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1.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S86-S89, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the trend of prevalence of symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some studies have been conducted outside India, but for Indian patients, there is no such study available. Therefore, this study was designed to analyze the trends of symptoms in Indian patients during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients (73 males, 24 females, and 3 transgenders) admitted under institutional isolation at a tertiary care center in India using a self-designed survey-based questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of results done based on age and sex. RESULTS: COVID incidence recorded is high in male (73%) as compared to female (24%), yet female patients have a higher prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. CONCLUSION: Male patients are more as far as COVID incidence is concerned, while female patients show high prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. Patients presenting with COVID-positive report suffer a significant burden of symptoms, and timely recognition of symptoms and their management can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19.

2.
Scand J Public Health ; 49(7): 721-729, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1636188

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Maternal mental distress in pregnancy can be damaging to the mother's and child's physical and mental health. This study aimed to provide an insight into mental well-being of pregnant women in Denmark during COVID-19 by assessing symptoms of depression and anxiety. METHODS: Data from two cohorts of pregnant women recruited from Danish general practice were compared. A COVID-19 lockdown cohort (N=330) completed questionnaires between 8 April and 6 May. Responses were compared to those from a control cohort of women from 2016 (N=1428). Mental well-being was measured with the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) and the Anxiety Symptom Scale (ASS). RESULTS: Questionnaires were returned by 83% of the COVID-19 lockdown cohort and by 93% of the control cohort. Multivariable analysis controlling for age, cohabitation status, occupation, smoking, alcohol use, chronic disease, fertility treatment, parity and children living at home showed no difference in depressive symptoms (MDI). Anxiety symptoms (ASS) were slightly worse in the COVID-19 lockdown cohort (mean difference=1.4 points), mainly driven by questions concerning general anxiety. The largest differences in anxiety were seen in first trimester (adjusted mean difference=4.0 points). CONCLUSIONS: Pregnant women questioned during the COVID-19 pandemic showed no change in symptoms of depression and only a modest elevation of anxiety when compared to pregnant women questioned during a non-pandemic period in 2016.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnant Women , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Denmark/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological
3.
SAGE Open Med Case Rep ; 9: 2050313X21997194, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596736

ABSTRACT

China officially recognized atypical pneumonia outbreak in December 2019; on 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 as a pandemic that is produced by a new coronavirus, named SARS-CoV-2, of rapid transmissibility, which can be asymptomatic, with mild to severe respiratory symptoms, and with cardiovascular, neurological, gastrointestinal, and cutaneous complications. Considering that the pandemic prolonged more than initially expected was prognostic, it is essential for the medical community to identify the signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Thus, this work's objectives were to present cases of cutaneous lesions observed in COVID-19 Mexican patients. We register cutaneous lesions in COVID-19 patients referred from internal medicine and otorhinolaryngology services to dermatology. We presented four interesting cases with cutaneous lesions, including exanthema morbilliform, urticaria, chilblains, ecchymosis, and facial edema, and review the available literature. The most frequent cutaneous markers are rash, chilblains, and urticaria. Skin lesions may be the first manifestation of COVID-19, accompany initial respiratory symptoms, or appear during the disease course. Symptoms associated with vascular changes (livedo reticularis and vasculitis) are considered of poor prognosis.

4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547719

ABSTRACT

Boerhaave's syndrome is an uncommon syndrome characterized by spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus with a high mortality rate. While excessive alcohol intake and binge-eating are the classic precipitants of this syndrome, medication-induced vomiting causing Booerhave's is quite uncommon. Traditionally managed operatively, conservative management is being increasingly reported in selected cases. We report the case of 21-year-old male with who developed sudden onset chest pain and dyspnoea after pentazocine induced vomiting. He was referred after lack of response to initial treatment for acute severe asthma. A chest CT scan showed pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and oesophageal tear. He was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy, nil per mouth and antibiotics with improvement of symptoms and discharge after 8 days.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Perforation/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pentazocine/adverse effects , Vomiting/complications , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Chest Pain/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/therapy , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Diseases/etiology , Mediastinal Diseases/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pentazocine/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vomiting/chemically induced , Young Adult
5.
Curr Psychol ; 40(12): 6249-6258, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525624

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been shown to detrimentally affect eating disorder symptoms, including increased dietary restriction and increased binge eating. However, research in this area is thus far limited. Additionally, as a result of the pandemic, many eating disorder treatments have converted to tele-health platforms, however, little is known about patient perceptions of this modality. The aim of the present, exploratory study was to qualitatively examine: (1) The impact of COVID-19 on binge eating spectrum disorder symptoms (2) Patient perceptions of tele-therapy, and (3) Ways to address COVID-19 in eating disorder treatment. Data were collected through one-on-one, semi-structured interviews (N = 11), conducted as part of a mid-program assessment for those undergoing individual, outpatient therapy for binge eating spectrum disorders. After thematic analysis, it was identified that patients reported both symptom deterioration and improvement during COVID-19. Factors surrounding social distancing and stay-at-home measures were found to both improve and worsen symptoms for different patients. Further, patients reported positive perceptions of tele-therapy, particularly appreciating the convenience of this modality. Finally, patients provided variable feedback on the incorporation of COVID-related concerns into their eating disorder treatment, with some participants wishing for this inclusion, and others viewing COVID-19 and their eating disorder as separate issues. Findings from the present study preliminarily identify ways in which binge eating spectrum disorder symptoms may have improved due to COVID-19 and indicate positive patient perceptions of tele-therapy. Our results may be used to inform the adaptation of future eating disorder treatment during COVID-19.

6.
Front Neurosci ; 15: 670879, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526776

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, studies across diverse countries have strongly pointed toward the emergence of a mental health crisis, with a dramatic increase in the prevalence of depressive psychopathology and suicidal tendencies. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased risk of mental health problems as well as individual responses to stress. Studies have discussed the relationship between low serum vitamin D concentrations and depressive symptoms, suggesting that maintaining adequate concentrations of serum vitamin D seems to have a protective effect against it. Vitamin D was found to contribute to improved serotonergic neurotransmission in the experimental model of depression by regulating serotonin metabolism. The signaling of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the active form of vitamin D, through vitamin D receptor (VDR) induces the expression of the gene of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (TPH2), influences the expression of serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) as well as the levels of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), the enzyme responsible for serotonin catabolism. Vitamin D also presents a relevant link with chronobiological interplay, which could influence the development of depressive symptoms when unbalance between light-dark cycles occurs. In this Perspective, we discussed the significant role of vitamin D in the elevation of stress-related depressive symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is suggested that vitamin D monitoring and, when deficiency is detected, supplementation could be considered as an important healthcare measure while lockdown and social isolation procedures last during the COVID-19 pandemic.

7.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 20(5): 473-477, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526730

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome that presents with severe symptoms which can lead to dangerous and lethal conditions if not diagnosed and treated properly. SARS-- CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that can occur in severe cases with acute pneumonia, ARDS, sepsis and septic shock. In these cases, ICU admission is necessary. CASE SUMMARY: A 59-year-old Caucasian man with septic shock and bilateral interstitial pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 and schizotypal personality disorder presented with catatonic behaviour manifested by soporous state, response to intense painful stimuli with the opening of the eyes, execution of simple verbal commands, maintenance of the same position, catalepsy, immobility, rigidity and mutism. At the same time, there were symptoms of septic shock and catatonic symptoms, causing greater difficulty in the correct formulation of the diagnosis. During the course of his hospitalization, he was treated with asenapine 20 mg/day. The catatonia responded rapidly and significantly to the asenapine. DISCUSSION: To date, the pathophysiology of catatonia is unclear, and few guidelines are available for the treatment of catatonia. In the literature, studies have reported the efficacy of benzodiazepines such as lorazepam and diazepam, GABAA agonists such as zolpidem, NMDA receptor antagonists such as memantine, antidepressant SSRIs such as fluoxetine and paroxetine, and antipsychotics such as olanzapine, clozapine and aripiprazole. We demonstrate that the antipsychotic asenapine is also effective in treating catatonic symptoms in psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSION: Asenapine produced a rapid and significant reduction in catatonic symptoms in our patient with schizotypal personality disorder.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Catatonia/drug therapy , Catatonia/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Dibenzocycloheptenes/therapeutic use , Schizotypal Personality Disorder/complications , Shock, Septic/complications , Shock, Septic/etiology , Catatonia/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications
8.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(12): 3919-3922, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525534

ABSTRACT

Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis is a clinical condition characterized by acute behavioral and mood changes, abnormal movements, autonomic instability, seizures, and encephalopathy. We describe a 7-year-old boy diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis due to NMDAR antibody in association with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (coronavirus disease 2019) (COVID-19), without pulmonary involvement or fever. The patient presented with acute ataxia, rapidly developed encephalopathy, and autoimmune encephalitis was suspected. Steroid treatment was withheld because of lymphopenia and intravenous immunoglobulin was started. The absence of clinical response prompted plasmapheresis and, when lymphocyte counts improved, pulse steroid treatment was applied. The latter was followed by significant improvement and the patient was discharged in a conscious and ambulatory state. Autoimmune encephalitis should be considered in the presence of neurological symptoms accompanying SARS-CoV-2 infection and steroid treatment should be preferred unless limited by contraindications.


Subject(s)
Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis , COVID-19 , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/complications , Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures
9.
Int J Gynecol Cancer ; 31(7): 1052-1060, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504094

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare discharge opioid refills, prescribed morphine equivalent dose and quantity, and longitudinal patient-reported outcomes before and after implementation of a tiered opioid prescribing algorithm among women undergoing open gynecologic surgery within an enhanced recovery after surgery program. METHODS: We compared opioid prescriptions, clinical outcomes, and patient-reported outcomes among 273 women. Post-discharge symptom burden was collected up to 42 days after discharge using the validated 27-item MD Anderson Symptom Inventory and analyzed using linear mixed effects models and Kaplan-Meier curves for symptom recovery. RESULTS: Among 113 pre-implementation and 160 post-implementation patients there was no difference in opioid refills (9.7% vs 11.3%, p=0.84). The post-implementation cohort had a significant reduction in median morphine equivalent dose (112.5 mg vs 225 mg, p<0.01), with no difference in median hospital length of stay (3 days vs 3 days, p=1.0) or 30-day readmission rate (9.4% vs 7.1%, p=0.66). There was no difference in patient-reported pain between the pre- and post-implementation cohorts on the day of discharge (severity 4.93 vs 5.14, p=0.53) or in any patient-reported symptoms, interference measures, or composite scores by post-discharge day 7. The median recovery time for most symptoms was 7 days, except for pain (14 days), fatigue (18 days), and physical interference (21 days), with no differences between cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: After implementation of a tiered opioid prescribing algorithm, the quantity and dose of discharge opioids prescribed decreased with no change in post-operative refills and without negatively impacting patient-reported symptom burden or interference, which can be used to educate and reassure patients and providers.


Subject(s)
Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Gynecologic Surgical Procedures/methods , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Patient Discharge/standards , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Algorithms , Analgesics, Opioid/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Patient Reported Outcome Measures , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
10.
Eur Respir J ; 58(1)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496128

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate pulmonary function and clinical symptoms in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors within 3 months after hospital discharge, and to identify risk factors associated with impaired lung function. METHODS AND MATERIAL: COVID-19 patients were prospectively followed-up with pulmonary function tests and clinical characteristics for 3 months following discharge from a hospital in Wuhan, China between January and February 2020. RESULTS: 647 patients were included. 87 (13%) patients presented with weakness, 63 (10%) with palpitations and 56 (9%) with dyspnoea. The prevalence of each of the three symptoms were markedly higher in severe patients than nonsevere patients (19% versus 10% for weakness, p=0.003; 14% versus 7% for palpitations, p=0.007; 12% versus 7% for dyspnoea, p=0.014). Results of multivariable regression showed increased odds of ongoing symptoms among severe patients (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6; p=0.026) or patients with longer hospital stays (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.00-1.05; p=0.041). Pulmonary function test results were available for 81 patients, including 41 nonsevere and 40 severe patients. In this subgroup, 44 (54%) patients manifested abnormal diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D LCO) (68% severe versus 42% nonsevere patients, p=0.019). Chest computed tomography (CT) total severity score >10.5 (OR 10.4, 95% CI 2.5-44.1; p=0.001) on admission and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (OR 4.6, 95% CI 1.4-15.5; p=0.014) were significantly associated with impaired D LCO. Pulmonary interstitial damage may be associated with abnormal D LCO. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary function, particularly D LCO, declined in COVID-19 survivors. This decrease was associated with total severity score of chest CT >10.5 and ARDS occurrence. Pulmonary interstitial damage might contribute to the imparied D LCO.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbon Monoxide , China , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 904: 174143, 2021 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487708

ABSTRACT

Disulfiram (DSF) is a well-known anti-alcohol agent that inhibits aldehyde dehydrogenase and results in extreme 'hangover' symptoms when consumed with alcohol. This drug, however, has been suggested as useful in other forms of drug addiction due to its beneficial potential in both drug abuse reduction and withdrawal. However, among other drugs used in alcohol dependence, it carries the greatest risk of pharmacological interactions. Concomitant use of DSF and central nervous system stimulants usually leads to harmful, undesirable effects. To date, there is still limited data regarding the detailed safety profile of DSF as a concomitant drug. In this review article, we outline the current state of knowledge about DSF, its broad pharmacological action, as well as therapeutic effects, with a particular emphasis on the molecular understanding of its potential pharmacodynamic interactions with common addictive substances (e.g., alcohol, cocaine, cannabinoids, opioids) supported by relevant examples.


Subject(s)
Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Disulfiram/pharmacology , Disulfiram/therapeutic use , Substance-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Alcohol Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholism/drug therapy , Animals , Disulfiram/adverse effects , Drug Interactions , Humans
12.
Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab ; 27(2): 146-148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1481107

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic ketoacidosis is the most important metabolic emergency in children. Children mimic many syndromes with a combination of nonspecific symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. Many syndromes are triggered by changes in children's body conditions. Reporting specific cases can improve the diagnosis process. The present study reports an 18-month-old paediatric case of COVID-19 who presented ketoacidosis (DKA) symptoms. CASE PRESENTATION: The case is an 18-month-old child with fever and diarrhoea from 3 days before, who did not respond to outpatient treatment. On the day of the visit, he suffered from deep and abdominal breathing and decreased level of consciousness and sugar levels at admission of 420 mg/dl. He was then admitted with the initial diagnosis of DKA and had a positive PCR test result for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the non-specific symptoms of COVID-19, general practitioners and paediatricians are recommended that special attention be paid to these symptoms, especially those that are similar to life-threatening syndromes. They also should not easily ignore these symptoms and follow up patients and their recovery status and, if patients do not recover, consider the risk of COVID-19 given the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Diabetic Ketoacidosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/epidemiology , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/diagnosis , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/drug therapy , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Front Neurol ; 12: 624968, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477844

ABSTRACT

Objective: To report a case series of dysautonomia associated with COVID-19 infection. Methods: This is a retrospective review of patients evaluated in the autonomic clinic at our institution with suspected signs and symptoms of dysautonomia who underwent formal evaluation, including autonomic testing. Results: Six patients were identified with signs and symptoms suggestive of dysautonomia who underwent autonomic testing. All patients had symptoms typical of COVID-19 infection, though none were hospitalized for these or other symptoms. All patients reported symptoms of postural lightheadedness and near-syncope, fatigue, and activity intolerance. Five patients reported the onset of autonomic symptoms concomitant with other COVID-19 symptoms, with the other patient reporting symptom onset 6 weeks following initial COVID-19 symptoms. Autonomic testing demonstrated an excessive postural tachycardia in 4 patients, a hypertensive response with head-up tilt in 3 patients, orthostatic hypotension in 1 patient, and sudomotor impairment in 1 of the patients with excessive postural tachycardia. Conclusions: We present clinical features and results of autonomic testing in 6 patients with a history COVID-19 infection. While all patients reported typical features of orthostatic intolerance, fatigue, and activity intolerance, the results of autonomic testing were heterogenous, with orthostatic hypotension in 1 patient, excessive postural tachycardia typical of postural tachycardia syndrome in 4 patients, and postural hypertension in 3 patients.

14.
Acta Med Acad ; 49(2): 130-143, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414828

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss the latest developments in research pertaining to virus-induced asthma exacerbations and consider recent advances in treatment options. Asthma is a chronic disease of the airways that continues to impose a substantial clinical burden worldwide. Asthma exacerbations, characterised by an acute deterioration in respiratory symptoms and airflow obstruction, are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These episodes are most commonly triggered by respiratory virus infections. The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of virus-induced exacerbations have been the focus of extensive biomedical research. Developing a robust understanding of the interplay between respiratory viruses and the host immune response will be critical for developing more efficacious, targeted therapies for exacerbations. CONCLUSION: There has been significant recent progress in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying virus-induced airway inflammation in asthma and these advances will underpin the development of future clinical therapies.


Subject(s)
Anti-Asthmatic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Asthma/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/drug therapy , Adenovirus Infections, Human/immunology , Adenovirus Infections, Human/physiopathology , Administration, Inhalation , Asthma/immunology , Asthma/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Progression , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Interferon-beta/therapeutic use , Macrolides/therapeutic use , Omalizumab/therapeutic use , Paramyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , Paramyxoviridae Infections/immunology , Paramyxoviridae Infections/physiopathology , Picornaviridae Infections/drug therapy , Picornaviridae Infections/immunology , Picornaviridae Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/immunology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Infections/immunology , Respiratory Tract Infections/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology
15.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): 811-821, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456489

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection remains unclear. PURPOSE: To synthesize evidence on the prevalence, levels, and durability of detectable antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection and whether antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 confer natural immunity. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, World Health Organization global literature database, and Covid19reviews.org from 1 January through 15 December 2020, limited to peer-reviewed publications available in English. STUDY SELECTION: Primary studies characterizing the prevalence, levels, and duration of antibodies in adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); reinfection incidence; and unintended consequences of antibody testing. DATA EXTRACTION: Two investigators sequentially extracted study data and rated quality. DATA SYNTHESIS: Moderate-strength evidence suggests that most adults develop detectable levels of IgM and IgG antibodies after infection with SARS-CoV-2 and that IgG levels peak approximately 25 days after symptom onset and may remain detectable for at least 120 days. Moderate-strength evidence suggests that IgM levels peak at approximately 20 days and then decline. Low-strength evidence suggests that most adults generate neutralizing antibodies, which may persist for several months like IgG. Low-strength evidence also suggests that older age, greater disease severity, and presence of symptoms may be associated with higher antibody levels. Some adults do not develop antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection for reasons that are unclear. LIMITATIONS: Most studies were small and had methodological limitations; studies used immunoassays of variable accuracy. CONCLUSION: Most adults with SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by RT-PCR develop antibodies. Levels of IgM peak early in the disease course and then decline, whereas IgG peaks later and may remain detectable for at least 120 days. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (PROSPERO: CRD42020207098).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibody Specificity/immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity
16.
J Investig Med ; 69(6): 1230-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342804

ABSTRACT

The impact of HIV on influenza-like illness (ILI) has been incompletely described in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, particularly in the post-H1N1 pandemic period. This analysis informs on ILI in an otherwise healthy, predominantly outpatient cohort of adults with HIV in the USA. From September 2010 to March 2015, this multisite observational cohort study enrolled otherwise healthy adults presenting to a participating US military medical center with ILI, a subset of whom were HIV positive. Demographics, clinical data, and self-reported symptom severity were ascertained, and enrollees completed a daily symptom diary for up to 10 days. 510 men were included in the analysis; 50 (9.8%) were HIV positive. Subjects with HIV were older and less likely to be on active duty. Rhinovirus and influenza A were the most commonly identified pathogens. Moderate-severe diarrhea (p<0.001) and fatigue (p=0.01) were more frequently reported by HIV-positive men. HIV positivity was associated with higher gastrointestinal scores, but not other measures of ILI symptom severity, after controlling for age, race, military status, and influenza season. Few were hospitalized. HIV-positive subjects had more influenza B (p=0.04) and were more likely to receive antivirals (32% vs 6%, p<0.01). Antiviral use was not significantly associated with symptom scores when accounting for potential confounders. In this predominantly outpatient cohort of adult men, HIV had minimal impact on ILI symptom severity. Despite similar illness severity, a higher percentage of subjects with HIV reported undergoing antiviral treatment for ILI, likely reflecting differences in prescribing practices.Trial registration number: NCT01021098.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Influenza, Human , Adult , Antiviral Agents , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Male , Outpatients , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/pathology
17.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e699-e709, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody measurements can be used to estimate the proportion of a population exposed or infected and may be informative about the risk of future infection. Previous estimates of the duration of antibody responses vary. METHODS: We present 6 months of data from a longitudinal seroprevalence study of 3276 UK healthcare workers (HCWs). Serial measurements of SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid and anti-spike IgG were obtained. Interval censored survival analysis was used to investigate the duration of detectable responses. Additionally, Bayesian mixed linear models were used to investigate anti-nucleocapsid waning. RESULTS: Anti-spike IgG levels remained stably detected after a positive result, for example, in 94% (95% credibility interval [CrI] 91-96%) of HCWs at 180 days. Anti-nucleocapsid IgG levels rose to a peak at 24 (95% CrI 19-31) days post first polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive test, before beginning to fall. Considering 452 anti-nucleocapsid seropositive HCWs over a median of 121 days from their maximum positive IgG titer, the mean estimated antibody half-life was 85 (95% CrI 81-90) days. Higher maximum observed anti-nucleocapsid titers were associated with longer estimated antibody half-lives. Increasing age, Asian ethnicity, and prior self-reported symptoms were independently associated with higher maximum anti-nucleocapsid levels and increasing age and a positive PCR test undertaken for symptoms with longer anti-nucleocapsid half-lives. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 anti-nucleocapsid antibodies wane within months and fall faster in younger adults and those without symptoms. However, anti-spike IgG remains stably detected. Ongoing longitudinal studies are required to track the long-term duration of antibody levels and their association with immunity to SARS-CoV-2 reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Bayes Theorem , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Seroepidemiologic Studies
18.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(7): 2305-2312, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384405

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe the temporal association of specific acute neurological symptoms in pediatric patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between May and August 2020. METHODS: We performed a recollection of all the clinical and laboratory data of patients having acute neurological symptoms temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection at a third-level referral hospital in Mexico City (Instituto Nacional de Pediatría). Patients in an age group of 0-17 years with acute neurological signs (including ascending weakness with areflexia, diminished visual acuity, encephalopathy, ataxia, stroke, or weakness with plasma creatinine kinase (CK) elevation) were evaluated. RESULTS: Out of 23 patients with neurological manifestations, 10 (43%) had a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Among the infected patients, 5 (50%) were males aged 2-16 years old (median age 11.8 years old). Four (40%) patients confirmed a close contact with a relative positive for SARS-CoV-2, while 6 (60%) cases had a history of SARS-CoV-2-related symptoms over the previous 2 weeks. The following diagnoses were established: 3 cases of GBS, 2 of ON, 2 of AIS, one of myositis with rhabdomyolysis, one ACA, and one of anti-NMDA-R encephalitis. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological manifestations temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were noticed in the pediatric population even without respiratory symptoms. In this study, 2 of 6 symptomatic patients had mild respiratory symptoms and 4 had unspecific symptoms. During this pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infection should be considered as etiology in patients with acute neurological symptoms, with or without previous respiratory manifestations, particularly in teenagers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stroke , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
20.
JCI Insight ; 6(15)2021 08 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350084

ABSTRACT

A subset of COVID-19 patients exhibit post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC), but little is known about the immune signatures associated with these syndromes. We investigated longitudinal peripheral blood samples in 50 individuals with previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, including 20 who experienced prolonged duration of COVID-19 symptoms (lasting more than 30 days; median = 74 days) compared with 30 who had symptom resolution within 20 days. Individuals with prolonged symptom duration maintained antigen-specific T cell response magnitudes to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in CD4+ and circulating T follicular helper cell populations during late convalescence, while those without persistent symptoms demonstrated an expected decline. The prolonged group also displayed increased IgG avidity to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Significant correlations between symptom duration and both SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and antibodies were observed. Activation and exhaustion markers were evaluated in multiple immune cell types, revealing few phenotypic differences between prolonged and recovered groups, suggesting that prolonged symptom duration is not due to persistent systemic inflammation. These findings demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2-specific immune responses are maintained in patients suffering from prolonged post-COVID-19 symptom duration in contrast to those with resolved symptoms and may suggest the persistence of viral antigens as an underlying etiology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Immunity , Immunity, Cellular , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/blood , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Young Adult
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