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1.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(6): e0154, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795093

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: As the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 pandemic develops, assays to detect the virus and infection caused by it are needed for diagnosis and management. To describe to clinicians how each assay is performed, what each assay detects, and the benefits and limitations of each assay. DATA SOURCES: Published literature and internet. STUDY SELECTION: As well done, relevant and recent as possible. DATA EXTRACTION: Sources were read to extract data from them. DATA SYNTHESIS: Was synthesized by all coauthors. CONCLUSIONS: Available assays test for current or previous severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 infection. Nucleic acid assays such as quantitative, or real-time, polymerase chain reaction and loop-mediated isothermal amplification are ideal for acute diagnosis with polymerase chain reaction testing remaining the "gold standard" to diagnose acute infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2, specifically the presence of viral RNA. Assays that detect serum antibodies can theoretically diagnose both acute and remote infection but require time for the patient to develop immunity and may detect nonspecific antibodies. Antibody assays that quantitatively measure neutralizing antibodies are needed to test efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy but are more specialized.

2.
Transplantation ; 105(7): 1405-1422, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706459

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raised concerns for programs overseeing donation and transplantation of cells, tissues, and organs (CTO) that this virus might be transmissible by transfusion or transplantation. Transplant recipients are considered particularly vulnerable to pathogens because of immunosuppression, and SARS-CoV-2 is likely to generate complications if contracted. Several signs and symptoms observed in COVID-19 positive patients reflect damage to multiple organs and tissues, raising the possibility of extrapulmonary SARS-CoV-2 infections and risk of transmission. At the beginning of the pandemic, a consensus has emerged not to consider COVID-19 positive patients as potential living or deceased donors, resulting in a global decrease in transplantation procedures. Medical decision-making at the time of organ allocation must consider safely alongside the survival advantages offered by transplantation. To address the risk of transmission by transplantation, this review summarizes the published cases of transplantation of cells or organs from donors infected with SARS-CoV-2 until January 2021 and assesses the current state of knowledge for the detection of this virus in different biologic specimens, cells, tissues, and organs. Evidence collected to date raises the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication in some CTO, which makes it impossible to exclude transmission through transplantation. However, most studies focused on evaluating transmission under laboratory conditions with inconsistent findings, rendering the comparison of results difficult. Improved standardization of donors and CTO screening practices, along with a systematic follow-up of transplant recipients could facilitate the assessment of SARS-CoV-2 transmission risk by transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Donor Selection/methods , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Risk
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(8): 4748-4755, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1610624

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections are one of the most frequent reasons for medical consultations in children. In low resource settings such as in Lao People's Democratic Republic, knowledge gaps and the dearth of laboratory capacity to support differential diagnosis may contribute to antibiotic overuse. We studied the etiology, temporal trends, and genetic diversity of viral respiratory infections in children to provide evidence for prevention and treatment guidelines. From September 2014 to October 2015, throat swabs and nasopharyngeal aspirates from 445 children under 10 years old with symptoms of acute respiratory infection were collected at the Children Hospital in Vientiane. Rapid antigen tests were performed for influenza A and B and respiratory syncytial virus. Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCRs) were performed to detect 16 viruses. Influenza infections were detected with a higher sensitivity using PCR than with the rapid antigen test. By RT-PCR screening, at least one pathogen could be identified for 71.7% of cases. Human rhinoviruses were most frequently detected (29.9%), followed by influenza A and B viruses combined (15.9%). We identify and discuss the seasonality of some of the infections. Altogether these data provide a detailed characterization of respiratory pathogens in Lao children and we provide recommendations for vaccination and further studies.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Viruses/genetics , Acute Disease/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/virology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/virology , Laos/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Viruses/classification , Viruses/isolation & purification
4.
Front Vet Sci ; 7: 570748, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573664

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (COVID-19) has raised considerable concern on the entire planet. On March 11, 2020, COVID-19 was categorized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic infection, and by March 18, 2020, it has spread to 146 countries. The first internal defense line against numerous diseases is personalized immunity. Although it cannot be claimed that personalized nutrition will have an immediate impact on a global pandemic, as the nutritional interventions required a long time to induce beneficial outcomes on immunity development, nutritional strategies are still able to clarify and have a beneficial influence on the interplay between physiology and diet, which could make a positive contribution to the condition in the next period. As such, a specific goal for every practitioner is to evaluate different tests to perceive the status of the patient, such as markers of inflammation, insulin regulation, and nutrient status, and to detect possible imbalances or deficiencies. During the process of disease development, the supplementation and addition of different nutrients and nutraceuticals can influence not only the viral replication but also the cellular mechanisms. It is essential to understand that every patient has its individual needs. Even though many nutrients, nutraceuticals, and drugs have beneficial effects on the immune response and can prevent or ameliorate viral infections, it is essential to detect at what stage in COVID-19 progression the patient is at the moment and decide what kind of nutrition intervention is necessary. Furthermore, understanding the pathogenesis of coronavirus infection is critical to make proper recommendations.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3884-e3899, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561131

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We aimed to review the evidence from studies relating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) culture with the results of reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and other variables that may influence the interpretation of the test, such as time from symptom onset. METHODS: We searched LitCovid, medRxiv, Google Scholar, and the World Health Organization coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) database for COVID-19 up to 10 September 2020. We included studies attempting to culture or observe SARS-CoV-2 in specimens with RT-PCR positivity. Studies were dual-extracted and the data summarized narratively by specimen type. Where necessary, we contacted corresponding authors of included papers for additional information. We assessed quality using a modified Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS 2) risk-of-bias tool. RESULTS: We included 29 studies reporting attempts at culturing, or observing tissue infection by, SARS-CoV-2 in sputum, nasopharyngeal or oropharyngeal, urine, stool, blood, and environmental specimens. The quality of the studies was moderate with lack of standardized reporting. The data suggest a relationship between the time from onset of symptom to the timing of the specimen test, cycle threshold (Ct), and symptom severity. Twelve studies reported that Ct values were significantly lower and log copies higher in specimens producing live virus culture. Two studies reported that the odds of live virus culture were reduced by approximately 33% for every 1-unit increase in Ct. Six of 8 studies reported detectable RNA for >14 days, but infectious potential declined after day 8 even among cases with ongoing high viral loads. Four studies reported viral culture from stool specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Complete live viruses are necessary for transmission, not the fragments identified by PCR. Prospective routine testing of reference and culture specimens and their relationship to symptoms, signs, and patient co-factors should be used to define the reliability of PCR for assessing infectious potential. Those with high Ct are unlikely to have infectious potential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests
6.
Mini Rev Med Chem ; 21(17): 2530-2543, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504184

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), a novel coronavirus strain and the causative agent of COVID-19 was emerged in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 [1]. This pandemic situation and magnitude of suffering have led to global effort to find out effective measures for discovery of new specific drugs and vaccines to combat this deadly disease. In addition to many initiatives to develop vaccines for protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2, some of which are at various stages of clinical trials, researchers worldwide are currently using available conventional therapeutic drugs with the potential to combat the disease effectively in other viral infections and it is believed that these antiviral drugs could act as a promising immediate alternative. Remdesivir (RDV), a broad-spectrum anti-viral agent, initially developed for the treatment of Ebola virus (EBOV) and known to showed promising efficiency in in vitro and in vivo studies against SARS and MERS coronaviruses, is now being investigated against SARS-CoV-2. On May 1, 2020, The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for RDV to treat COVID- 19 patients [2]. A number of multicentre clinical trials are on-going to check the safety and efficacy of RDV for the treatment of COVID-19. Results of published double blind, and placebo-controlled trial on RDV against SARS-CoV-2, showed that RDV administration led to faster clinical improvement in severe COVID-19 patients compared to placebo. This review highlights the available knowledge about RDV as a therapeutic drug for coronaviruses and its preclinical and clinical trials against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/pharmacology , Alanine/therapeutic use , Animals , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
Rev Francoph Lab ; 2021(528): 30-35, 2021 Jan.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386946

ABSTRACT

The histological lesions associated with an infection with the Sars-CoV-2 are mainly observed at the respiratory tract level, but not exclusively. Analyses of these lesions strongly beneficied from autopsic studies allowing us to improve the knowledge of the pathophysiology mechanisms of this emerging infectious disease. Cytological analyses, notably those obtained from broncho-alveolar lavages, poorly contribute to the Covid-19 diagnosis, but can be usefull for eliminate a couple of differential diagnoses. Although non specific, the lesions observed in the pulmonary parenchyma can be directly associated with the presence of the Sars-CoV-2 thanks to ancillary tools allowing its detection. Indeed, the presence of the virus can be detected using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, molecular biology and/or electron microscopy approaches. Several uncertainties still exist concerning the direct role due to the Sars-CoV-2 in the observed lesions which can be due too to a cardiovascular failure and/or to the treatment(s) received in intensive care units. Thus, it is critical to keep going to increase our efforts for the tissue analyses, notably thanks to the autopsies of Covid-19 patients, in order to better understand the consequences of this infectious disease, and, particularly according the epidemiological factors and the different associated morbidities. An increased knowledge will participate to the further therapeutic strategies against the Covid-19. This review adresses the main histological lesions of the lung parenchyma currently described in patients infected by the Sars-CoV-2.

8.
J Clin Neurosci ; 89: 65-67, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386091

ABSTRACT

The neuro-ophthalmological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection are emerging but the spectrum of presentations and pathophysiological mechanism underpinning the association remains to be fully determined. We describe the case of a 44-year-old female who presented with a 12-hour history of diplopia preceded by a mild headache and found to have an isolated right abducens nerve palsy. Initial vital signs were normal but she developed a fever and nasopharyngeal swab confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection by RT-PCR. All other investigations returned normal including blood tests, chest X-ray, MRI brain and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. She remained systemically well, and there was complete resolution of the abducens palsy and diplopia at two week follow up. In the absence of an alternative underlying cause or risk factors identified, the aetiology was presumed to be microvascular and potentially related to the viral infection. We add to the evolving literature of neuro-ophthalmological associations of SARS-CoV-2, discuss possible causal mechanisms and suggest considering asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in cases of isolated abducens palsy without clear risk factors.


Subject(s)
Abducens Nerve Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Abducens Nerve Diseases/etiology , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Diplopia/diagnostic imaging , Diplopia/etiology , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
10.
FASEB J ; 35(6): e21651, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388031

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic imposed a large burden on health and society. Therapeutics targeting different components and processes of the viral infection replication cycle are being investigated, particularly to repurpose already approved drugs. Spike protein is an important target for both vaccines and therapeutics. Insights into the mechanisms of spike-ACE2 binding and cell fusion could support the identification of compounds with inhibitory effects. Here, we demonstrate that the integrity of disulfide bonds within the receptor-binding domain (RBD) plays an important role in the membrane fusion process although their disruption does not prevent binding of spike protein to ACE2. Several reducing agents and thiol-reactive compounds are able to inhibit viral entry. N-acetyl cysteine amide, L-ascorbic acid, JTT-705, and auranofin prevented syncytia formation, viral entry into cells, and infection in a mouse model, supporting disulfides of the RBD as a therapeutically relevant target.


Subject(s)
Acetylcysteine/analogs & derivatives , Amides/pharmacology , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Auranofin/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Disulfides/metabolism , Esters/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , HEK293 Cells , Humans
11.
Chemistry ; 26(52): 11950-11954, 2020 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384141

ABSTRACT

Thymidine triphosphate bearing benzylidene-tetrahydroxanthylium near-IR fluorophore linked to the 5-methyl group via triazole was synthesized through the CuAAC reaction and was used for polymerase synthesis of labelled DNA probes. The fluorophore lights up upon incorporation to DNA (up to 348-times) presumably due to interactions in major groove and the fluorescence further increases in the single-stranded oligonucleotide. The labelled dsDNA senses binding of small molecules and proteins by a strong decrease of fluorescence. The nucleotide was used as a light-up building block in real-time PCR for detection of SARS-CoV-2 virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , DNA Replication , DNA Probes , Humans , Nucleotides , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Clin Chem ; 66(10): 1349-1350, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383204

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
13.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381917

ABSTRACT

Palatine tonsils have been observed to harbor several distinct respiratory and herpesviruses in separate studies. In this study, the presence of these viruses in palatine tonsils was comprehensively studied in both children and adults. A cross-sectional analysis of 181 patients (median age 22 years; range, 2.6-66) operated for a benign tonsillar disease was conducted. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect 27 distinct viruses in all: eight human herpesviruses, 16 respiratory viruses, parvo B19, and polyoma BK/JC viruses. Clinical characteristics of the patients and underlying conditions were evaluated. In total, 92% of patients had virus detected in tonsils (Epstein-Barr virus 72%, human herpesvirus 7, and 6B 54% and 16%, respectively, enterovirus 18%, parvovirus B19 7% and the rest <4%). No herpes simplex virus 2, varicella zoster virus, polyoma JC virus, parainfluenza-, metapneumo-, or coronaviruses were found. Enterovirus was more common in children and was frequently observed in the presence of HHV6B. None of the viruses showed a positive association to the tonsillar disease. Respiratory symptoms were not associated with the prevalence of viruses. This study comprehensively reports a cross-sectional view of intratonsillar virus infections in elective tonsillectomy patients in a wide age range cohort. Tonsils are a major virus reservoir for distinct herpes and respiratory viruses without a positive association with tonsillar disease or respiratory symptoms.

14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(4): e860-e869, 2021 08 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360338

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Repeated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) molecular testing can lead to positive test results after negative results and to multiple positive results over time. The association between positive test results and infectious virus is important to quantify. METHODS: A 2-month cohort of retrospective data and consecutively collected specimens from patients with COVID-19 or patients under investigation were used to understand the correlation between prolonged viral RNA positive test results, cycle threshold (Ct) values and growth of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in cell culture. Whole-genome sequencing was used to confirm virus genotype in patients with prolonged viral RNA detection. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the rate of false-negative COVID-19 diagnostic test results. RESULTS: In 2 months, 29 686 specimens were tested and 2194 patients underwent repeated testing. Virus recovery in cell culture was noted in specimens with a mean Ct value of 18.8 (3.4) for SARS-CoV-2 target genes. Prolonged viral RNA shedding was associated with positive virus growth in culture in specimens collected up to 21 days after the first positive result but mostly in individuals symptomatic at the time of sample collection. Whole-genome sequencing provided evidence the same virus was carried over time. Positive test results following negative results had Ct values >29.5 and were not associated with virus culture. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction results were positive in 5.6% of negative specimens collected from patients with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: Low Ct values in SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic tests were associated with virus growth in cell culture. Symptomatic patients with prolonged viral RNA shedding can also be infectious.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Virus Shedding
15.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 717-722, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344175

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to detect the SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence in asymptomatic pregnant women. METHODS: A group of 195 asymptomatic pregnant women who attended the prenatal care outclinic and to the obstetric emergency department was tested concomitantly for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR and serological tests. RESULTS: The virus was detected by RT-PCR in two (1.02%) cases and 17 (8.71%) patients had antibodies detected by immunochromatographic tests. CONCLUSIONS: Due to the high risk of this emerging infection in the health of pregnant women, fetuses and newborns, we suggest the universal screening of all pregnant women admitted to hospital through the combined method RT-PCR and serological.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Young Adult
16.
Arch Virol ; 166(9): 2357-2367, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This review article summarizes what has been published on Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV), a novel flavivirus that was discovered in Saudi Arabia in 1995. METHODS: PubMed was used to search for studies published from January 1995 to June 2019 using the key words Alkhumra virus, Alkhurma virus, novel flavivirus, and tick-borne encephalitis virus. Additionally, records of the Saudi Ministry of Health were reviewed. RESULTS: Thirty-two articles on AHFV were identified. Acute febrile flu-like illness, hepatitis, hemorrhagic manifestations, and, less commonly, encephalitis are the main clinical features. The virus seems to be transmitted from livestock animals to humans by direct contact with these animals or their raw meat, or perhaps by tick or mosquito bites. The ability of ticks and mosquitoes to serve as vectors for AHFV needs to be confirmed by biological studies. The exact role of animals such as sheep, goats, camels, and other mammals in the transmission and maintenance of the virus remains to be elucidated. Preventive measures require an interdisciplinary approach involving the human and veterinary health sectors, the municipality, the ministry of agriculture, the vector control sector, and academic and research institutes. CONCLUSIONS: AHFV has been well characterized; nevertheless, some aspects remain to be elucidated.


Subject(s)
Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne , Animals , Antibodies, Viral , Databases, Factual , Encephalitis Viruses, Tick-Borne/classification , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/epidemiology , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/transmission , Encephalitis, Tick-Borne/virology , Humans , Phylogeny , Saudi Arabia , Tick-Borne Diseases/prevention & control , Tick-Borne Diseases/transmission , Vector Borne Diseases/prevention & control , Vector Borne Diseases/transmission
17.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytaa521, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first documented outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome inducing Coronavirus in China at the end of 2019 the virus has spread to all continents, leading the WHO to declare a pandemic in March 2020. While this virus primarily targets the alveoli in the lungs, multiple authors have described an increased rate of thrombo-embolic events in affected patients. We present this case of a myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in an otherwise healthy 48-year-old patient. CASE SUMMARY: A 48-year-old female, presenting with chest pain radiating to her left shoulder with no cardiovascular risk factors other than genetic predisposition, was screened for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and tested positive. Although computed tomography angiography excluded obstructive coronary heart disease, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary arteries of the inferior wall. The patient was treated with dual anti-platelet therapy, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and a statin, and assigned to a cardiac rehabilitation program. CONCLUSION: We report a serious thrombo-embolic event during an oligosymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a healthy, young patient. While these two diseases may have occurred simultaneously, by chance, it is possible that the pro-thrombotic effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection facilitated the infarction. This case further demonstrates the significant cardiovascular morbidity potentially caused by SARS-CoV-2.

18.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 709-716, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses special challenges for the society and especially the medical staff. Even if a rather mild course is assumed among pregnant women the measures to prevent transmission of the infection are of outstanding importance. METHODS: To screen asymptomatic pregnant women during admission to our university maternal hospital we focused on anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses. Hundred and fifty one women admitted to the hospital for childbirth or caesarean delivery were included. In case of suspicious anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody levels an RT-PCR was performed to confirm an ongoing infection with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 89% showed negative results for anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgA antibodies, whereas 3% were borderline and 7% positive (both labeled as suspicious). In only one patient with suspicious serology we detected SARS-CoV-2-RNA in the following RT-PCR. 2% presented anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies, all being positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgA. The observed positive rate of our study collective of 10.6% seemed much higher than the expected one (1.3%) based on the reports of the Robert Koch Institute and the specifications given by the test's manufacturer. The expected positive predictive value (PPV) was 4.3-6.7 times higher than the observed one. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report of anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody levels in the peripartum period of asymptomatic women. As the positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 serology poorly correlated with the confirmatory RT-PCR and the fact that mainly the detection of the virus by PCR correlates with the patient's infectiousness we suggest to rather perform a SARS-CoV-2-PCR-based admission screening in perinatal centers to prevent the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
19.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 577-581, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271943

ABSTRACT

The H2 subtypes of avian influenza A viruses (avian IAVs) have been circulating in poultry, and they have the potential to infect humans. Therefore, establishing a method to quickly detect this subtype is pivotal. We developed a TaqMan minor groove binder real-time RT-PCR assay that involved probes and primers based on conserved sequences of the matrix and hemagglutinin genes. The detection limit of this assay was as low as one 50% egg infectious dose (EID50)/mL per reaction. This assay is specific, sensitive, and rapid for detecting avian IAV H2 subtypes.


Subject(s)
Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza in Birds/diagnosis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Animals , Chick Embryo , Chickens , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
20.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5588-5593, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1272208

ABSTRACT

Reverse transcription fluorescence resonance energy transfer-polymerase chain reaction (FRET-PCRs) were designed against the two most common mutations in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (A23403G in the spike protein; C14408T in the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase). Based on high-resolution melting curve analysis, the reverse transcription (RT) FRET-PCRs identified the mutations in american type culture collection control viruses, and feline and human clinical samples. All major makes of PCR machines can perform melting curve analysis and thus further specifically designed FRET-PCRs could enable active surveillance for mutations and variants in countries where genome sequencing is not readily available.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Cats , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/analysis , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/immunology , Humans , Mutation , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Temperature
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