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1.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 155(4): 143-151, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796346

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Common laboratory parameters are crucial in aiding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case detection. This study aimed to determine the differences between laboratory parameters in (1) COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 pneumonia, and (2) severe versus non-severe COVID-19 cases. METHODS: Studies were collected until March 2020, and retrieved parameters include leukocyte, neutrophil, thrombocyte, and lymphocyte counts in addition to C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and D-dimer levels. In the presence of heterogeneity, the random-effect model (REM) was used instead of the fixed-effect model (FEM). RESULTS: Seven studies in the first analysis showed significantly lower leukocyte, neutrophil and platelet counts in COVID-19 pneumonia (SMD = -0.42, 95%CI -0.60 to -0.25, p < 0.00001, SMD = -0.23, 95%CI -0.41 to -0.06, p = 0.01, SMD = -0.54, 95%CI -0.91 to -0.16, p = 0.0005) compared to non-COVID-19 pneumonia. Twenty-six studies in the second analysis showed significantly lower lymphocyte and thrombocyte counts (SMD = -0.56, 95%CI -0.71 to -0.40, p < 0.0001, SMD = -0.32, 95%CI -0.49 to -0.15, p = 0.0002) and significantly higher leukocyte, neutrophil, D-dimer, and CRP (SMD = 0.31, 95%CI 0.07-0.56, p = 0.01; SMD = 0.44, 95%CI 0.24-0.64, p < 0.0001; SMD = 0.53, 95%CI 0.31-0.75, p < 0.00001; SMD = 0.97, 95%CI 0.70-1.24, p < 0.00001) in severe COVID-19 compared to non-severe COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, thrombocyte count is key in both diagnosis and prognosis. Low leukocyte and neutrophil counts are markers of COVID-19 infection, but contrastingly higher counts indicate progressive COVID-19. And although lymphocyte, D-dimer and CRP levels did not demonstrate diagnostic value, all indicate severity of COVID-19. Confirmation of these findings should be performed in future studies.


INTRODUCCIÓN Y OBJETIVOS: Los parámetros comunes de laboratorio son cruciales para ayudar a la detección de casos de enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar las diferencias entre los parámetros de laboratorio en: 1) COVID-19 versus neumonía no COVID-19, y 2) Casos severos versus no severos de COVID-19. MÉTODOS: Los estudios se recolectaron hasta marzo de 2020, y los parámetros recuperados incluyen recuentos de leucocitos, neutrófilos, trombocitos y linfocitos además de los niveles de proteína C reactiva (PCR), procalcitonina (PCT) y dímero-D. En presencia de heterogeneidad, se utilizó el modelo de efectos aleatorios en lugar del modelo de efectos fijos. RESULTADOS: Siete estudios en el primer análisis mostraron recuentos de leucocitos, neutrófilos y plaquetas significativamente más bajos en la neumonía por COVID-19 (SMD = −0,42; IC 95%: −0,60 a −0,25; p < 0,00001; SMD = −0,23; IC 95%: −0,41 a −0,06; p = 0,01; SMD = −0,54; IC 95%: −0,91 a −0,16; p = 0,0005) en comparación con la neumonía no COVID-19. Veintiséis estudios en el segundo análisis mostraron recuentos de linfocitos y trombocitos significativamente más bajos (SMD = −0,56; IC 95%: −0,71 a −0,40; p < 0,0001; SMD = −0,32; IC 95%: −0,49 a −0,15; p = 0,0002) y leucocitos, neutrófilos, dímero D y PCR significativamente más altos (SMD = 0,31; IC 95%: 0,07-0,56; p = 0,01; SMD = 0,44; IC 95%: 0,24-0,64; p < 0,0001; SMD = 0,53; IC 95%: 0,31-0,75; p < 0,00001; SMD = 0,97; IC 95%: 0,70-1,24; p < 0,00001) en COVID-19 severo en comparación con COVID-19 no severo. CONCLUSIONES: En conclusión, el recuento de trombocitos es clave tanto en el diagnóstico como en el pronóstico. Los recuentos bajos de leucocitos y neutrófilos son marcadores de infección por COVID-19, pero los recuentos contrastantemente más altos indican COVID-19 progresivo. Y aunque los niveles de linfocitos, dímero D y PCR no mostraron valor diagnóstico, todos indican la gravedad de COVID-19. La confirmación de estos hallazgos debe realizarse en futuros estudios.

2.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0266, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence of a distinct coagulopathy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection which is associated with poor prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019. Coagulation abnormalities in blood samples resemble systemic coagulopathies in other severe infections but demonstrate specific features such as a very high d-dimer. These clinical observations are consistent with histopathologic findings of locally disturbed pulmonary microvascular thrombosis and angiopathy in end-stage coronavirus disease 2019. However, exact underlying processes and the sequence of events are not fully understood. DATA SOURCES: CT perfusion may provide insight in the dynamic aspect of the vascularity in pulmonary lesions in coronavirus disease 2019 infection as, in contrast to dual energy CT, a multiphase perfusion pattern is displayed. STUDY SELECTION: In six patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, findings on additional CT perfusion series were correlated with known histopathologic vascular patterns upon pulmonary autopsy of patients who had died of coronavirus disease 2019. DATA EXTRACTION: In this case series, we were able to show perfusion changes on CT scans in typical pulmonary lesions illustrating diverse patterns. DATA SYNTHESIS: We demonstrated hyperperfusion in areas with ground glass and a severely decreased perfusion pattern in more consolidated areas often seen later in the course of disease. A combination was also observed, illustrating temporal heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and further understanding of the mechanisms that lead to respiratory failure in these patients.

3.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5310-5322, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1733920

ABSTRACT

The most consequential challenge raised by coinfection is perhaps the inappropriate generation of recombinant viruses through the exchange of genetic material among different strains. These genetically similar viruses can interfere with the replication process of each other and even compete for the metabolites required for the maintenance of the replication cycle. Due to the similarity in clinical symptoms of most viral respiratory tract infections, and their coincidence with COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is recommended to develop a comprehensive diagnostic panel for detection of respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses through the evaluation of patient samples. Given the resulting changes in blood markers, such as coagulation factors and white blood cell count following virus infection, these markers can be of diagnostic value in the detection of mixed infection in individuals already diagnosed with a certain viral illness. In this review, we seek to investigate the coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 with other respiratory and nonrespiratory viruses to provide novel insights into the development of highly sensitive diagnostics and effective treatment modalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Coinfection , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/virology , Humans
4.
Transplantation ; 105(7): 1405-1422, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706459

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concerns for programs overseeing donation and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs (CTO) that this virus might be transmissible by transfusion or transplantation. Transplant recipients are considered particularly vulnerable to pathogens because of immunosuppression, and SARS-CoV-2 is likely to generate complications if contracted. Several signs and symptoms observed in COVID-19 positive patients reflect damage to multiple organs and tissues, raising the possibility of extrapulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infections and risk of transmission. At the beginning of the pandemic, a consensus has emerged not to consider COVID-19 positive patients as potential living or deceased donors, resulting in a global decrease in transplantation procedures. Medical decision-making at the time of organ allocation must consider safely alongside the survival advantages offered by transplantation. To address the risk of transmission by transplantation, this review summarizes the published cases of transplantation of cells or organs from donors infected with SARS-CoV-2 until January 2021 and assesses the current state of knowledge for the detection of this virus in different biologic specimens, cells, tissues, and organs. Evidence collected to date raises the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in some CTO, which makes it impossible to exclude transmission through transplantation. However, most studies focused on evaluating transmission under laboratory conditions with inconsistent findings, rendering the comparison of results difficult. Improved standardization of donors and CTO screening practices, along with a systematic follow-up of transplant recipients could facilitate the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk by transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Donor Selection/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Risk
5.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 91(3)2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580244

ABSTRACT

The coronary angiographic (CAG) findings of ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) range from increased coronary artery thrombus burden to normal coronaries due to STEMI mimics. Here we report the case of a 45-year-old gentleman who presented with evolved inferior wall myocardial infarction with ongoing angina along with mild COVID-19. CAG showed normal epicardial coronaries except for distal right posterior descending coronary artery (RPDA) 100% occlusion on careful examination. He was treated for the myocardial infarction with medical management along with treatment of COVID-19. The importance of our case is to highlight the possibility of distal total occlusion of small coronary branches which may be missed if not carefully looked for as a normal CAG in COVID-19 patient will require only supportive therapy, while the finding of distal 100% occlusion of RPDA deemed us to prescribe optimal medical therapy as per acute myocardial infarction protocol along with treatment for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocardial Infarction , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Coronary Angiography , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/diagnostic imaging
6.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2215, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573992

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (Covid-19) public health emergency has caused enormous loss around the world. This pandemic is a concrete example of the existing gap between availability of advanced diagnostics and current need for cost-effective methodology. The advent of the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay provided an innovative tool for establishing a rapid diagnostic technique based on the molecular amplification of pathogen RNA or DNA. In this review, we explore the applications, diagnostic effectiveness of LAMP test for molecular diagnosis and surveillance of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. Our results show that LAMP can be considered as an effective point-of-care test for the diagnosis of Covid-19 in endemic areas, especially for low- and middle-income countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Point-of-Care Testing/organization & administration , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Bibliometrics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/economics , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/instrumentation , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/economics , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/instrumentation , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/economics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/instrumentation , Point-of-Care Testing/economics , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity
7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248627, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575736

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid increase in the number of cases of COVID-19 in Latin America, Africa, Asia and many countries that have an insufficient number of physicians and other health care personnel, and the need for the inclusion of medical students on health teams is a very important issue. It has been recommended that medical students work as volunteers, undergo appropriate training, not undertake any activity beyond their level of competence, and receive continuous supervision and adequate personal protective equipment. However, the motivation of medical students must be evaluated to make volunteering a more evidence-based initiative. The aim of our study was to evaluate the motivation of medical students to be part of health teams to aid in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed a questionnaire specifically to evaluate medical students' perceptions about participating in the care of patients with suspected infection with coronavirus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The questionnaire had two parts: a) one part with questions on individual characteristics, year in medical school and geographic location of the medical school and b) a second part with twenty-eight statements assessed on a 5-point Likert scale (totally agree, agree, neither agree nor disagree, disagree and totally disagree). To develop the questionnaire, we performed consensus meetings with a group of faculty and medical students. The questionnaire was sent to student organizations of 257 medical schools in Brazil and answered by 10,433 students. We used multinomial logistic regression models to analyze the data. Statements associated with greater odds ratios for participation of medical students in the COVID-19 pandemic were related to a sense of purpose or duty ("It is the duty of the medical student to put himself or herself at the service of the population in the pandemic"), altruism ("I am willing to take risks by participating in practice in the context of the pandemic"), and perception of good performance and professional identity ("I will be a better health professional for having experienced the pandemic"). Males were more prone than females to believe that only interns should participate in the care of patients with COVID-19 (odds ratio 1.36 [coefficient interval 95%:1.24-1.49]) and that all students should participate (OR 1.68 [CI:1.4-1.91]). CONCLUSIONS: Medical students are more motivated by a sense of purpose or duty, altruism, perception of good performance and values of professionalism than by their interest in learning. These results have implications for the development of volunteering programs and the design of health force policies in the present pandemic and in future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Schools, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Students, Medical/psychology , Students, Medical/statistics & numerical data , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Motivation/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 337-344, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575678

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To minimise the risk of COVID-19 transmission, an ambulant screening protocol for COVID-19 in patients before admission to the hospital was implemented, combining the SARS CoV-2 reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on a nasopharyngeal swab, a chest computed tomography (CT) and assessment of clinical symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluatethe diagnostic yield and the proportionality of this pre-procedural screeningprotocol. METHODS: In this mono-centre, prospective, cross-sectional study, all patients admitted to the hospital between 22nd April 2020 until 14th May 2020 for semi-urgent surgery, haematological or oncological treatment, or electrophysiological investigationunderwent a COVID-19 screening 2 days before their procedure. At a 2-week follow-up, the presence of clinical symptoms was evaluated by telephone as a post-hoc evaluation of the screening approach.Combined positive RT-PCR assay and/or positive chest CT was used as gold standard. Post-procedural outcomes of all patients diagnosed positive for COVID-19 were assessed. RESULTS: In total,528 patients were included of which 20 (3.8%) were diagnosed as COVID-19 positive and 508 (96.2%) as COVID-19 negative. 11 (55.0%) of COVID-19 positive patients had only a positive RT-PCR assay, 3 (15.0%) had only a positive chest CT and 6 (30%) had both a positive RT-PCR assay and chest CT. 10 out of 20 (50.0%) COVID-19 positive patients reported no single clinical symptom at the screening. At 2 week follow-up, 50% of these patients were still asymptomatic. 37.5% of all COVID-19 negative patients were symptomatic at screening. In the COVID-19 negative group without symptoms at screening, 78 (29.3%) patients developed clinical symptoms at a 2-week follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that routine chest CT and assessment of self-reported symptoms have limited value in the preprocedural COVID-19 screening due to low sensitivity and/or specificity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Patient Admission , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Telemed J E Health ; 27(7): 724-732, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575244

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Telephone-based telemedicine was temporarily permitted in Korea during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purpose of this study was to assess satisfaction with the telemedicine done during temporary hospital closing when in-person visits were not allowed due to in-hospital COVID-19 transmission. Methods: Survey questionnaires partially taken from a telehealth usability questionnaire (TUQ) were sent to 6,840 patients who used telephone-based telemedicine from February 24 to March 7, 2020. Questionnaires sent to patients and additionally created questionnaires to evaluate telemedicine were sent to medical staff (182 doctors and 138 nurses). Results: Response rates of patients and medical staff were 13.2% and 17.2%, respectively. Patients' satisfaction with telemedicine was significantly greater than medical staff's satisfaction for all five components taken from TUQ (all p = 0.000). In addition, created questionnaires showed good reliability, obtaining similar results between doctors and nurses (all p > 0.05). More than 85% of medical staff replied that telemedicine was needed in COVID-19, whereas more than 80% of them worried about incomplete assessment and communication of medical condition. Overall satisfaction with telemedicine by medical staff was 49.7%. The strength of telephone-based telemedicine was patients' convenience (53.4%). However, incomplete assessment of patients' condition (55.0%) was its weakness. Conclusion: Satisfaction with telephone-based telemedicine by patients was significantly greater than that by medical staff (doctors and nurses). Negative views for safety and inconvenience resulted in a greater proportion of dissatisfaction among medical staff. For safe application of telemedicine, medical staff insisted that developing a platform and creating guidelines should be needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Hospitals , Humans , Medical Staff , Pandemics , Patient Satisfaction , Personal Satisfaction , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Telephone
10.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 570748, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573664

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) has raised considerable concern on the entire planet. On March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was categorized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic infection, and by March 18, 2020, it has spread to 146 countries. The first internal defense line against numerous diseases is personalized immunity. Although it cannot be claimed that personalized nutrition will have an immediate impact on a global pandemic, as the nutritional interventions required a long time to induce beneficial outcomes on immunity development, nutritional strategies are still able to clarify and have a beneficial influence on the interplay between physiology and diet, which could make a positive contribution to the condition in the next period. As such, a specific goal for every practitioner is to evaluate different tests to perceive the status of the patient, such as markers of inflammation, insulin regulation, and nutrient status, and to detect possible imbalances or deficiencies. During the process of disease development, the supplementation and addition of different nutrients and nutraceuticals can influence not only the viral replication but also the cellular mechanisms. It is essential to understand that every patient has its individual needs. Even though many nutrients, nutraceuticals, and drugs have beneficial effects on the immune response and can prevent or ameliorate viral infections, it is essential to detect at what stage in COVID-19 progression the patient is at the moment and decide what kind of nutrition intervention is necessary. Furthermore, understanding the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection is critical to make proper recommendations.

11.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4189-e4196, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasonography (LUS) is a promising pragmatic risk-stratification tool in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study describes and compares LUS characteristics between patients with different clinical outcomes. METHODS: Prospective observational study of polymerase chain reaction-confirmed adults with COVID-19 with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection in the emergency department (ED) of Lausanne University Hospital. A trained physician recorded LUS images using a standardized protocol. Two experts reviewed images blinded to patient outcome. We describe and compare early LUS findings (≤24 hours of ED presentation) between patient groups based on their 7-day outcome (1) outpatients, (2) hospitalized, and (3) intubated/dead. Normalized LUS score was used to discriminate between groups. RESULTS: Between 6 March and 3 April 2020, we included 80 patients (17 outpatients, 42 hospitalized, and 21 intubated/dead). Seventy-three patients (91%) had abnormal LUS (70% outpatients, 95% hospitalized, and 100% intubated/dead; P = .003). The proportion of involved zones was lower in outpatients compared with other groups (median [IQR], 30% [0-40%], 44% [31-70%], 70% [50-88%]; P < .001). Predominant abnormal patterns were bilateral and there was multifocal spread thickening of the pleura with pleural line irregularities (70%), confluent B lines (60%), and pathologic B lines (50%). Posterior inferior zones were more often affected. Median normalized LUS score had a good level of discrimination between outpatients and others with area under the ROC of .80 (95% CI, .68-.92). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic LUS has potential as a reliable, cheap, and easy-to-use triage tool for the early risk stratification in patients with COVID-19 presenting to EDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
12.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform ; 18(6): 2775-2780, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559565

ABSTRACT

A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) recently emerged as an acute respiratory syndrome, and has caused a pneumonia outbreak world-widely. As the COVID-19 continues to spread rapidly across the world, computed tomography (CT) has become essentially important for fast diagnoses. Thus, it is urgent to develop an accurate computer-aided method to assist clinicians to identify COVID-19-infected patients by CT images. Here, we have collected chest CT scans of 88 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 from hospitals of two provinces in China, 100 patients infected with bacteria pneumonia, and 86 healthy persons for comparison and modeling. Based on the data, a deep learning-based CT diagnosis system was developed to identify patients with COVID-19. The experimental results showed that our model could accurately discriminate the COVID-19 patients from the bacteria pneumonia patients with an AUC of 0.95, recall (sensitivity) of 0.96, and precision of 0.79. When integrating three types of CT images, our model achieved a recall of 0.93 with precision of 0.86 for discriminating COVID-19 patients from others. Moreover, our model could extract main lesion features, especially the ground-glass opacity (GGO), which are visually helpful for assisted diagnoses by doctors. An online server is available for online diagnoses with CT images by our server (http://biomed.nscc-gz.cn/model.php). Source codes and datasets are available at our GitHub (https://github.com/SY575/COVID19-CT).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , Deep Learning , Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted/statistics & numerical data , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data , Case-Control Studies , China , Computational Biology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Bacterial/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8304, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545653

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, a viral infection originated from Wuhan, China has spread across the world and it has currently affected over 115 million people. Although vaccination process has already started, reaching sufficient availability will take time. Considering the impact of this widespread disease, many research attempts have been made by the computer scientists to screen the COVID-19 from Chest X-Rays (CXRs) or Computed Tomography (CT) scans. To this end, we have proposed GraphCovidNet, a Graph Isomorphic Network (GIN) based model which is used to detect COVID-19 from CT-scans and CXRs of the affected patients. Our proposed model only accepts input data in the form of graph as we follow a GIN based architecture. Initially, pre-processing is performed to convert an image data into an undirected graph to consider only the edges instead of the whole image. Our proposed GraphCovidNet model is evaluated on four standard datasets: SARS-COV-2 Ct-Scan dataset, COVID-CT dataset, combination of covid-chestxray-dataset, Chest X-Ray Images (Pneumonia) dataset and CMSC-678-ML-Project dataset. The model shows an impressive accuracy of 99% for all the datasets and its prediction capability becomes 100% accurate for the binary classification problem of detecting COVID-19 scans. Source code of this work can be found at GitHub-link .


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Neural Networks, Computer , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19/virology , Datasets as Topic , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
16.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-4, 2021 Feb 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525625

ABSTRACT

The current pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has negatively impacted medical workers' mental health in many countries including Japan. Although research identified poor mental health of medical workers in COVID-19, protective factors for their mental health remain to be appraised. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate relationships between mental health problems, loneliness, hope and self-compassion among Japanese medical workers, and compare with the general population. Online self-report measures regarding those four constructs were completed by 142 medical workers and 138 individuals in the general population. T-tests and multiple regression analysis were performed. Medical workers had higher levels of mental health problems and loneliness, and lower levels of hope and self-compassion than the general population. Loneliness was the strongest predictor of mental health problems in the medical workers. Findings suggest that Japanese medical workplaces may benefit from targeting workplace loneliness to prevent mental health problems among the medical staff.

17.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(3): e309-e311, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1517954

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is urgent need to find a swift and cheap way to safely perform routine endoscopic procedures during the otolaryngological and anesthesiological practice. We want to share our experience of a novel device, inspired by the pediatric head box experience. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five otolaryngologists and four anesthesiologists were asked to visualize the glottic plane by using the device. A total of 15 attempts was allowed to reach the vocal folds within 60 seconds after entering the box. Student's t-test for unpaired samples was used to compare groups. RESULTS: Transnasal laryngoscopy through our endobox could be successfully performed by all the physicians involved and the mean number of attempts before visualizing and passing the glottis for the first time was 2.8 (range 1-5) in the otolaryngologists' group versus 3.2 (range 1-6) in the anesthesiologists' group (P=0.583). Out of the 15 attempts, the group of otolaryngologists reached the glottis 10.2 times, on average, against 9.7 in the other group (P=0.692). CONCLUSIONS: Our endobox seems a practical and feasible strategy to control droplets diffusion during standard ear, nose, and throat and anesthesiological practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Aerosols , Child , Glottis , Humans , Laryngoscopy , Otolaryngologists , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(6): JC71, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512999

ABSTRACT

SOURCE CITATION: Gremmels H, Winkel BMF, Schuurman R, et al. Real-life validation of the Panbio COVID-19 antigen rapid test (Abbott) in community-dwelling subjects with symptoms of potential SARS-CoV-2 infection. EClinicalMedicine. 2021;31:100677. 33521610.

19.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(17): 2530-2543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504184

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus strain and the causative agent of COVID-19 was emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 [1]. This pandemic situation and magnitude of suffering have led to global effort to find out effective measures for discovery of new specific drugs and vaccines to combat this deadly disease. In addition to many initiatives to develop vaccines for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, some of which are at various stages of clinical trials, researchers worldwide are currently using available conventional therapeutic drugs with the potential to combat the disease effectively in other viral infections and it is believed that these antiviral drugs could act as a promising immediate alternative. Remdesivir (RDV), a broad-spectrum anti-viral agent, initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV) and known to showed promising efficiency in in vitro and in vivo studies against SARS and MERS coronaviruses, is now being investigated against SARS-CoV-2. On May 1, 2020, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for RDV to treat COVID- 19 patients [2]. A number of multicentre clinical trials are on-going to check the safety and efficacy of RDV for the treatment of COVID-19. Results of published double blind, and placebo-controlled trial on RDV against SARS-CoV-2, showed that RDV administration led to faster clinical improvement in severe COVID-19 patients compared to placebo. This review highlights the available knowledge about RDV as a therapeutic drug for coronaviruses and its preclinical and clinical trials against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
20.
Chest ; 160(2): 652-670, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1491830

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has had devastating medical and economic consequences globally. The severity of COVID-19 is related, in a large measure, to the extent of pulmonary involvement. The role of chest CT imaging in the management of patients with COVID-19 has evolved since the onset of the pandemic. Specifically, the description of CT scan findings, use of chest CT imaging in various acute and subacute settings, and its usefulness in predicting chronic disease have been defined better. We performed a review of published data on CT scans in patients with COVID-19. A summary of the range of imaging findings, from typical to less common abnormalities, is provided. Familiarity with these findings may facilitate the diagnosis and management of this disease. A comparison of sensitivity and specificity of chest CT imaging with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction testing highlights the potential role of CT imaging in difficult-to-diagnose cases of COVID-19. The usefulness of CT imaging to assess prognosis, to guide management, and to identify acute pulmonary complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection is highlighted. Beyond the acute stage, it is important for clinicians to recognize pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities, progressive fibrotic lung disease, and vascular changes that may be responsible for persistent respiratory symptoms. A large collection of multi-institutional images were included to elucidate the CT scan findings described.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Thorax/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Prognosis , Sensitivity and Specificity
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