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1.
Turk Gogus Kalp Damar Cerrahisi Derg ; 29(2): 252-258, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239111

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all over the world, leading to viral pneumonia-complicating severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and death. Although there is no proven definitive treatment yet, physicians use some assistive methods based on the previous epidemic viral acute respiratory distress syndrome experiences. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is one of them. In this report, we present one of the longest survived extracorporeal membrane oxygenation case (71 days) with COVID-19 infection and the pathology of the infected lung, with our veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation strategy.

2.
Front Neurol ; 11: 602554, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236688

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The main clinical manifestation of the novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is respiratory issues. Neurological manifestations are being increasingly recognized, including febrile seizures, headache, dizziness, and myalgia, as well as encephalopathy, encephalitis, stroke, and acute peripheral nerve diseases. Cerebral vasculitis is rarely reported. We describe a case of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia complicated by flaccid tetraplegia due to Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) associated with a cerebral vasculitis-like pattern. Case description: A 62-year-old man was hospitalized for cough, fever, and severe respiratory failure requiring tracheal intubation and invasive ventilation. The chest Computerized Tomography (CT) showed images related to interstitial pneumonia and the subsequent nasopharyngeal swab confirmed the presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. During the hospitalization, there was a progressive deterioration of the senses associated with areflexic flaccid tetraplegia. The treatment with high doses of immunoglobulin G (IgG) led to the immediate improvement of the general conditions and a partial response in terms of recovery of the upper limb and of the distal lower limb movements. Subsequently the patient was admitted to our Rehabilitation Unit, where he received an intensive rehabilitation treatment consisting of physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Two months later the patient was discharged at home and able to walk independently even for long distances thanks to the use of Ankle-Foot Orthosis (AFO). Conclusion: In this report, we present the case of a patient with peripheral and central neurological damage occurred later severe pneumonia induced by SARS-CoV-2. The Immunoglobulin G therapy allowed the patient to benefit considerably from early rehabilitation, reaching the walking, increasing the independence in daily living tasks, and enabling safe discharge from hospital to home. Related neurologic complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection suffer a lack of understanding and further investigations should be conducted.

3.
Infection ; 49(4): 607-616, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157020

ABSTRACT

Influenza virus, rhinovirus, and adenovirus frequently cause viral pneumonia, an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the extreme ages of life. During the last two decades, three outbreaks of coronavirus-associated pneumonia, namely Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Middle-East Respiratory Syndrome, and the ongoing Coronavirus Infectious Disease-2019 (COVID-19) were reported. The rate of diagnosis of viral pneumonia is increasingly approaching 60% among children identified as having community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Clinical presentation ranges from mild to severe pneumonitis complicated by respiratory failure in severe cases. The most vulnerable patients, the elderly and those living with cancer, report a relevant mortality rate. No clinical characteristics can be useful to conclusively distinguish the different etiology of viral pneumonia. However, accessory symptoms, such as anosmia or ageusia together with respiratory symptoms suggest COVID-19. An etiologic-based treatment of viral pneumonia is possible in a small percentage of cases only. Neuraminidase inhibitors have been proven to reduce the need for ventilatory support and mortality rate while only a few data support the large-scale use of other antivirals. A low-middle dose of dexamethasone and heparin seems to be effective in COVID-19 patients, but data regarding their possible efficacy in viral pneumonia caused by other viruses are conflicting. In conclusion, viral pneumonia is a relevant cause of CAP, whose interest is increasing due to the current COVID-19 outbreak. To set up a therapeutic approach is difficult because of the low number of active molecules and the conflicting data bearing supportive treatments such as steroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Age Factors , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
4.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(12): 2168-2183, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151991

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary infection is one of the main complications occurring in patients suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Besides traditional risk factors, dysregulation of lung immune defenses and microbiota may play an important role in ARDS patients. Prone positioning does not seem to be associated with a higher risk of pulmonary infection. Although bacteria associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in ARDS patients are similar to those in patients without ARDS, atypical pathogens (Aspergillus, herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus) may also be responsible for infection in ARDS patients. Diagnosing pulmonary infection in ARDS patients is challenging, and requires a combination of clinical, biological and microbiological criteria. The role of modern tools (e.g., molecular methods, metagenomic sequencing, etc.) remains to be evaluated in this setting. One of the challenges of antimicrobial treatment is antibiotics diffusion into the lungs. Although targeted delivery of antibiotics using nebulization may be interesting, their place in ARDS patients remains to be explored. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the most severe patients is associated with a high rate of infection and raises several challenges, diagnostic issues and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics changes being at the top. Prevention of pulmonary infection is a key issue in ARDS patients, but there is no specific measure for these high-risk patients. Reinforcing preventive measures using bundles seems to be the best option.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Lung , Patient Positioning , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
5.
Khirurgiia (Mosk) ; (4): 53-57, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148387

ABSTRACT

The incidence of mediastinitis after median sternotomy makes up 1-3%. This complication results prolonged hospital-stay, significant increase in treatment cost and high mortality (up to 75%). Severe COVID-19 pneumonia is often manifested by coughing, that impairs sternum stability after osteosynthesis. Moreover, concomitant leukopenia increases the risk of mediastinitis. Viral pneumonia and mediastinitis are complicated by respiratory failure and mutually potentiate the negative effect. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) with combined antibiotic therapy ensures a favorable outcome even in patients with postoperative mediastinitis and osteomyelitis combined with viral pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Mediastinitis/therapy , Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy/methods , Osteomyelitis/therapy , Sternotomy/adverse effects , Sternum/surgery , Surgical Wound Infection/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Mediastinitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/diagnosis , Osteomyelitis/etiology , Postoperative Complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Surgical Wound Infection/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome
6.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(9): 794-799, 2021 04 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093468

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of ribavirin-associated severe hyperuricemia in an immunocompromised patient treated for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection. SUMMARY: A 21-year-old male with a past medical history of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia was in full remission after allogenic bone marrow transplantation complicated with chronic graft-versus-host disease. He was hospitalized due to fever, malaise, and respiratory symptoms. A diagnosis of RSV upper respiratory tract infection complicated by secondary pneumonia was made, and oral ribavirin (600 mg in 3 divided doses daily) and intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg once daily) were initiated. On day 2 of the hospital admission, the patient's uric acid levels had increased from a baseline of 4 to 6 mg/dL to 19.3 and 22.2 mg/dL after the fourth and fifth doses of ribavirin, respectively, and his serum creatinine steadily had increased from a baseline of 0.7 to 0.8 mg/dL to 1.6 mg/dL. Ribavirin was discontinued after the sixth dose, and a single dose of intravenous rasburicase (7.5 mg) was administered. On day 3, the patient's serum uric and creatinine concentrations had decreased to 4.7 mg/dL and 1.1 mg/dL, respectively. He continued to recover on antibiotics and was discharged with normal uric acid and serum creatinine levels. CONCLUSION: We report a case of severe hyperuricemia and acute kidney injury that developed early after initiation of ribavirin for RSV infection and suspected bacterial pneumonia in an immunocompromised patient without hepatitis C, requiring ribavirin discontinuation and rasburicase administration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of severe hyperuricemia in a patient treated with ribavirin for RSV infection rather than chronic hepatitis C. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of acute and severe hyperuricemia following ribavirin administration.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Hyperuricemia , Adult , Creatinine , Humans , Hyperuricemia/chemically induced , Hyperuricemia/diagnosis , Hyperuricemia/drug therapy , Male , Ribavirin/adverse effects , Uric Acid , Young Adult
7.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 72, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is responsible for many hospitalizations in intensive care units (ICU), with widespread use of invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) which exposes patients to the risk of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). The characteristics of VAP in COVID-19 patients remain unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively collected data on all patients hospitalized for COVID-19 during the first phase of the epidemic in one of the seven ICUs of the Pays-de-Loire region (North-West France) and who were on invasive mechanical ventilation for more than 48 h. We studied the characteristics of VAP in these patients. VAP was diagnosed based on official recommendations, and we included only cases of VAP that were confirmed by a quantitative microbiological culture. FINDINGS: We analyzed data from 188 patients. Of these patients, 48.9% had VAP and 19.7% experienced multiple episodes. Our study showed an incidence of 39.0 VAP per 1000 days of IMV (until the first VAP episode) and an incidence of 33.7 VAP per 1000 days of IMV (including all 141 episodes of VAP). Multi-microbial VAP accounted for 39.0% of all VAP, and 205 pathogens were identified. Enterobacteria accounted for 49.8% of all the isolated pathogens. Bacteremia was associated in 15 (10.6%) cases of VAP. Pneumonia was complicated by thoracic empyema in five cases (3.5%) and by pulmonary abscess in two cases (1.4%). Males were associated with a higher risk of VAP (sHR 2.24 CI95% [1.18; 4.26] p = 0.013). INTERPRETATION: Our study showed an unusually high incidence of VAP in patients admitted to the ICU for severe COVID-19, even though our services were not inundated during the first wave of the epidemic. We also noted a significant proportion of enterobacteria. VAP-associated complications (abscess, empyema) were not exceptional. REGISTRATION: As an observational study, this study has not been registered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(Suppl 4): S400-S408, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is crucial for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in ARDS patients is challenging. Hence, an effective model to predict VAP in ARDS is urgently needed. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of patient-level data from the Early versus Delayed Enteral Nutrition (EDEN) of ARDSNet randomized controlled trials. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis established a predictive model, incorporating characteristics selected by systematic review and univariate analyses. The model's discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness were assessed using the C-index, calibration plot, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS: Of the 1000 unique patients enrolled in the EDEN trials, 70 (7%) had ARDS complicated with VAP. Mechanical ventilation duration and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were significantly longer in the VAP group than non-VAP group (P < .001 for both) but the 60-day mortality was comparable. Use of neuromuscular blocking agents, severe ARDS, admission for unscheduled surgery, and trauma as primary ARDS causes were independent risk factors for VAP. The area under the curve of the model was .744, and model fit was acceptable (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = .185). The calibration curve indicated that the model had proper discrimination and good calibration. DCA showed that the VAP prediction nomogram was clinically useful when an intervention was decided at a VAP probability threshold between 1% and 61%. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction nomogram for VAP development in ARDS patients can be applied after ICU admission, using available variables. Potential clinical benefits of using this model deserve further assessment.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk Factors
9.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(1): ofaa578, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial infections may complicate viral pneumonias. Recent reports suggest that bacterial co-infection at time of presentation is uncommon in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, estimates were based on microbiology tests alone. We sought to develop and apply consensus definitions, incorporating clinical criteria to better understand the rate of co-infections and antibiotic use in COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 1016 adult patients admitted to 5 hospitals in the Johns Hopkins Health System between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020, with COVID-19 were evaluated. Adjudication of co-infection using definitions developed by a multidisciplinary team for this study was performed. Both respiratory and common nonrespiratory co-infections were assessed. The definition of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (bCAP) included proven (clinical, laboratory, and radiographic criteria plus microbiologic diagnosis), probable (clinical, laboratory, and radiographic criteria without microbiologic diagnosis), and possible (not all clinical, laboratory, and radiographic criteria met) categories. Clinical characteristics and antimicrobial use were assessed in the context of the consensus definitions. RESULTS: Bacterial respiratory co-infections were infrequent (1.2%); 1 patient had proven bCAP, and 11 (1.1%) had probable bCAP. Two patients (0.2%) had viral respiratory co-infections. Although 69% of patients received antibiotics for pneumonia, the majority were stopped within 48 hours in patients with possible or no evidence of bCAP. The most common nonrespiratory infection was urinary tract infection (present in 3% of the cohort). CONCLUSIONS: Using multidisciplinary consensus definitions, proven or probable bCAP was uncommon in adults hospitalized due to COVID-19, as were other nonrespiratory bacterial infections. Empiric antibiotic use was high, highlighting the need to enhance antibiotic stewardship in the treatment of viral pneumonias.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 22(12): 2228-2237, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965861

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Interstitial pneumonia due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is often complicated by severe respiratory failure. In addition to reduced lung compliance and ventilation/perfusion mismatch, a blunted hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction has been hypothesized, that could explain part of the peculiar pathophysiology of the COVID-19 cardiorespiratory syndrome. However, no invasive haemodynamic characterization of COVID-19 patients has been reported so far. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-one mechanically-ventilated COVID-19 patients underwent right heart catheterization. Their data were compared both with those obtained from non-mechanically ventilated paired control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index, and with pooled data of 1937 patients with 'typical' acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from a systematic literature review. Cardiac index was higher in COVID-19 patients than in controls [3.8 (2.7-4.5) vs. 2.4 (2.1-2.8) L/min/m2 , P < 0.001], but slightly lower than in ARDS patients (P = 0.024). Intrapulmonary shunt and lung compliance were inversely related in COVID-19 patients (r = -0.57, P = 0.011) and did not differ from ARDS patients. Despite this, pulmonary vascular resistance of COVID-19 patients was normal, similar to that of control subjects [1.6 (1.1-2.5) vs. 1.6 (0.9-2.0) WU, P = 0.343], and lower than reported in ARDS patients (P < 0.01). Pulmonary hypertension was present in 76% of COVID-19 patients and in 19% of control subjects (P < 0.001), and it was always post-capillary. Pulmonary artery wedge pressure was higher in COVID-19 than in ARDS patients, and inversely related to lung compliance (r = -0.46, P = 0.038). CONCLUSIONS: The haemodynamic profile of COVID-19 patients needing mechanical ventilation is characterized by combined cardiopulmonary alterations. Low pulmonary vascular resistance, coherent with a blunted hypoxic vasoconstriction, is associated with high cardiac output and post-capillary pulmonary hypertension, that could eventually contribute to lung stiffness and promote a vicious circle between the lung and the heart.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hemodynamics/physiology , Hypertension, Pulmonary/physiopathology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Vascular Resistance/physiology , Vasoconstriction/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiac Catheterization , Cardiac Output/physiology , Case-Control Studies , Echocardiography , Female , Humans , Hypoxia/therapy , Lung Compliance/physiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio
11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 111(4): e241-e243, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-956092

ABSTRACT

We report a case of necrotizing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia complicated by a bronchopleural fistula and treated by decortication and salvage lobectomy. Owing to the unknown characteristics of the underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection, treatment of the abscess and bronchopleural fistula was delayed. This may have resulted in further deterioration of the patient, with ensuing multiple organ dysfunction. Complications of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, such as a bacterial abscess and a bronchopleural fistula, should be treated as if the patient were not infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Bronchial Fistula/surgery , COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pleural Diseases/surgery , Pneumonectomy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Bronchial Fistula/diagnosis , Bronchial Fistula/etiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Lung/surgery , Pleural Diseases/diagnosis , Pleural Diseases/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
12.
Am Heart J ; 231: 93-95, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917186

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the incidence of thrombosis in patients hospitalized with non-COVID-19 acute viral respiratory illnesses nationwide from 2012 to 2014 and compared this to the incidence among patients hospitalized with COVID-19 at a large health system in New York. Non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illness was complicated by acute MI in 2.8% of hospitalizations, VTE in 1.6%, ischemic stroke in 0.7%, and other systemic embolism in 0.1%. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by thrombosis was lower in patients with viral respiratory illness in 2002-2014 than in COVID-19 (5% vs 16%; P< .001). BACKGROUND: Thrombosis is a prominent feature of the novel Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The incidence of thrombosis during hospitalization for non-COVID-19 viral respiratory infections is uncertain. We evaluated the incidence of thrombosis in patients hospitalized with non-COVID-19 acute viral respiratory illnesses compared to COVID-19. METHODS: Adults age >18 years hospitalized with a non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illness between 2002 and 2014 were identified. The primary study outcome was a composite of venous and arterial thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI), acute ischemic stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE), as defined by ICD-9 codes. The incidence of thrombosis in non-COVID-19 viral respiratory illnesses was compared to the recently published incidence of thrombosis in COVID-19 from 3,334 patients hospitalized in New York in 2020. RESULTS: Among 954,521 hospitalizations with viral pneumonia from 2002 to 2014 (mean age 62.3 years, 57.1% female), the combined incidence of arterial and venous thrombosis was 5.0%. Acute MI occurred in 2.8% of hospitalizations, VTE in 1.6%, ischemic stroke in 0.7%, and other systemic embolism in 0.1%. Patients with thrombosis had higher in-hospital mortality (14.9% vs 3.3%, P< .001) than those without thrombosis. The proportion of hospitalizations complicated by thrombosis was lower in patients with viral respiratory illness in 2002-2014 than in COVID-19 (median age 64; 39.6% female) in 2020 (5% vs 16%; P< .001) CONCLUSION: In a nationwide analysis of hospitalizations for viral pneumonias, thrombosis risk was lower than that observed in patients with COVID-19. Investigations into mechanisms of thrombosis and risk reduction strategies in COVID-19 and other viral respiratory infections are necessary.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ischemic Stroke , Myocardial Infarction , Pneumonia, Viral , Respiratory Tract Infections , Thrombosis , Venous Thromboembolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnosis , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/complications , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/virology , United States/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology
13.
Physiol Rev ; 100(4): 1455-1466, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-706886

ABSTRACT

First isolated in China in early 2020, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the novel coronavirus responsible for the ongoing pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The disease has been spreading rapidly across the globe, with the largest burden falling on China, Europe, and the United States. COVID-19 is a new clinical syndrome, characterized by respiratory symptoms with varying degrees of severity, from mild upper respiratory illness to severe interstitial pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome, aggravated by thrombosis in the pulmonary microcirculation. Three main phases of disease progression have been proposed for COVID-19: an early infection phase, a pulmonary phase, and a hyperinflammation phase. Although current understanding of COVID-19 treatment is mainly derived from small uncontrolled trials that are affected by a number of biases, strong background noise, and a litany of confounding factors, emerging awareness suggests that drugs currently used to treat COVID-19 (antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, immunomodulators, anticoagulants, and antibodies) should be evaluated in relation to the pathophysiology of disease progression. Drawing upon the dramatic experiences taking place in Italy and around the world, here we review the changes in the evolution of the disease and focus on current treatment uncertainties and promising new therapies.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Global Health , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Med Leg J ; 88(2): 78-80, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-506028

ABSTRACT

Viral sepsis is rare, and its real incidence is not known. SARS-CoV-2 infection causes the release of a significant amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines that aggravates interstitial pneumonia and evolves in viral sepsis with prominent hypercoagulability. We believe it is useful and advisable to establish early immunomodulator therapy and the prophylaxis anticoagulant therapy should be rethought.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Cytokines/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Sepsis/virology , Thrombosis/virology , Age Factors , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Sepsis/blood , Thrombosis/prevention & control
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