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1.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 32(1): NP168-NP172, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633471

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Papillophlebitis is a rare condition characterized by venous congestion and optic disc edema, which has been suggested to occur as a consequence of inflammation of the retinal veins or, possibly, the capillaries of the optic disc, leading to venous insufficiency and compression of the central retina vein. The disease affects healthy young adults and commonly has a benign course, however, if complications such as macular edema or ischemia appears, treatment should be instituted immediately to avoid poor prognosis. CASE REPORT: A 40-year old white male patient consulted for a slight decrease in the sensitivity of the visual field in his left eye (OS). Visual acuities (VA) were 20/20 in both eyes. OS fundus examination showed dilated and tortuous retinal vessels, disc edema, and retinal hemorrhages. The patient was diagnosed with papillophlebitis. OS VA decreased to 20/200 due to macular edema, and he was treated with a intravitreal dexamethasone implant. An exhaustive and interdisciplinary exploration process was performed, identifying a recent disease and recovery of Covid-19 as the only factor of inflammation and coagulation alteration. Other systemic diseases were excluded. We also describe a rapid decrease in disc and macular edema after intravitreal dexametasone injection, which could support the inflammatory hypothesis. CONCLUSION: The importance of this case lies in the possible association of papillophlebitis with the new Covid-19 disease. We believe that the inflammatory reaction and the coagulation alteration present in our patient due to Sars-Cov2 coronavirus may have acted as risk factors for the development of papillophlebitis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Macular Edema , Retinal Vein Occlusion , Adult , Humans , Inflammation , Male , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Trials ; 22(1): 172, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622253

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that administration of dexamethasone 20 mg is superior to a 6 mg dose in adult patients with moderate or severe ARDS due to confirmed COVID-19. The secondary objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of dexamethasone 20 mg versus dexamethasone 6 mg. The exploratory objective of this study is to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days. TRIAL DESIGN: REMED is a prospective, phase II, open-label, randomised controlled trial testing superiority of dexamethasone 20 mg vs 6 mg. The trial aims to be pragmatic, i.e. designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in conditions that are close to real-life routine clinical practice. PARTICIPANTS: The study is multi-centre and will be conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) of ten university hospitals in the Czech Republic. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects will be eligible for the trial if they meet all of the following criteria: 1. Adult (≥18 years of age) at time of enrolment; 2. Present COVID-19 (infection confirmed by RT-PCR or antigen testing); 3. Intubation/mechanical ventilation or ongoing high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy; 4. Moderate or severe ARDS according to Berlin criteria: • Moderate - PaO2/FiO2 100-200 mmHg; • Severe - PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg; 5. Admission to ICU in the last 24 hours. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects will not be eligible for the trial if they meet any of the following criteria: 1. Known allergy/hypersensitivity to dexamethasone or excipients of the investigational medicinal product (e.g. parabens, benzyl alcohol); 2. Fulfilled criteria for ARDS for ≥14 days at enrolment; 3. Pregnancy or breastfeeding; 4. Unwillingness to comply with contraception measurements from enrolment until at least 1 week after the last dose of dexamethasone (sexual abstinence is considered an adequate contraception method); 5. End-of-life decision or patient is expected to die within next 24 hours; 6. Decision not to intubate or ceilings of care in place; 7. Immunosuppression and/or immunosuppressive drugs in medical history: a) Systemic immunosuppressive drugs or chemotherapy in the past 30 days; b) Systemic corticosteroid use before hospitalization; c) Any dose of dexamethasone during the present hospital stay for COVID-19 for ≥5 days before enrolment; d) Systemic corticosteroids during present hospital stay for conditions other than COVID-19 (e.g. septic shock); 8. Current haematological or generalized solid malignancy; 9. Any contraindication for corticosteroid administration, e.g. • intractable hyperglycaemia; • active gastrointestinal bleeding; • adrenal gland disorders; • presence of superinfection diagnosed with locally established clinical and laboratory criteria without adequate antimicrobial treatment; 10. Cardiac arrest before ICU admission; 11. Participation in another interventional trial in the last 30 days. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Dexamethasone solution for injection/infusion is the investigational medicinal product as well as the comparator. The trial will assess two doses, 20 mg (investigational) vs 6 mg (comparator). Patients in the intervention group will receive dexamethasone 20 mg intravenously once daily on day 1-5, followed by dexamethasone 10 mg intravenously once daily on day 6-10. Patients in the control group will receive dexamethasone 6 mg day 1-10. All authorized medicinal products containing dexamethasone in the form of solution for i.v. injection/infusion can be used. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoint: Number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days after randomisation, defined as being alive and free from mechanical ventilation. SECONDARY ENDPOINTS: a) Mortality from any cause at 60 days after randomisation; b) Dynamics of inflammatory marker (C-Reactive Protein, CRP) change from Day 1 to Day 14; c) WHO Clinical Progression Scale at Day 14; d) Adverse events related to corticosteroids (new infections, new thrombotic complications) until Day 28 or hospital discharge; e) Independence at 90 days after randomisation assessed by Barthel Index. The long-term outcomes of this study are to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days through telephone structured interviews using the Barthel Index. RANDOMISATION: Randomisation will be carried out within the electronic case report form (eCRF) by the stratified permuted block randomisation method. Allocation sequences will be prepared by a statistician independent of the study team. Allocation to the treatment arm of an individual patient will not be available to the investigators before completion of the whole randomisation process. The following stratification factors will be applied: • Age <65 and ≥ 65; • Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI) <3 and ≥3; • CRP <150 mg/L and ≥150 mg/L • Trial centre. Patients will be randomised in a 1 : 1 ratio into one of the two treatment arms. Randomisation through the eCRF will be available 24 hours every day. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial in which the participants and the study staff will be aware of the allocated intervention. Blinded pre-planned statistical analysis will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size is calculated to detect the difference of 3 VFDs at 28 days (primary efficacy endpoint) between the two treatment arms with a two-sided type I error of 0.05 and power of 80%. Based on data from a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in COVID-19 ARDS patients in Brazil and a multi-centre observational study from French and Belgian ICUs regarding moderate to severe ARDS related to COVID-19, investigators assumed a standard deviation of VFD at 28 days as 9. Using these assumptions, a total of 142 patients per treatment arm would be needed. After adjustment for a drop-out rate, 150 per treatment arm (300 patients per study) will be enrolled. TRIAL STATUS: This is protocol version 1.1, 15.01.2021. The trial is due to start on 2 February 2021 and recruitment is expected to be completed by December 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered on EudraCT No.:2020-005887-70, and on December 11, 2020 on ClinicalTrials.gov (Title: Effect of Two Different Doses of Dexamethasone in Patients With ARDS and COVID-19 (REMED)) Identifier: NCT04663555 with a last update posted on February 1, 2021. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (version 1.1) is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the standard formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Disease Progression , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Equivalence Trials as Topic , Humans , Length of Stay , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cytokine ; 144: 155593, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242912

ABSTRACT

An analysis of published data appertaining to the cytokine storms of COVID-19, H1N1 influenza, cytokine release syndrome (CRS), and macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) reveals many common immunological and biochemical abnormalities. These include evidence of a hyperactive coagulation system with elevated D-dimer and ferritin levels, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) and microthrombi coupled with an activated and highly permeable vascular endothelium. Common immune abnormalities include progressive hypercytokinemia with elevated levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1ß, proinflammatory chemokines, activated macrophages and increased levels of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB). Inflammasome activation and release of damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) is common to COVID-19, H1N1, and MAS but does not appear to be a feature of CRS. Elevated levels of IL-18 are detected in patients with COVID-19 and MAS but have not been reported in patients with H1N1 influenza and CRS. Elevated interferon-γ is common to H1N1, MAS, and CRS but levels of this molecule appear to be depressed in patients with COVID-19. CD4+ T, CD8+ and NK lymphocytes are involved in the pathophysiology of CRS, MAS, and possibly H1N1 but are reduced in number and dysfunctional in COVID-19. Additional elements underpinning the pathophysiology of cytokine storms include Inflammasome activity and DAMPs. Treatment with anakinra may theoretically offer an avenue to positively manipulate the range of biochemical and immune abnormalities reported in COVID-19 and thought to underpin the pathophysiology of cytokine storms beyond those manipulated via the use of, canakinumab, Jak inhibitors or tocilizumab. Thus, despite the relative success of tocilizumab in reducing mortality in COVID-19 patients already on dexamethasone and promising results with Baricitinib, the combination of anakinra in combination with dexamethasone offers the theoretical prospect of further improvements in patient survival. However, there is currently an absence of trial of evidence in favour or contravening this proposition. Accordingly, a large well powered blinded prospective randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test this hypothesis is recommended.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Influenza, Human/pathology , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Survival Rate
4.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123228

ABSTRACT

MOTIVATION: COVID-19 has several distinct clinical phases: a viral replication phase, an inflammatory phase, and in some patients, a hyper-inflammatory phase. High mortality is associated with patients developing cytokine storm syndrome. Treatment of hyper-inflammation in these patients using existing, approved therapies with proven safety profiles could address the immediate need to reduce mortality. RESULTS: We analyzed the changes in the gene expression, pathways and putative mechanisms induced by SARS-CoV2 in NHBE, and A549 cells, as well as COVID-19 lung vs. their respective controls. We used these changes to identify FDA approved drugs that could be repurposed to help COVID-19 patients with severe symptoms related to hyper-inflammation. We identified methylprednisolone (MP) as a potential leading therapy. The results were then confirmed in five independent validation data sets including Vero E6 cells, lung and intestinal organoids, as well as additional patient lung sample vs. their respective controls. Finally, the efficacy of MP was validated in an independent clinical study. Thirty-day all-cause mortality occurred at a significantly lower rate in the MP-treated group compared to control group (29.6% vs. 16.6%, p = 0.027). Clinical results confirmed the in silico prediction that MP could improve outcomes in severe cases of COVID-19. A low number needed to treat (NNT = 5) suggests MP may be more efficacious than dexamethasone or hydrocortisone. AVAILABILITY: iPathwayGuide is available at https://ipathwayguide.advaitabio.com/. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

5.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 267-271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060965

ABSTRACT

We sought to examine the trend (April-July) in the treatment patterns among hospitalized COVID-19 patients using the Premier Healthcare Database (PHD). In the analysis, we identified 53,264 patients from 302 hospitalsthat continuously provided inpatient data from April 1, 2020 to July 31, 2020 to the PHD, a nationwide, population-based multihospital research database in the US. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) models to assess changes in the proportion of therapies used during the study period. After adjusting for patient and provider factors, a decline in hydroxychloroquine and an increase in azithromycin and dexamethasone were observed among COVID-19 patients during the 4-month study period.

6.
CPT Pharmacometrics Syst Pharmacol ; 9(12): 707-717, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1018163

ABSTRACT

Both initiation and suppression of inflammation are hallmarks of the immune response. If not balanced, the inflammation may cause extensive tissue damage, which is associated with common diseases, e.g., asthma and atherosclerosis. Anti-inflammatory drugs come with side effects that may be aggravated by high and fluctuating drug concentrations. To remedy this, an anti-inflammatory drug should have an appropriate pharmacokinetic half-life or better still, a sustained anti-inflammatory drug response. However, we still lack a quantitative mechanistic understanding of such sustained effects. Here, we study the anti-inflammatory response to a common glucocorticoid drug, dexamethasone. We find a sustained response 22 hours after drug removal. With hypothesis testing using mathematical modeling, we unravel the underlying mechanism-a slow release of dexamethasone from the receptor-drug complex. The developed model is in agreement with time-resolved training and testing data and is used to simulate hypothetical treatment schemes. This work opens up for a more knowledge-driven drug development to find sustained anti-inflammatory responses and fewer side effects.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacokinetics , Dexamethasone/pharmacokinetics , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Inflammation/drug therapy , Macrophages, Alveolar/drug effects , Models, Biological , Animals , Rats
7.
Nanomedicine ; 33: 102351, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009771

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a deadly respiratory illness associated with refractory hypoxemia and pulmonary edema. The recent pandemic outbreak of COVID-19 is associated with severe pneumonia and inflammatory cytokine storm in the lungs. The anti-inflammatory phytomedicine nimbolide (NIM) may not be feasible for clinical translation due to poor pharmacokinetic properties and lack of suitable delivery systems. To overcome these barriers, we have developed nimbolide liposomes conjugated with iRGD peptide (iRGD-NIMLip) for targeting lung inflammation. It was observed that iRGD-NIMLip treatment significantly inhibited oxidative stress and cytokine storm compared to nimbolide free-drug (f-NIM), nimbolide liposomes (NIMLip), and exhibited superior activity compared to dexamethasone (DEX). iRGD-NIMLip abrogated the LPS induced p65 NF-κB, Akt, MAPK, Integrin ß3 and ß5, STAT3, and DNMT1 expression. Collectively, our results demonstrate that iRGD-NIMLip could be a promising novel drug delivery system to target severe pathological consequences observed in ARDS and COVID-19 associated cytokine storm.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Limonins/administration & dosage , Liposomes/chemistry , Oligopeptides/chemistry , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Cell Line , Drug Delivery Systems , Endotoxins , Humans , Limonins/chemistry , Limonins/therapeutic use , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RAW 264.7 Cells , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/chemically induced , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(6): e13943, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979631

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The preliminary report of the RECOVERY large randomised controlled trial indicated a promising survival effect for dexamethasone therapy of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study aimed to investigate the anti-hypoxic activities of dexamethasone to understand a possible mechanism of its action in hypoxia-induced lethality through experimental models of hypoxia. METHODS: In this investigation, 84 Male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into groups of seven (12 groups). Treatment groups received 10 days of dexamethasone intraperitoneal injection at both human dose (~0.1 mg/kg) and the animal does (~1 mg/kg). Control negative and positive groups were treated with 10 ml/kg of normal saline and 30 mg/kg of propranolol, respectively. Three experimental models of hypoxia, asphyctic, circulatory, and hemic were applied in this study. RESULTS: The findings showed that dexamethasone significantly prolonged the latency for death in the asphyctic model concerning the control group in both humans (P < .0001) and animal dose (P < .0001). The results were also highly significant for both doses in the hemic model (P < .001). In the circulatory model, although a small increase was observed in death prolongation, results were not statistically significant for both doses in this model (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: This experimental in vivo investigation demonstrated an excellent protective effect for 10 days of dexamethasone treatment against hypoxia, especially in asphyctic and hemic models. In addition to promising dexamethasone outcomes, using propranolol as the positive control illustrated a very substantial anti-hypoxic effect even much better than dexamethasone in all models. It seems that propranolol would be a safe, potential, and prudent choice to invest in treating COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , Dexamethasone , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2
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