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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 74, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547719

ABSTRACT

Boerhaave's syndrome is an uncommon syndrome characterized by spontaneous rupture of the oesophagus with a high mortality rate. While excessive alcohol intake and binge-eating are the classic precipitants of this syndrome, medication-induced vomiting causing Booerhave's is quite uncommon. Traditionally managed operatively, conservative management is being increasingly reported in selected cases. We report the case of 21-year-old male with who developed sudden onset chest pain and dyspnoea after pentazocine induced vomiting. He was referred after lack of response to initial treatment for acute severe asthma. A chest CT scan showed pneumomediastinum, subcutaneous emphysema and oesophageal tear. He was managed conservatively with oxygen therapy, nil per mouth and antibiotics with improvement of symptoms and discharge after 8 days.


Subject(s)
Esophageal Perforation/diagnostic imaging , Mediastinal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Pentazocine/adverse effects , Vomiting/complications , Analgesics, Opioid/administration & dosage , Analgesics, Opioid/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Asthma/physiopathology , Asthma/therapy , Chest Pain/etiology , Dyspnea/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/etiology , Esophageal Perforation/therapy , Humans , Male , Mediastinal Diseases/etiology , Mediastinal Diseases/therapy , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pentazocine/administration & dosage , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Vomiting/chemically induced , Young Adult
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(9): e2978-e2984, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500992

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreaks among people experiencing homelessness (PEH) in other US cities, we conducted multiple, proactive, facility-wide testing events for PEH living sheltered and unsheltered and homelessness service staff in Atlanta, Georgia. We describe the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevalence and associated symptoms, and review shelter infection prevention and control (IPC) policies. METHODS: PEH and staff were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) during 7 April-6 May 2020. A subset of PEH and staff was screened for symptoms. Shelter assessments were conducted concurrently at a convenience sample of shelters using a standardized questionnaire. RESULTS: Overall, 2875 individuals at 24 shelters and 9 unsheltered outreach events underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, and 2860 (99.5%) had conclusive test results. The SARS-CoV-2 prevalences were 2.1% (36/1684) among PEH living sheltered, 0.5% (3/628) among PEH living unsheltered, and 1.3% (7/548) among staff. Reporting fever, cough, or shortness of breath in the last week during symptom screening was 14% sensitive and 89% specific for identifying COVID-19 cases, compared with RT-PCR. Prevalences by shelter ranged 0-27.6%. Repeat testing 3-4 weeks later at 4 shelters documented decreased SARS-CoV-2 prevalences (0-3.9%). Of 24 shelters, 9 completed shelter assessments and implemented IPC measures as part of the COVID-19 response. CONCLUSIONS: PEH living in shelters experienced a higher SARS-CoV-2 prevalence compared with PEH living unsheltered. Facility-wide testing in congregate settings allowed for the identification and isolation of COVID-19 cases, and is an important strategy to interrupt SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , COVID-19 Testing , Georgia/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Elife ; 92020 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344521

ABSTRACT

Traveller screening is being used to limit further spread of COVID-19 following its recent emergence, and symptom screening has become a ubiquitous tool in the global response. Previously, we developed a mathematical model to understand factors governing the effectiveness of traveller screening to prevent spread of emerging pathogens (Gostic et al., 2015). Here, we estimate the impact of different screening programs given current knowledge of key COVID-19 life history and epidemiological parameters. Even under best-case assumptions, we estimate that screening will miss more than half of infected people. Breaking down the factors leading to screening successes and failures, we find that most cases missed by screening are fundamentally undetectable, because they have not yet developed symptoms and are unaware they were exposed. Our work underscores the need for measures to limit transmission by individuals who become ill after being missed by a screening program. These findings can support evidence-based policy to combat the spread of COVID-19, and prospective planning to mitigate future emerging pathogens.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Travel , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infection Control , Mass Screening/methods , Mass Screening/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(1): 27-31, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307583

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To identify early symptoms allowing rapid appraisal of infection with SARS-CoV-2 among healthcare workers of a large Belgian hospital. METHODS: Healthcare workers with mild symptoms of an acute respiratory tract infection were systematically screened on clinical characteristics of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A nasopharyngeal swab was taken and analyzed by real-time Reverse-Transcription-Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (rRT-PCR). RESULTS: Fifty percent of 373 workers tested COVID-19 positive. The symptoms cough (82%), headache (78%), myalgia (70%), loss of smell or taste (40%), and fever more than or equal to 37.5 °C (76%) were significantly higher among those infected. CONCLUSION: Where each individual symptom contributes to the clinical evaluation of possible infection, it is the combination of COVID-19 symptoms that could allow for a rapid diagnostic appraisal of the disease in a high prevalence setting. Early transmission control is important at the onset of an epidemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Symptom Assessment , Adult , Belgium , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Int J Infect Dis ; 107: 34-36, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300796

ABSTRACT

This report describes the first heart transplantation recipient with acute biventricular heart failure symptoms caused by a post-myocarditis state, late after a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. No other viral pathogens could be detected. Computed tomography angiography did not show cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and myocardial biopsy demonstrated no clinically relevant rejection. Subsequent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive epicardial delayed enhancement without myocardial edema. Heart failure medication was initiated and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted (due to non-sustained ventricular tachycardias), leading to a partial recovery of the ejection fraction. Further studies are needed to investigate the number of heart transplant recipients with myocardial damage after a SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Transplantation/adverse effects , Myocarditis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Heart Failure/etiology , Humans , Middle Aged
6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 585, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274541

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human coronaviruses are causative agents of respiratory infections with several subtypes being prevalent worldwide. They cause respiratory illnesses of varying severity and have been described to be continuously emerging but their prevalence is not well documented in Uganda. This study assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies against the previously known human coronaviruses prior 2019 in Uganda. METHODS: A total 377 serum samples collected from volunteers that showed influenza like illness in five hospital-based sentinel sites and archived were analyzed using a commercial Qualitative Human Coronavirus Antibody IgG ELISA kit. Although there is no single kit available that can detect the presence of all the circulating coronaviruses, this kit uses a nucleoprotein, aa 340-390 to coat the wells and since there is significant homology among the various human coronavirus strains with regards to the coded for proteins, there is significant cross reactivity beyond HCoV HKU-39849 2003. This gives the kit a qualitative ability to detect the presence of human coronavirus antibodies in a sample. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence for all the sites was 87.53% with no significant difference in the seroprevalence between the Hospital based sentinel sites (p = 0.8). Of the seropositive, the age group 1-5 years had the highest percentage (46.97), followed by 6-10 years (16.67) and then above 20 (16.36). An odds ratio of 1.6 (CI 0.863-2.97, p = 0.136) showed that those volunteers below 5 years of age were more likely to be seropositive compared to those above 5 years. The seropositivity was generally high throughout the year with highest being recorded in March and the lowest in February and December. CONCLUSIONS: The seroprevalence of Human coronaviruses is alarmingly high which calls for need to identify and characterize the circulating coronavirus strains so as to guide policy on the control strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Male , Sentinel Surveillance , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Uganda/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Am Surg ; 87(10): 1678-1683, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fellows have been uniquely affected by the widespread changes in educational structure, mandatory limitations in elective procedural volume, and hiring freezes during the COVID-19 global pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: A voluntary and anonymous survey was distributed to all Graduate Medical Education fellows at a tertiary medical center querying perspectives on clinical and didactic training and job placement. RESULTS: A total of 47 of 121 fellows (39%) completed the survey. The majority were in a medical (43%) or surgical specialty (34%) followed by critical care (13%) and procedure-based (11%) fellowships. Approximately 59% of surveyed fellows felt their programs were providing a virtual curriculum that would train them just as well as the in-person curriculum. Twenty-eight (60%) fellows were in their final or only year of training. Of the 25 fellows who were seeking employment, 52% have experienced difficulty in finding a job due to hiring freezes and 40% have encountered challenges with job interview cancellations and changes to virtual interview formats. CONCLUSION: Almost half of surveyed fellows reported an educational deterioration due to COVID-19 and graduating fellows seeking employment felt hindered by both the virtual interview format and widespread hiring freeze. Fellows are both unique and vulnerable as they balance the solidification of clinical training with securing employment during these tumultuous and unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate/standards , Fellowships and Scholarships , Adult , California/epidemiology , Employment/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(10): e14532, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a great need to make a rapid differential clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 among respiratory disease patients and determining the prevalence rate of these diseases among the COVID-19 population. METHOD: Approximately 522 patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, COPD, and COVID-19 were analysed for demographic and clinical features. Radiological features were analysed only for COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: COPD and asthma were more common among COVID-19 patients than allergic rhinitis. All chest CT scans of COVID-19 patients showed bilateral ground-glass opacity. Fever, dry cough, diarrhea, loss of sense of smell and taste, shortness of breath, and blue lips were significantly higher in all COVID-19 patients compared to COPD, asthma, and allergic rhinitis patients. CONCLUSION: The presence of clinical symptoms such as fever, dry cough, diarrhea, loss of sense of smell and taste, shortness of breath, and blue lips in COVID-19 patients, can be used for differential diagnosis between COVID-19 patients and other respiratory diseases. Then, the diagnosis can be confirmed by chest CT scan for COVID-19 patients without the need for a nasopharyngeal swab or PCR test, especially in epidemic countries. Allergic rhinitis patients are the least exposed to COVID-19 infection among other respiratory disease patients.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Rhinitis, Allergic , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Prevalence , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/complications , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/diagnosis , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/epidemiology , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnosis , Rhinitis, Allergic/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 335, 2021 Jun 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Following the COVID-19 pandemic, distance education (DE) replaced traditional "face-to-face" teaching and has become the main method of teaching. The aim of this study was to 1) evaluate the impact of DE by teachers in our department during the second semester of the 2019-20 academic year following the March-May 2020 Italian national lockdown and 2) evaluate the relationship between DE and the emotional well-being of teachers during the period of home confinement. METHODS: Ninety-seven university teachers (51.5% women; most represented age group 60-69 years range, 40.2%) responded to an anonymous online cross-sectional survey between July 15 - September 30, 2020, on the advantages and disadvantages of DE, developed by one online teacher focus group. The emotional conditions were assessed by a short version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The internal consistency reliability survey and the 10-item BDI-II were measured by Cronbach's alpha. A correlation analysis (r-Pearson) was conducted between the overall evaluation of the experience of DE and the variables included in the study. RESULTS: Teachers reported difficulties in technical aspects, and in psychological factors, as the discomfort of "speaking in the void" (64.7%). The absence of "face-to-face" eye contact with the students was complained by 81% of teachers. Significant impairments in sleep patterns and loss of energy were reported, with female teachers having greater difficulty concentrating than their male colleagues. A quarter of teachers showed depressive symptoms of varying severity. The most satisfied teachers were those most stimulated by DE (r = 0.752, p < 0.000), who showed a lower impact of depressive symptoms (r = - 0.289, p = 0.005). The teaching load in hours influenced the perception of disadvantages (r = 0.214, p = 0.035) and contributed to a lower appreciation of the challenges of DE. The more significant the manifestation of depressive symptoms during the lockdown was, the greater the subjective recovery of a good emotional condition once the domestic confinement was over (r = 0.344, p = 0.001), despite maintaining DE. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlights the impact of technical, didactic, and psychological difficulties of DE, reported by our teachers. The appreciation of their new learning promoted by DE seemed related to better emotional well-being of university teachers accepting this "challenge" in their important role in the high-education system, influencing good learning and promoting students' professional success.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Universities
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(19): e25771, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262270

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Corona virus disease-2019 (COVID-19) presents primarily with respiratory symptoms. However, extra respiratory manifestations are being frequently recognized including gastrointestinal involvement. The most common gastrointestinal symptoms are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal perforation in association with COVID-19 is rarely reported in the literature. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: In this series, we are reporting 3 cases with different presentations of gastrointestinal perforation in the setting of COVID-19. Two patients were admitted with critical COVID-19 pneumonia, both required intensive care, intubation and mechanical ventilation. The first one was an elderly gentleman who had difficult weaning from mechanical ventilation and required tracheostomy. During his stay in intensive care unit, he developed Candidemia without clear source. After transfer to the ward, he developed lower gastrointestinal bleeding and found by imaging to have sealed perforated cecal mass with radiological signs of peritonitis. The second one was an obese young gentleman who was found incidentally to have air under diaphragm. Computed tomography showed severe pneumoperitoneum with cecal and gastric wall perforation. The third case was an elderly gentleman who presented with severe COVID-19 pneumonia along with symptoms and signs of acute abdomen who was confirmed by imaging to have sigmoid diverticulitis with perforation and abscess collection. INTERVENTIONS: The first 2 cases were treated conservatively. The third one was treated surgically. OUTCOME: Our cases had a variable hospital course but fortunately all were discharged in a good clinical condition. CONCLUSION: Our aim from this series is to highlight this fatal complication to clinicians in order to enrich our understanding of this pandemic and as a result improve patients' outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Gastrointestinal Tract/injuries , Rupture, Spontaneous/etiology , Adult , Aged , Critical Care/organization & administration , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Rectum/injuries , SARS-CoV-2 , Stomach/injuries
11.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(3): 1077-1081, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1248171

ABSTRACT

Elderly people account for more than 9% of the global population, and more than 6% of the Indian population. Covid-19 has badly affected the older population, identification of risk factors for severe disease and early intervention results in reduced mortality. Older adults may have a varied spectrum of presentation which ranges from mild to severe disease. Milder diseases are more in older adults without prior comorbidities whereas severity increases with increase in number of illness. Till date there is no definitive treatment and vaccines are also at different stages of trial only preventive methods and early detection of cases are important tools for fighting this pandemic. Dedicated centre's for elder care as well as trained geriatricians are very few in India. Prevention should be the most important strategy for older adults. Follow social distancing and maintain a distance of 1 meter from others even if you are healthy. Wash hands repeatedly with soap and water or use hand sanitizer and generous use of masks. Older adults should be encouraged to take their regular medication and the baseline disease should be under controlled. Frequent teleconsultation from the primary physician should be done repeatedly to identify the symptoms and also control of baseline disease. Considering Covid-19 increased mortality and severity in the older population we are providing practical suggestions for family physicians while managing elderly Covid patients.

12.
J Ambient Intell Humaniz Comput ; : 1-24, 2021 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244627

ABSTRACT

Different respiratory infections cause abnormal symptoms in lung parenchyma that show in chest computed tomography. Since December 2019, the SARS-COV-2 virus, which is the causative agent of COVID-19, has invaded the world causing high numbers of infections and deaths. The infection with SARS-COV-2 virus shows an abnormality in lung parenchyma that can be effectively detected using Computed Tomography (CT) imaging. In this paper, a novel computer aided framework (COV-CAF) is proposed for classifying the severity degree of the infection from 3D Chest Volumes. COV-CAF fuses traditional and deep learning approaches. The proposed COV-CAF consists of two phases: the preparatory phase and the feature analysis and classification phase. The preparatory phase handles 3D-CT volumes and presents an effective cut choice strategy for choosing informative CT slices. The feature analysis and classification phase incorporate fuzzy clustering for automatic Region of Interest (RoI) segmentation and feature fusion. In feature fusion, automatic features are extracted from a newly introduced Convolution Neural Network (Norm-VGG16) and are fused with spatial hand-crafted features extracted from segmented RoI. Experiments are conducted on MosMedData: Chest CT Scans with COVID-19 Related Findings with COVID-19 severity classes and SARS-COV-2 CT-Scan benchmark datasets. The proposed COV-CAF achieved remarkable results on both datasets. On MosMedData dataset, it achieved an overall accuracy of 97.76% and average sensitivity of 96.73%, while on SARS-COV-2 CT-Scan dataset it achieves an overall accuracy and sensitivity 97.59% and 98.41% respectively.

13.
Can Commun Dis Rep ; 47(4): 184-194, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1244371

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Gatherings may contribute significantly to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). For this reason, public health interventions have sought to constrain unrepeated or recurrent gatherings to curb the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Unfortunately, the range of different types of gatherings hinders specific guidance from setting limiting parameters (e.g. total size, number of cohorts, the extent of physical distancing). METHODS: We used a generic modelling framework, based on fundamental probability principles, to derive simple formulas to assess introduction and transmission risks associated with gatherings, as well as the potential efficiency of some testing strategies to mitigate these risks. RESULTS: Introduction risk can be broadly assessed with the population prevalence and the size of the gathering, while transmission risk at a gathering is mainly driven by the gathering size. For recurrent gatherings, the cohort structure does not have a significant impact on transmission between cohorts. Testing strategies can mitigate risk, but frequency of testing and test performance are factors in finding a balance between detection and false positives. CONCLUSION: The generality of the modelling framework used here helps to disentangle the various factors affecting transmission risk at gatherings and may be useful for public health decision-making.

14.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(11)2021 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243993

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to examine the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms related to the COVID-19 pandemic in people with no diagnosis of mental illness, as well as in people who were diagnosed with depression or anxiety. Moreover, this study aimed to investigate the interplay between PTSD symptoms and self-assessed mental health associated with well-being. The 210 participants were divided into 3 groups: mentally healthy, participants with diagnosed depression, and participants with anxiety disorders. To evaluate the subjective well-being of the participants, the Polish adaptation of the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) was applied. The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) was used to measure the severity of PTSD symptoms. At least a moderate worsening of PTSD symptoms was observed in participants of all groups. The results were as follows: healthy participants M = 37.35 (SD = 18.46); participants with depression M = 36.05 (SD = 18.02); participants with anxiety M = 44.52 (SD = 18.08). The participants diagnosed with depression showed the lowest level of mental well-being M = 41.58 (SD = 15.02). Conclusion: People diagnosed with depression had both the lowest level of well-being and the lowest severity of symptoms specific to PTSD. In all three groups, lower emotional well-being was linked to greater PTSD symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety Disorders/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Pandemics , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology
15.
Cureus ; 13(4): e14574, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229459

ABSTRACT

The novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2), causing coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), has been responsible for approximately 75 million cases and 1.6 million deaths globally as of December 22, 2020. Currently, no treatment modalities or management options have been recommended by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) prior to patient hospitalization and supplemental oxygen requirement. This poses a unique challenge for outpatient primary care physicians, who are often tasked with initial care of patients early on in their disease course. During the pandemic, our family practice provided medical care to approximately 2,000 families located in the surrounding Brooklyn community. With only telemedicine at our disposal, our clinic was tasked with treating patients presenting remotely who may or may not have had COVID-19 - a large clinical diagnosis was made given the absence of in-person testing. Often co-administered, Azithromycin was considered a supportive agent that may or may not have increased the benefit of hydroxychloroquine. However, Azithromycin may perform well on its own for various reasons as it has been shown to have antiviral activity against other RNA viruses, anti-inflammatory properties, and antiviral effects within bronchial epithelial cells. Azithromycin has also shown efficacy as an add-on treatment for reducing asthma exacerbations - pertinent to the pro-inflammatory pulmonary conditions in COVID-19 progression - and may even prevent or treat bacterial co-infection in patients with SARS-COV-2. In order to investigate the association between Azithromycin and the COVID-19 disease process, our clinical study retrospectively identified patients who were prescribed Azithromycin (500 mg on day one + 250 mg on days two to five) during the peak months of the COVID-19 pandemic in New York City from March 2020 through May 2020. All patients prescribed Azithromycin with suspicion of COVID-19 infection were interviewed via telephone regarding their constellation of symptoms, compliance with the prescribed antibiotic for the intended course, symptom duration prior to and following antibiotic course initiation, as well as any further complications of their illness, if present. Ultimately, the majority of the patients who were interviewed over the phone concluded that a full course of Azithromycin helped improve their symptoms during their infection with COVID-19. Outcomes and complications in patients treated with Azithromycin were noteworthy in that there were no reports of pulmonary complications or deterioration of pulmonary function after treatment (e.g., no shortness of breath, wheezing, dyspnea, etc.), although some patients did experience residual coughing and nasal discharge post-treatment. We believe further study of this treatment in the setting of experimental, randomized controlled trials may reveal the benefits of Azithromycin in terms of reducing infection severity, length, and limiting the incidence of complications in patients with COVID-19.

16.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5323-5327, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1220447

ABSTRACT

The use of Antigen point of care tests (AgPOCT) might be an essential tool to fight the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Manufacturer information indicates a specificity of about 95% and there is a growing interest to use these tests area-wide. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify whether AgPOCT can be used safely for "rule-in" (detection of positive patients) and for "rule-out" (valid negative testing). Two thousand three hundred and seventy-five patients received polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and AgPOCT for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) regardless of symptoms. The positive predictive value of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients was compared with a cut-off threshold cycle (C t ) value of ≤30 and in total. Five hundrded and fifty-one patients tested positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus by PCR, of whom 35.2% presented without symptoms. In all patients, regardless of their symptoms or C t values, a sensitivity of 68.9% and a specificity of 99.6% were calculated for AgPOCT. In patients with C t values ≤30, a sensitivity of 80.5% (95% confidence interval: ±1.62) and a specificity of 99.6% were shown for all tests (symptomatic/asymptomatic). Highly infectious patients (C t ≤ 20), regardless of symptoms, were reliably detected by the AgPOCT. In infectious patients with C t values ≤30, the test has a sensitivity of about 80% regardless of COVID-19 typical symptoms, which is apparently less than the 96.52% specificity indicated by the manufacturer. Relevant improvement in test sensitivity by querying the patients who are symptomatic and asymptomatic is also not feasible. We strongly suggest that we critically question the use of AgPOCT for "rule-out," as they only provide a supposed safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Point-of-Care Testing , Emergency Service, Hospital , False Negative Reactions , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9672, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219725

ABSTRACT

In a context where SARS-CoV-2 population-wide testing is implemented, clinical features and antibody response in those infected have never been documented in Africa. Yet, the information provided by analyzing data from population-wide testing is critical to understand the infection dynamics and devise control strategies. We described clinical features and assessed antibody response in people screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection. We analyzed data from a cohort of 3464 people that we molecularly screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection in our routine activity. We recorded people SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, age, gender, blood types, white blood cells (WBC), symptoms, chronic disease status and time to SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR conversion from positive to negative. We calculated the age-based distribution of SARS-CoV-2 infection, analyzed the proportion and the spectrum of COVID-19 severity. Furthermore, in a nested sub-study, we screened 83 COVID-19 patients and 319 contact-cases for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Males and females accounted for respectively 51% and 49% of people screened. The studied population median and mean age were both 39 years. 592 out of 3464 people (17.2%) were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection with males and females representing, respectively, 53% and 47%. The median and mean ages of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects were 37 and 38 years respectively. The lowest rate of infection (8%) was observed in the elderly (aged > 60). The rate of SARS-Cov-2 infection in both young (18-35 years old) and middle-aged adults (36-60 years old) was around 20%. The analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infection age distribution showed that middle-aged adults accounted for 54.7% of SARS-CoV-2 positive persons, followed respectively by young adults (33.7%), children (7.7%) and elderly (3.8%). 68% (N = 402) of SARS-CoV-2 infected persons were asymptomatic, 26.3% (N = 156) had influenza-like symptoms, 2.7% (N = 16) had influenza-like symptoms associated with anosmia and ageusia, 2% (N = 11) had dyspnea and 1% (N = 7) had respiratory failure, which resulted in death. Data also showed that 12% of SARS-CoV-2 infected subjects, had chronic diseases. Hypertension, diabetes, and asthma were the top concurrent chronic diseases representing respectively 58%, 25% and 12% of recorded chronic diseases. Half of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive patients were cured within 14 days following the initiation of the anti-COVID-19 treatment protocol. 78.3% of COVID-19 patients and 55% of SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR confirmed negative contact-cases were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Patients with severe-to-critical illness have higher leukocytes, higher neutrophils and lower lymphocyte counts contrarily to asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate illness. Neutrophilic leukopenia was more prevalent in asymptomatic patients and patients with mild-to-moderate disease for 4 weeks after diagnosis (27.1-42.1%). In Patients with severe-to-critical illness, neutrophilic leukocytosis or neutrophilia (35.6-50%) and lymphocytopenia (20-40%) were more frequent. More than 60% of participants were blood type O. It is also important to note that infection rate was slightly higher among A and B blood types compared with type O. In this African setting, young and middle-aged adults are most likely driving community transmission of COVID-19. The rate of critical disease is relatively low. The high rate of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies observed in SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR negative contact cases suggests that subclinical infection may have been overlooked in our setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Blood Group Antigens/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
18.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 118(8): 3029-3036, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219688

ABSTRACT

Airborne spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by infectious aerosol is all but certain. However, easily implemented approaches to assess the actual environmental threat are currently unavailable. We present a simple approach with the potential to rapidly provide information about the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the atmosphere at any location. We used a portable dehumidifier as a readily available and affordable tool to collect airborne virus in the condensate. The dehumidifiers were deployed in selected locations of a hospital ward with patients reporting flu-like symptoms which could possibly be due to COVID-19 over three separate periods of one week. Samples were analyzed frequently for both virus envelope protein and SARS-CoV-2 RNA. In several samples across separate deployments, condensate from dehumidifiers tested positive for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antigens as confirmed using two independent assays. RNA was detected, but not attributable to SARS-CoV-2. We verified the ability of the dehumidifier to rapidly collect aerosolized sodium chloride. Our results point to a facile pool testing method to sample air in any location in the world and assess the presence and concentration of an infectious agent to obtain quantitative risk assessment of exposure, designate zones as "hot spots" and minimize the need for individual testing which may often be time consuming, expensive, and laborious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Specimen Handling , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , RNA, Viral/chemistry , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
J Clin Nurs ; 30(21-22): 3238-3248, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219274

ABSTRACT

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the impact of COVID-19 related home confinement on the paediatric population by focusing on anxiety, behavioural disturbances and somatic symptoms. BACKGROUND: To limit the spread of the COVID-19 outbreak, governments have imposed nationwide lockdowns to prevent direct contact; this has affected everyday lives and activities such as attending school classes. Such isolation may have impacted children's anxiety levels. DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional observational study using a web-based anonymous questionnaire from 22-26 April, 2020, among children (N = 2,292) in Spain. For children below 7 years of age, parents reported the children's behavioural, emotional and somatic symptoms and family environment data on a questionnaire designed by the researchers. Children over 7 years answered the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale either independently or with their parents' assistance. RESULTS: Children over 7 years, boys in particular, scored high on the anxiety spectrum. Moreover, participants who knew someone who had suffered from COVID-19 at home or whose parent was directly involved in the pandemic, obtained higher Total Anxiety scores. Significantly high values were found in all aspects of anxiety among those who feared infection or whose parents been unemployed. Of the children below 7 years, 56.3% had four or more anxiety-related symptoms, the most frequent of which were tantrums, emotional changes, restlessness and fear of being alone. The number of symptoms reported was significant when someone in the family home had been infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 home confinement had a significant impact on children, causing anxiety, behavioural problems and somatic manifestations. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses play a key role in screening children who have experience confinement owing to the COVID-19 pandemic in order to detect early anxiety symptoms using tele-health. Suitable direct interventions can then be implemented or interdisciplinary manage could be started.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; : 1-6, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202077

ABSTRACT

Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction has been reported as an early presentation in COVID-19. We intent to analyze the chronological outline of these chemosensory disturbances in term of onset, progression and resolution in ENT doctors with COVID-19. In six symptomatic otolaryngologists who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, detailed symptomatology of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was collected prospectively on regular basis till a period of at least three months. Due to their awareness, sensitivity and reliability, even mild and transient relevant symptomatology could be recorded accurately. Olfactory and gustatory dysfunction was universally present in all the six otolaryngologists. The onset of the symptoms was in first week and resolved completely within 4 weeks in four of them. In two doctors the recovery of olfactory dysfunction to near normal level was delayed and prolonged over 2 and 3 months. The pattern of involvement of basic tastes like sweet, salt, sour and bitter as well as food temperature and texture etc. pointed towards involvement of the gustatory mucosa with non-uniform involvement of the papilla and taste receptors. One of the doctors also experienced reappearance of parosmia and phantosmia in the 3rd month following complete disease resolution. Due to their expertise in the field of Otolaryngology, the recruited doctors represented the precise pattern of progression and resolution of olfactory and gustatory dysfunction in COVID-19. Larger studies are needed to validate our reported universal presence of these symptoms with complete recovery rate following disease resolution.

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