms, including hallucination in different forms of modality, delusion, disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behaviors. The patients with COVID-19-related psychotic symptoms had responded with a short-term administration of the antipsychotic medication. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: A corona virus-related psychosis has been identified in different nations, but it is difficult to conclude that a novel corona virus has been biologically related to psychosis or exacerbates psychotic symptoms. Therefore, to identify the causal relationships between COVID-19 and psychosis, the researchers should investigate the prospective study on the direct biological impacts of COVID-19 and psychosis, and the clinicians should pay attention for psychotic symptoms at the treatment center and isolation rooms in order to reduce the complication of a novel corona virus.

2.
Libyan J Med ; 16(1): 1910195, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526148

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of corona virus disease (COVID-19) caused by the new severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 began in Wuhan, China, resulting in respiratory disorders. In January of 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak a pandemic owing to its global spread. Because no studies have investigated COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia, this study investigated similarities and differences between demographic data during the COVID-19 and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreaks in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective trend analysis was performed to assess demographic data of all laboratory-confirmed MERS and COVID-19 cases. Patients' charts were reviewed for data on demographics, mortality, citizenship, sex ratio, and age groups with descriptive and comparative statistics; the data were analyzed using a non-parametric binomial test and chi-square test. Of all COVID-19 patients in Saudi Arabia,78%were male patients and 22% were female patients. This proportion of male COVID-19 patients was similar to that of male MERS patients, which also affected male patients more frequently than female patients. The number of COVID-19-positive Saudi cases was lower than that of non-Saudi cases, which were in contrast to that of MERS; COVID-19 appeared to be remarkably similar to MERS with respect to recovered cases. However, the numbers of critical and dead COVID-19 patients have been much lower than those of MERS patients. The largest proportion of COVID-19 and MERS cases (44.05% and 40.8%, respectively) were recorded in the Western region. MERS and COVID-19 exhibited similar threats to the lives of adults and the elderly, despite lower mortality rates during the COVID-19 epidemic. Targeted prevention of and interventions against MERS should be allocated populations according to the areas where they inhabit. However, much more information regarding the dynamics and epidemiology of COVID-19 in Saudi Arabia is needed.Abbrevation : MERS: Middle East Respiratory syndrome; COVID-19: Corona Virus Disease 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/etiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Demography , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Young Adult
3.
Cytokine ; 140: 155430, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385381

ABSTRACT

In vitro interferon (IFN)α treatment of primary human upper airway basal cells has been shown to drive ACE2 expression, the receptor of SARS-CoV-2. The protease furin is also involved in mediating SARS-CoV-2 and other viral infections, although its association with early IFN response has not been evaluated yet. In order to assess the in vivo relationship between ACE2 and furin expression and the IFN response in nasopharyngeal cells, we first examined ACE2 and furin levels and their correlation with the well-known marker of IFNs' activation, ISG15, in children (n = 59) and adults (n = 48), during respiratory diseases not caused by SARS-CoV-2. A strong positive correlation was found between ACE2 expression, but not of furin, and ISG15 in all patients analyzed. In addition, type I and III IFN stimulation experiments were performed to examine the IFN-mediated activation of ACE2 isoforms (full-length and truncated) and furin in epithelial cell lines. Following all the IFNs treatments, only the truncated ACE2 levels, were upregulated significantly in the A549 and Calu3 cells, in particular by type I IFNs. If confirmed in vivo following IFNs' activation, the induction of the truncated ACE2 isoform only would not enhance the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the respiratory tract.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Epithelial Cells/drug effects , Gene Expression/drug effects , Interferons/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , A549 Cells , Adult , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line, Tumor , Child , Cytokines/genetics , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Lung/cytology , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Ubiquitins/genetics
4.
Chest ; 160(2): 529-537, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children have been less affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, but its repercussions on pediatric illnesses may have been significant. This study examines the indirect impact of the pandemic on a population of critically ill children in the United States. RESEARCH QUESTION: Were there significantly fewer critically ill children admitted to PICUs during the second quarter of 2020, and were there significant changes in the types of diseases admitted? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective observational cohort study used the Virtual Pediatric Systems database. Participants were 160,295 children admitted to the PICU at 77 sites in the United States during quarters 1 (Q1) and 2 (Q2) of 2017 to 2019 (pre-COVID-19) and 2020 (COVID-19). RESULTS: The average number of admissions was similar between pre-COVID-19 Q1 and COVID-19 Q1 but decreased by 32% from pre-COVID-19 Q2 to COVID-19 Q2 (20,157 to 13,627 admissions per quarter). The largest decreases were in respiratory conditions, including asthma (1,327 subjects in pre-COVID-19 Q2 (6.6% of patients) vs 241 subjects in COVID-19 Q2 (1.8%; P < .001) and bronchiolitis (1,299 [6.5%] vs 121 [0.9%]; P < .001). The percentage of trauma admissions increased, although the raw number of trauma admissions decreased. Admissions for diabetes mellitus and poisoning/ingestion also increased. In the multivariable model, illness severity-adjusted odds of ICU mortality for PICU patients during COVID-19 Q2 increased compared with pre-COVID-19 Q2 (OR, 1.165; 95% CI, 1.00-1.357; P = .049). INTERPRETATION: Pediatric critical illness admissions decreased substantially during the second quarter of 2020, with significant changes in the types of diseases seen in PICUs in the United States. There was an increase in mortality in children admitted to the PICU during this period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Facilities and Services Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , United States
5.
Tetrahedron ; 77: 131761, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279699

ABSTRACT

Originated in China, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)- the highly contagious and fatal respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 has already infected more than 29 million people worldwide with a mortality rate of 3.15% (according to World Health Organization's (WHO's) report, September 2020) and the number is exponentially increasing with no remedy whatsoever discovered till date. But it is not the first time this infectious viral disease has appeared, in 2002 SARS-CoV infected more than 8000 individuals of which 9.6% patients died and in 2012 approximately 35% of MERS-CoV infected patients have died. Literature reports indicate that a chymotripsin-like cystein protease (3CLpro) is responsible for the replication of the virus inside the host cell. Therefore, design and synthesis of 3CLpro inhibitor molecules play a great impact in drug development against this COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, we are discussing the anti-SARS effect of some small molecule 3CLpro inhibitors with their various binding modes of interactions to the target protein.

6.
Urol Int ; 105(9-10): 916-919, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262425

ABSTRACT

Infection by COVID-19, being a respiratory disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, can predispose to arterial and venous thrombotic disease, in response to excessive inflammation, platelet activation, endothelial dysfunction, and venous stasis. During the COVID-19 pandemic period, the technological and resource availability for the care of these patients with thrombotic disease is critical, marking a factor of morbidity and poor prognosis in these cases. We describe a case of priapism in a patient with COVID-19, during the course of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and respiratory distress syndrome with a procoagulant state, seeking to relate the pathophysiological factors of ischemic priapism in patients with infection with SARS-Cov-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Ischemia/etiology , Penile Erection , Penis/blood supply , Priapism/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Ischemia/diagnosis , Ischemia/physiopathology , Male , Priapism/diagnosis , Priapism/physiopathology , Regional Blood Flow
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): e914, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261035
8.
Ann Am Thorac Soc ; 18(6): 997-1003, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256079

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Much is known about the acute infective process of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative virus of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. The marked inflammatory response and coagulopathic state in acute SARS-CoV-2 infection may promote pulmonary fibrosis. However, little is known about the incidence and seriousness of post-COVID-19 pulmonary pathology. Objectives: To describe the respiratory recovery and self-reported health after infection at the time of outpatient attendance. Methods: Infection severity was graded into three groups: 1) not requiring admission, 2) requiring hospital admission, and 3) requiring intensive care unit care. Participants underwent chest radiography and a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Fatigue and subjective return to health were assessed, and concentrations of CRP (C-reactive protein), IL-6 (interleukin-6), sCD25 (soluble CD25), and D-dimer were measured. The associations between initial illness and abnormal chest X-ray findings, 6MWT distance, and perception of maximal exertion were investigated. Results: A total of 487 patients were offered an outpatient appointment, of whom 153 (31%) attended for assessment at a median of 75 days after diagnosis. A total of 74 (48%) had required hospital admission during acute infection. Persistently abnormal chest X-ray findings were seen in 4%. The median 6MWT distance covered was 460 m. A reduced distance covered was associated with frailty and length of inpatient stay. A total of 95 (62%) patients believed that they had not returned to full health, whereas 47% met the case definition for fatigue. Ongoing ill health and fatigue were associated with an increased perception of exertion. None of the measures of persistent respiratory disease were associated with initial disease severity. Conclusions: This study highlights the rates of objective respiratory disease and subjective respiratory symptoms after COVID-19 and the complex multifactorial nature of post-COVID-19 ill health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/physiopathology , Frailty/physiopathology , Lung/physiopathology , Recovery of Function , Adult , Aged , Ambulatory Care , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Dyspnea/physiopathology , Female , Health Status , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Exertion , Radiography, Thoracic , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Walk Test
9.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 777-785, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1246573

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, the aetiological agent of COVID-19 disease, is representing a worldwide threat for the medical community and the society at large so that it is being defined as "the twenty-first-century disease". Often associated with a severe cytokine storm, leading to more severe cases, it is mandatory to block such occurrence early in the disease course, to prevent the patients from having more severe, sometimes fatal, outcomes. In this framework, early detection of "danger signals", possibly represented by alarmins, can represent one of the most promising strategies to effectively tailor the disease and to better understand the underlying mechanisms eventually leading to death or severe consequences. In light of such considerations, the present article aims at evaluating the role of alarmins in patients affected by COVID-19 disease and the relationship of such compounds with the most commonly reported comorbidities. The conducted researches demonstrated yet poor literature on this specific topic, however preliminarily confirming a role for danger signals in the amplification of the inflammatory reaction associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. As such, a number of chronic conditions, including metabolic syndrome, gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases, in turn, associated with higher levels of alarmins, both foster the infection and predispose to a worse prognosis. According to these preliminary data, prompt detection of high levels of alarmins in patients with COVID-19 and co-morbidities could suggest an immediate intense anti-inflammatory treatment.Key messageAlarmins have a role in the amplification of the inflammatory reaction associated with SARS-CoV-2 infectiona prompt detection of high levels of alarmins in patients with COVID-19 could suggest an immediate intense anti-inflammatory treatment.


Subject(s)
Alarmins/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index
10.
J Pers Med ; 11(6)2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244055

ABSTRACT

From the beginning of SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic, it was clear that respiratory symptoms are often accompanied with neurological symptoms. Neurological manifestations can occur even after mild forms of respiratory disease, and neurological symptoms are very often associated with worsening of the patient's condition. The aim of this study was to show abnormal brain neuroimaging findings evaluated by MRI in patients after SARS-CoV-2 infection and neurological symptoms. Methods: Sixteen patients after mild forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection, twenty-three patients after moderate forms of SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as sixteen healthy participants in the control group underwent MRI 3T brain scan. All subjects in the SARS-CoV-2 group had small, punctuate, strategically located and newly formed hyperintense lesions on T2 and FLAIR sequences. New lesions were formed more often in the bilateral frontal subcortical and bilateral periventricular, correlated with the severity of the clinical picture. These changes indicate an example of silent cerebrovascular disease related to SARS-CoV-2 and once again emphasize the neurotropism of the virus.

11.
Phytother Res ; 2020 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241582

ABSTRACT

At present, googling the search terms "COVID-19" and "Functional foods" yields nearly 500,000,000 hits, witnessing the growing interest of the scientific community and the general public in the role of nutrition and nutraceuticals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many compounds have been proposed as phytotherapics in the prevention and/or treatment of COVID-19. The extensive interest of the general public and the enormous social media coverage on this topic urges the scientific community to address the question of whether which nutraceuticals can actually be employed in preventing and treating this newly described coronavirus-related disease. Recently, the Canadian biotech pharma company "FSD Pharma" received the green light from the Food and Drug Administration to design a proof-of-concept study evaluating the effects of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in COVID-19 patients. The story of PEA as a nutraceutical to prevent and treat infectious diseases dates back to the 1970s where the molecule was branded under the name Impulsin and was used for its immunomodulatory properties in influenza virus infection. The present paper aims at analyzing the potential of PEA as a nutraceutical and the previous evidence suggesting its anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties in infectious and respiratory diseases and how these could translate to COVID-19 care.

12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 633767, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241166

ABSTRACT

Background: Although hyperuricemia frequently associates with respiratory diseases, patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) can show marked hypouricemia. Previous studies on the association of serum uric acid with risk of adverse outcomes related to COVID-19 have produced contradictory results. The precise relationship between admission serum uric acid and adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients is unknown. Methods: Data of patients affected by laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and admitted to Leishenshan Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The primary outcome was composite and comprised events, such as intensive care unit (ICU) admission, mechanical ventilation, or mortality. Logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the association between serum concentrations of uric acid and the composite outcome, as well as each of its components. To determine the association between serum uric acid and in-hospital adverse outcomes, serum uric acid was also categorized by restricted cubic spline, and the 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to estimate odds ratios (OR). Results: The study cohort included 1854 patients (mean age, 58 years; 52% women). The overall mean ± SD of serum levels of uric acid was 308 ± 96 µmol/L. Among them, 95 patients were admitted to ICU, 75 patients received mechanical ventilation, and 38 died. In total, 114 patients reached composite end-points (have either ICU admission, mechanical ventilation or death) during hospitalization. Compared with a reference group with estimated baseline serum uric acid of 279-422 µmol/L, serum uric acid values ≥ 423 µmol/L were associated with an increased risk of composite outcome (OR, 2.60; 95% CI, 1.07- 6.29) and mechanical ventilation (OR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.06- 8.51). Serum uric acid ≤ 278 µmol/L was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.18- 3.65), ICU admission (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.17- 4.05]), and mechanical ventilation (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.06- 4.28), as assessed by multivariate analysis. Conclusions: This study shows that the association between admission serum uric acid and composite outcome of COVID-19 patients was U-shaped. In particular, we found that compared with baseline serum uric acid levels of 279-422 µmol/L, values ≥ 423 µmol/L were associated with an increased risk of composite outcome and mechanical ventilation, whereas levels ≤ 278 µmol/L associated with increased risk of composite outcome, ICU admission and mechanical ventilation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Uric Acid/blood , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
13.
J Intensive Care Med ; 36(9): 1013-1017, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We experienced a high incidence of pulmonary barotrauma among patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) at our institution. In current study, we sought to evaluate the incidence, clinical outcomes, and characteristics of barotrauma among COVID-19 patients receiving invasive and non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. METHODOLOGY: This retrospective cohort study included adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia and requiring oxygen support or positive airway pressure for ARDS who presented to our tertiary-care center from March through November, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 353 patients met our inclusion criteria, of which 232 patients who required heated high-flow nasal cannula, continuous or bilevel positive airway pressure were assigned to non-invasive group. The remaining 121 patients required invasive mechanical ventilation and were assigned to invasive group. Of the total 353 patients, 32 patients (65.6% males) with a mean age of 63 ± 11 years developed barotrauma in the form of subcutaneous emphysema, pneumothorax, or pneumomediastinum. The incidence of barotrauma was 4.74% (11/232) and 17.35% (21/121) in the non-invasive group and invasive group, respectively. The median length of hospital stay was 22 (15.7 -33.0) days with an overall mortality of 62.5% (n = 20). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with COVID-19 ARDS have a high incidence of barotrauma. Pulmonary barotrauma should be considered in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia who exhibit worsening of their respiratory disease as it is likely associated with a high mortality risk. Utilizing lung-protective ventilation strategies may reduce the risk of barotrauma.


Subject(s)
Barotrauma , COVID-19 , Noninvasive Ventilation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Aged , Barotrauma/epidemiology , Barotrauma/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Radiol Case Rep ; 16(8): 1999-2002, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225373

ABSTRACT

We present a rare case of mesenteric venous infarction in a 36-year-old man due to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Although COVID-19 usually presents with respiratory disease, multi-system manifestations are increasingly reported. Coagulopathy manifestations are also reported on imaging, including in vascular thrombosis, embolus, and organ infarction. Because the clinical variables poorly predict or suspect coagulopathy and its complications, it is important to be aware of imaging manifestations of coagulopathy complications of COVID-19.

15.
Gene Rep ; 23: 101200, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220851

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging and highly transmissible disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding the microbiomes associated with the upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and COVID-19 diseases has clinical interest. We hypothesize that microbiome diversity and composition, and their genomic features are associated with different pathological conditions of these human respiratory tract diseases. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed 21 RNASeq metagenomic data including eleven COVID-19 (BD = 6 and China = 5), six COPD (UK = 6) and four URTI (USA = 4) samples to unravel the microbiome diversity and related genomic metabolic functions. The metagenomic data mapped to 534 bacterial, 60 archaeal and 61 viral genomes with distinct variation in the microbiome composition across the samples (COVID-19 > COPD > URTI). Notably, 94.57%, 80.0% and 24.59% bacterial, archaeal and viral genera shared between the COVID-19 and non-COVID samples, respectively. However, the COVID-19 related samples had sole association with 16 viral genera other than SARS-CoV-2. Strain-level virome profiling revealed 660 and 729 strains in COVID-19 and non-COVID samples, respectively, and of them 34.50% strains shared between the conditions. Functional annotation of the metagenomic data identified the association of several biochemical pathways related to basic metabolism (amino acid and energy), ABC transporters, membrane transport, virulence, disease and defense, regulation of virulence, programmed cell death, and primary immunodeficiency. We also detected 30 functional gene groups/classes associated with resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds (RATC) in both COVID-19 and non-COVID microbiomes. Furthermore, we detected comparatively higher abundance of cobalt-zinc-cadmium resistance (CZCR) and multidrug resistance to efflux pumps (MREP) genes in COVID-19 metagenome. The profiles of microbiome diversity and associated microbial genomic features found in both COVID-19 and non-COVID (COPD and URTI) samples might be helpful in developing microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics for COVID-19 and non-COVID respiratory diseases. However, future studies might be carried out to explore the microbiome dynamics and the cross-talk between host and microbiomes employing larger volume of samples from different ethnic groups and geoclimatic conditions.

16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(4): e27503, 2021 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219469

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A decrease in the level of pulse oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) is an indicator of hypoxemia that may occur in various respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sleep apnea syndrome, and COVID-19. Currently, no mass-market wrist-worn SpO2 monitor meets the medical standards for pulse oximeters. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this monocentric and prospective clinical study with single-blind analysis was to test and validate the accuracy of the reflective pulse oximeter function of the Withings ScanWatch to measure SpO2 levels at different stages of hypoxia. The secondary objective was to confirm the safety of this device when used as intended. METHODS: To achieve these objectives, we included 14 healthy participants aged 23-39 years in the study, and we induced several stable plateaus of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) ranging from 100%-70% to mimic nonhypoxic conditions and then mild, moderate, and severe hypoxic conditions. We measured the SpO2 level with a Withings ScanWatch on each participant's wrist and the SaO2 from blood samples with a co-oximeter, the ABL90 hemoximeter (Radiometer Medical ApS). RESULTS: After removal of the inconclusive measurements, we obtained 275 and 244 conclusive measurements with the two ScanWatches on the participants' right and left wrists, respectively, evenly distributed among the 3 predetermined SpO2 groups: SpO2≤80%, 80%

Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Hypoxia/blood , Hypoxia/complications , Oximetry/standards , Wrist , Adult , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Lung Diseases/blood , Lung Diseases/complications , Male , Monitoring, Physiologic , Oximetry/adverse effects , Oxygen/blood , Prospective Studies , Single-Blind Method , Young Adult
17.
Infect Dis Ther ; 10(3): 1267-1285, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210749

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was defined as a species of beta coronavirus causing atypical respiratory disease in humans. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in an unprecedented health and economic crisis worldwide. Little is known about the specifics of its influence on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (PLWHA). In this study, we aim to investigate the prevalence and mortality in PLWHA co-infected with COVID-19. METHODS: The databases PUBMED, EMBASE, BioRxiv, and medRxiv were searched up to 9 March 2021 to explore the prevalence and mortality rate of COVID-19 in PLWHA. Cohort studies and case series meeting the inclusion criteria were included in this review. RESULTS: We identified 14 eligible studies, 9 of which were cohort and 5 were case series. A total of 203,761 patients with COVID-19 were identified (7718 PLWHA vs. 196,043 non-PLWHA). Meta-analyses estimated the prevalence and mortality rate of COVID-19 in PLWHA was 0.774% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00393-0.01517] and 8.814% (95% CI 0.05766-0.13245) respectively. COVID-19 co-infected PLWHA do not seem to be associated with higher mortality, as compared to non-PLWHA [relative risk (RR) 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.06)]. The presence of comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus, RR 5.2 (95% CI 4.25-6.36), hypertension and chronic cardiac disease, RR 4.2 (95% CI 1.09-16.10), and chronic kidney disease, RR 8.43 (95% CI 5.49-12.93) were associated with an increased mortality in COVID-19 co-infected PLWHA. CONCLUSION: The estimated prevalence and mortality rate of COVID-19 in PLWHA were 0.774% and 8.814%, respectively. Since most of the included studies used unmatched populations, comparisons between PLWHA and non-PLWHA should be interpreted with caution. Further investigations are needed for a more comprehensive understanding of the relationship between cluster of differentiation 4 cell count, HIV viral load, antiretroviral therapy, and COVID-19 related prognosis in PLWHA.

18.
Respir Investig ; 59(4): 385-388, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203265

ABSTRACT

The Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) has recommended spirometry for the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. It is indispensable for the confirmation of airflow obstruction by spirometry in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis. However, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has made it difficult for many clinics to perform spirometry as it may lead to possible aerosol infections. Thus, the diagnosis of COPD, especially in the early stage, has become difficult. To overcome this situation, JRS issued a "Flowchart of Working Diagnosis and Management of COPD during the COVID-19 Pandemic". This flowchart may help physicians provisionally diagnose COPD patients without performing spirometry, offering them appropriate intervention even in epidemic and pandemic situations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diagnostic Techniques, Respiratory System , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/therapy , Pulmonary Medicine/organization & administration , Societies, Medical/organization & administration , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/therapeutic use , Delayed-Action Preparations , Drug Therapy, Combination , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Japan , Muscarinic Antagonists/therapeutic use , Spirometry
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1478-1488, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196458

ABSTRACT

Anemia commonly aggravates the severity of respiratory diseases, whereas thus far, few studies have elucidated the impact of anemia on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with anemia, and to further explore the relationship between anemia and the severity of COVID-19. In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, a total of 222 confirmed patients admitted to Wuhan Ninth Hospital from 1 December 2019 to 20 March 2020 were recruited, including 79 patients with anemia and 143 patients without anemia. Clinical characteristics, laboratory findings, disease progression and prognosis were collected and analyzed. Risk factors associated with the severe illness in COVID-19 were established by univariable and multivariable logistic regression models. In our cohort, compared to patients without anemia, patients with anemia were more likely to have one or more comorbidities and severe COVID-19 illness. More patients demonstrated elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and creatinine in anemia group. Levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate, D-dimer, myoglobin, T-pro brain natriuretic peptide (T-pro-BNP) and urea nitrogen in patients with anemia were significantly higher than those without. In addition, the proportion of patients with dyspnea, elevated CRP, and PCT was positively associated with the severity of anemia. The odd ratio of anemia related to the severe condition of COVID-19 was 3.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-11.75; P = .046) and 3.77 (95% CI: 1.33-10.71; P = .013) after adjustment for baseline date and laboratory indices, respectively. Anemia is an independent risk factor associated with the severe illness of COVID-19, and healthcare professionals should be more sensitive to the hemoglobin levels of COVID-19 patients on admission. Awareness of anemia as a risk factor for COVID-19 was of great significance.


Subject(s)
Anemia/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Humans , Inflammation , Middle Aged , Procalcitonin/blood , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
20.
Molecules ; 25(20)2020 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197553

ABSTRACT

The activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and/or its components is associated with the physio-pathogenesis of many respiratory diseases including asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), SARS Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), and in several autoimmune diseases. Hibiscus noldeae Baker f. has been widely reported to be traditionally used in the treatment of different ailments, some of which are of inflammatory background such as asthma, wounds, headache, etc. However, the claims have not been supported by evidence at the molecular and functional levels. Here, we report on the bio-guided fractionation of H. noldeae and assessment of the inhibitory properties of some fractions and purified compounds on NLRP3 inflammasome and Interleukin 6 (IL-6). The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was determined by detecting the activity of caspase-1 and the production of Interleukin 1ß (IL-1ß) in Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and ATP-stimulated Tamm-Horsfall Protein 1 (THP-1) macrophages, while the production of IL-6 was studied in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophages. It was observed that hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of the crude extract of the aerial parts of H. noldeae, as well as caffeic acid, isoquercetin, and ER2.4 and ER2.7 fractions revealed significant inhibitory effects on Caspase-1 activities, and on IL-1ß and IL-6 production. The ER2.4 and ER2.7 fractions downregulated the production of IL-1ß and IL-6, in a similar range as the caspase-1 inhibitor AC-YVAD-CHO and the drug Dexamethasone, both used as controls, respectively. Overall, our work does provide the very first scientific based evidence for Hibiscus noldeae anti-inflammatory effects and widespread use by traditional healers in Rwanda for a variety of ailments.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Hibiscus/chemistry , Inflammasomes/drug effects , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Animals , Inflammasomes/immunology , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/drug effects , Macrophages/immunology , Macrophages/metabolism , Mice , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , RAW 264.7 Cells
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