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1.
JTCVS Open ; 7: 63-71, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740300

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to model the short term and 2-year overall survival (OS) for intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing timely or delayed transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We developed a decision analysis model to evaluate 2 treatment strategies for both low-risk and intermediate-risk patients with AS during the COVID-19 novel coronavirus pandemic. RESULTS: Prompt TAVR resulted in improved 2-year OS compared with delayed intervention for intermediate-risk patients (0.81 vs 0.67) and low-risk patients (0.95 vs 0.85), owing to the risk of death or the need for urgent/emergent TAVR in the waiting period. However, if the probability of acquiring COVID-19 novel coronavirus is >55% (intermediate-risk patients) or 47% (low-risk patients), delayed TAVR is favored over prompt intervention (0.66 vs 0.67 for intermediate risk; 0.84 vs 0.85 for low risk). CONCLUSIONS: Prompt transcatheter aortic valve replacement for both intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with symptomatic severe AS results in improved 2-year survival when local healthcare system resources are not significantly constrained by the COVID-19.

3.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 108(4): 452-460, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1509222

ABSTRACT

Bone is not only a mineralized and apparently non-vital structure that provides support for locomotion and protection to inner organs. An increasing number of studies are unveiling new biologic functions and connections to other systems, giving the rise to new fields of research, such as osteoimmunology. The bone marrow niche, a new entity in bone physiology, seems to represent the site where a complex crosstalk between bone and immune/inflammatory responses takes place. An impressive interplay with the immune system is realized in bone marrow, with reciprocal influences between bone cells and haematopoietic cells. In this way, systemic chronic inflammatory diseases realize a crosstalk with bone, resulting in bone disease. Thus, pathogenetic links between chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorders and osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, and ageing are common. The aim of this narrative review is to provide a general view of the progresses in the field of bone research and their potential clinical implications, with emphasis on the links with inflammation and the connections to osteoimmunology and chemokines.


Subject(s)
Bone and Bones , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Bone Marrow , Humans , Inflammation , Oxidative Stress
4.
Pain Ther ; 9(2): 453-466, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499542

ABSTRACT

Chronic pain management during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenging process, especially with growing evidence that COVID-19 infection is associated with myalgias, referred pain, and widespread hyperalgesia. In light of the limited data available for COVID-19-related impact on chronic pain patients, this review explores the changes in the healthcare delivery system due to social distancing and safety precautions to provide the appropriate management of chronic pain patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Understanding both the general problems facing chronic pain patients as well as specific problems in the COVID-19 era including deconditioning, increased mental health concerns, financial burdens, and potential for medication-induced immune-suppression is vital in the appropriate management of patients. Telemedicine, the practice of caring for patients remotely when the provider and patient are not physically present with each other, is becoming increasingly used and recognized as a valuable tool to both health care providers and patients. This paper concentrates on the proper utilization of the available resources to help patients with the most severe conditions as well as the most vulnerable group. COVID-19 may be associated with a profound effect on both the health care system and patients with chronic pain. As a result, delaying, or stopping, treatment for chronic pain patients will have negative consequences, and strong pain evaluations must be administered to triage patients appropriately. Recent recommendations for the safe use of non-opioid analgesics, opioid analgesics, and interventional pain management procedures are vital to know and understand specifically during the pandemic era. Further researches are needed to identify the advance planning and rapid responses to reduce the impact of the pandemic.

5.
J Investig Med ; 69(6): 1230-1237, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1342804

ABSTRACT

The impact of HIV on influenza-like illness (ILI) has been incompletely described in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy, particularly in the post-H1N1 pandemic period. This analysis informs on ILI in an otherwise healthy, predominantly outpatient cohort of adults with HIV in the USA. From September 2010 to March 2015, this multisite observational cohort study enrolled otherwise healthy adults presenting to a participating US military medical center with ILI, a subset of whom were HIV positive. Demographics, clinical data, and self-reported symptom severity were ascertained, and enrollees completed a daily symptom diary for up to 10 days. 510 men were included in the analysis; 50 (9.8%) were HIV positive. Subjects with HIV were older and less likely to be on active duty. Rhinovirus and influenza A were the most commonly identified pathogens. Moderate-severe diarrhea (p<0.001) and fatigue (p=0.01) were more frequently reported by HIV-positive men. HIV positivity was associated with higher gastrointestinal scores, but not other measures of ILI symptom severity, after controlling for age, race, military status, and influenza season. Few were hospitalized. HIV-positive subjects had more influenza B (p=0.04) and were more likely to receive antivirals (32% vs 6%, p<0.01). Antiviral use was not significantly associated with symptom scores when accounting for potential confounders. In this predominantly outpatient cohort of adult men, HIV had minimal impact on ILI symptom severity. Despite similar illness severity, a higher percentage of subjects with HIV reported undergoing antiviral treatment for ILI, likely reflecting differences in prescribing practices.Trial registration number: NCT01021098.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Influenza, Human , Adult , Antiviral Agents , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/pathology , Male , Outpatients , Picornaviridae Infections/epidemiology , Picornaviridae Infections/pathology
6.
Nutr Clin Pract ; 36(4): 751-768, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355885

ABSTRACT

Performing nutrition assessment remotely via telehealth is a topic of significant interest given the global pandemic in 2020 that has necessitated physical distancing and virtual communications. This review presents an evidence-based approach to conducting nutrition assessments remotely. The authors present suggestions for adaptations that can be used to perform a remote nutrition-focused physical exam. Direct-to-consumer technologies that can be used in remote nutrition assessment are discussed and compared. Practice tips for conducting a telehealth visit are also presented. The aim of this publication is to provide interdisciplinary clinicians a set of guidelines and best practices for performing nutrition assessments in the era of telehealth.


Subject(s)
Nutrition Assessment , Telemedicine , Humans , Pandemics
7.
J ECT ; 37(1): 71-73, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352357

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We describe the case of a patient, hospitalized in a California community medical ICU for over a month, with severe neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), unresponsive to medical management, but responsive to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). We discuss the medical, logistical, and legal challenges in providing ECT in this setting. We also describe a previously unpublished use of dexmedetomidine, which aided in the safe and rapid reduction of benzodiazepines and permitted a successful ECT course. The rapid delivery and efficacy of ECT were essential because of the burgeoning coronavirus pandemic. The patient's treatment required exemplary efforts by providers across multiple disciplines, ongoing medicolegal consultation with the county mental health medical director, as well as consultation with expert members of the International Society for ECT and Neurostimulation. We conclude with a discussion of the unique challenges of providing emergency ECT to patients in California, including during a serious pandemic, when courts are closed. This case illustrates the importance of cultivating and maintaining high-quality ECT expertise in community hospitals and keeping ECT services available even during pandemics. Also, this case demonstrates that ECT is not "merely an elective procedure" but a vital, life-saving treatment, even during the era of COVID-19. To our knowledge, this is the first such published case of emergency ECT performed in California.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Dexmedetomidine/therapeutic use , Electroconvulsive Therapy , Hypnotics and Sedatives/therapeutic use , Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome/therapy , California/epidemiology , Combined Modality Therapy , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Ecol Evol ; 10(22): 12549-12554, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318695

ABSTRACT

The recent coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is impacting the research community worldwide with unforeseen long-term consequences for research, doctoral training, and international collaboration. It is already clear that the immediate effects of the crisis resulting from disrupted research stays and reduced career development opportunities are being most detrimental to early-career researchers. Based on a Sino-German international research training group dedicated to doctoral training and biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research, we show how resilience of large collaborative research programs can be promoted in times of global crisis. We outline possible adaptations in the areas of funding, research, teaching and learning, supervision and mentoring, and international collaboration helping to reduce detrimental impact for early-career researchers and to permanently strengthen the performance of large collaborative research groups in the postpandemic era.

10.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e933088, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1314975

ABSTRACT

Synthetic mRNA and the expression of therapeutic proteins have accelerated vaccine development to prevent infection and heralds a new era in targeted immunotherapy in oncology. Therapeutic mRNA vaccines rely on available tumor tissue for gene sequencing analysis to compare the patient's normal cellular DNA sequences and those of the tumor. Carrier-based mRNA vaccines for cancer immunotherapy are now in development that use delivery systems based on peptides, lipids, polymers, and cationic nano-emulsions. There have also been recent developments in dendritic cell-based mRNA vaccines. For patients with available tumor tissue samples, it is possible to develop mRNA vaccines that result in the expression of tumor antigens by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), resulting in innate and adaptive immune responses. Ongoing developments in mRNA immunotherapy include modifications in the route of administration and combined delivery of multiple mRNA vaccines with checkpoint inhibitors. This Editorial aims to present a brief overview of how mRNA immunotherapy may change the therapeutic landscape of personalized medicine for patients with solid malignant tumors.


Subject(s)
Cancer Vaccines/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , RNA, Messenger/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy/methods , Medical Oncology/methods , Precision Medicine/methods
11.
Clin Dermatol ; 39(1): 56-63, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300691

ABSTRACT

Autoimmune connective tissue diseases are a heterogeneous group of clinical entities sharing a common feature-an impairment of structural components like collagen and elastin, arising by autoimmune mechanisms. Because most patients are on a long-term immunosuppressive therapy, which renders them vulnerable to infections, a new challenge appears in front of physicians in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era. Immune mechanisms are substantial for the control and ceasing of viral infections, and their impairment may cause serious complications; however, data from immunosuppressed transplant patients do not reveal a higher frequency or diseases' severity in those infected by COVID-19. Several immunotherapies used to treat autoimmune connective tissue diseases favorably modulate the immune response of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2)-infected patients. The present review highlights the problems of susceptibility, severity, and therapeutic options in patients with autoimmune connective tissue diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. The relationship between autoimmune connective tissue diseases and COVID-19 infection is explained with antiviral protection genes expression, hypercytokinemia, and lymphohistiocytosis/macrophage activation mechanisms. Recommendations concerning therapy for prevention during the pandemic period or in case of concomitant COVID-19 infection are also presented. Clinical trials are ongoing regarding COVID-19 therapy blocking the cytokine response. © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dermatomyositis , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic , Scleroderma, Systemic , Vasculitis , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Dermatomyositis/complications , Dermatomyositis/drug therapy , Dermatomyositis/immunology , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/complications , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Patient Acuity , SARS-CoV-2 , Scleroderma, Systemic/drug therapy , Scleroderma, Systemic/immunology , Thromboembolism/etiology , Vasculitis/drug therapy
13.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274870

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), firstly reported in China last November 2019, became a global pandemic. It has been shown that periods of isolation may induce a spike in alcohol use disorder (AUD). In addition, alcohol-related liver disease (ALD) is the most common consequence of excessive alcohol consumption worldwide. Moreover, liver impairment has also been reported as a common manifestation of COVID-19. AIMS: The aim of our position paper was to consider some critical issues regarding the management of ALD in patients with AUD in the era of COVID-19. METHODS: A panel of experts of the Italian Society of Alcohology (SIA) met via "conference calls" during the lockdown period to draft the SIA's criteria for the management of ALD in patients with COVID-19 as follows: (a) liver injury in patients with ALD and COVID-19 infection; (b) toxicity to the liver of the drugs currently tested to treat COVID-19 and the pharmacological interaction between medications used to treat AUD and to treat COVID-19; (c) reorganization of the management of compensated and decompensated ALD and liver transplantation in the COVID-19 era. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has rapidly carried us toward a new governance scenario of AUD and ALD which necessarily requires an in-depth review of the management of these diseases with a new safe approach (management of out-patients and in-patients following new rules of safety, telemedicine, telehealth, call meetings with clinicians, nurses, patients, and caregivers) without losing the therapeutic efficacy of multidisciplinary treatment.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268328

ABSTRACT

Cancers that arise in the head and neck region are comprised of a heterogeneous group of malignancies that include carcinogen- and human papillomavirus (HPV)-driven mucosal squamous cell carcinoma as well as skin cancers such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and Merkel cell carcinoma. These malignancies develop in critical areas for eating, talking, and breathing and are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality despite advances in treatment. Understanding of advances in the management of these various cancers is important for all multidisciplinary providers who care for patients across the cancer care continuum. Additionally, the recent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has necessitated adaptations to head and neck cancer care to accommodate the mitigation of COVID-19 risk and ensure timely treatment. This review explores advances in diagnostic criteria, prognostic factors, and management for subsites including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and the various forms of skin cancer (basal cell carcinoma, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and melanoma). Then, this review summarizes emerging developments in immunotherapy, radiation therapy, cancer survivorship, and the delivery of care during the COVID-19 era.

16.
JTCVS Open ; 7: 63-71, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260883

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to model the short term and 2-year overall survival (OS) for intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing timely or delayed transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) during the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. METHODS: We developed a decision analysis model to evaluate 2 treatment strategies for both low-risk and intermediate-risk patients with AS during the COVID-19 novel coronavirus pandemic. RESULTS: Prompt TAVR resulted in improved 2-year OS compared with delayed intervention for intermediate-risk patients (0.81 vs 0.67) and low-risk patients (0.95 vs 0.85), owing to the risk of death or the need for urgent/emergent TAVR in the waiting period. However, if the probability of acquiring COVID-19 novel coronavirus is >55% (intermediate-risk patients) or 47% (low-risk patients), delayed TAVR is favored over prompt intervention (0.66 vs 0.67 for intermediate risk; 0.84 vs 0.85 for low risk). CONCLUSIONS: Prompt transcatheter aortic valve replacement for both intermediate-risk and low-risk patients with symptomatic severe AS results in improved 2-year survival when local healthcare system resources are not significantly constrained by the COVID-19.

17.
Nutr Cancer ; 74(2): 450-462, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254176

ABSTRACT

Cancer is making patients vulnerable to diseases by impairing immunity directly or by anticancer therapy. In COVID-19 era, it is mandatory to face cancer with more organized & prompter response. Nutrition plays an important role in prevention & management of cancer patients. The objective of this study is to understand the role of nutrition in cancer patients during Corvid 19 era. We conducted literature searches till May 2020, electronic databases, evidence-based collections, relevant websites and trial registries about SARS-CoV2/COVID-19 and nutrition in cancer patients. Search generated 836 sources; 83/836 sources were relevant. This review summarized role of nutrition in predisposition, prevention and management of COVID-19 in cancer patient and role of vitamins, mineral supplements and microbiota in era of COVID-19. In this review, implementing appropriate nutritional care with vitamins or mineral supplementation & their effect on outcome remain largely unknown. COVID co-infection with cancer whether under chemotherapy or not have worse outcome especially in male adults. Findings may help in creating recommendations on nutritional protocol of management & prevention of complications during ongoing COVID-19 pandemic for all cancer patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , Male , Neoplasms/complications , Pandemics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
18.
JMIR Cardio ; 5(1): e29101, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with heart failure (HF) in skilled nursing facilities (SNFs) have 30-day hospital readmission rates as high as 43%. A virtual cardiovascular care program, consisting of patient selection, initial televisit, postconsultation care planning, and follow-up televisits, was developed and delivered by Heartbeat Health, Inc., a cardiovascular digital health company, to 11 SNFs (3510 beds) in New York. The impact of this program on the expected SNF 30-day HF readmission rate is unknown, particularly in the COVID-19 era. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess whether a virtual cardiovascular care program could reduce the 30-day hospital readmission rate for patients with HF discharged to SNF relative to the expected rate for this population. METHODS: We performed a retrospective case review of SNF patients who received a virtual cardiology consultation between August 2020 and February 2021. Virtual cardiologists conducted 1 or more telemedicine visit via smartphone, tablet, or laptop for cardiac patients identified by a SNF care team. Postconsult care plans were communicated to SNF clinical staff. Patients included in this analysis had a preceding index admission for HF. RESULTS: We observed lower hospital readmission among patients who received 1 or more virtual consultations compared with the expected readmission rate for both cardiac (3% vs 10%, respectively) and all-cause etiologies (18% vs 27%, respectively) in a population of 3510 patients admitted to SNF. A total of 185/3510 patients (5.27%) received virtual cardiovascular care via the Heartbeat Health program, and 40 patients met study inclusion criteria and were analyzed, with 26 (65%) requiring 1 televisit and 14 (35%) requiring more than 1. Cost savings associated with this reduction in readmissions are estimated to be as high as US $860 per patient. CONCLUSIONS: The investigation provides initial evidence for the potential effectiveness and efficiency of virtual and digitally enabled virtual cardiovascular care on 30-day hospital readmissions. Further research is warranted to optimize the use of novel virtual care programs to transform delivery of cardiovascular care to high-risk populations.

19.
Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 33, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant strain on healthcare resources and this requires diligent resource re-allocation. We aim to describe the incidence and outcomes of in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) during this period as compared to non-pandemic period. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study in a tertiary care hospital in Singapore. The study compared the incidence and outcomes of code blue activations over a 3-month period from March to May 2020 (COVID-19 period) with the same months in 2019 (pre-COVID-19 period). The primary outcome of the study was the rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA. The secondary outcomes included incidence of all code blue activation per 1000 hospital admissions, incidence of IHCA per 1000 hospital admissions. OUTCOMES: The rate of survival to hospital discharge for IHCA was 5.88% in the COVID-19 period as compared to 10.0% in the pre-COVID-19 period [odds ratio (OR), 0.72; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.26-1.95]. Compared to pre-COVID-19 period, there were more IHCA incidences per 1000 hospital admissions in the COVID-19 period (1.86 vs 1.03; OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 0.78-4.41). CONCLUSIONS: The study observed a trend towards higher incidence of IHCA and lower rate of survival to hospital discharge during COVID-19 pandemic compared to pre-COVID-19 period.

20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244013

ABSTRACT

In 2013, in a bid to combat Vaccine Hesitancy (VH) and provide information on vaccines by communicating with the general public and the health community (e.g., healthcare workers and public health operators), the Italian Society of Hygiene and Preventive Medicine (S.It.I.) published the national website "VaccinarSì". The project was subsequently extended to ten Italian Regions. This led to the creation of the VaccinarSì Network, whose websites are publicly owned. The aim of this work was to present the framework of the websites of the VaccinarSì Network and to analyse user behaviour in the pre-COVID-19-era (dating from each website's publication until 31 January 2020) and in the COVID-19-era (from 1 February 2020 to 31 January 2021). Some metrics such as the number of visits to the site (sessions, number of users and average session duration), user behaviour (pages viewed, bounce rate and organic search) and the session acquisition path (direct traffic, referrals and social traffic) were searched, extrapolated and processed with Google Analytics. Qualitative and normally distributed quantitative variables were summarised with their absolute (relative) frequencies and means. Statistical differences between the means of the two periods were evaluated through paired t-test. A two-tailed p-value less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. When the total values recorded over the period were compared, an overall increase in metrics was observed-the number of individual users, visits and individual pageviews rose in a statistically significant way. Our study aimed to highlight how combining disciplines such as health education and digital communication via Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) represents the best strategy to support citizens. This approach gives them the tools to become independent and responsible players that are capable of voluntarily and consciously choosing to adhere to vaccination programs. The VaccinarSì Network's goal for the future is to reach an even wider audience. By building each user's critical knowledge, this network enables users to be active components of a wider, more empowered community.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Communication , Vaccines , Communication , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2
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