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Virol J ; 18(1): 113, 2021 06 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279301


BACKGROUND: Respiratory RNA viruses including influenza virus have been a cause of health and economic hardships. These viruses depend on its host for replication and infection. Influenza virus infection is lethal to the chick embryo. We examined whether a combination of trimethoprim and zinc (Tri-Z), that acts on the host, can reduce the lethal effect of influenza A virus in chick embryo model. METHOD: Influenza virus was isolated from patients and propagated in eggs. We determined viral load that infects 50% of eggs (50% egg lethal dose, ELD50). We introduced 10 ELD50 into embryonated eggs and repeated the experiments using 100 ELD50. A mixture of zinc oxide (Zn) and trimethoprim (TMP) (weight/weight ratios ranged from 0.01 to 0.3, Zn/TMP with increment of 0.1) was tested for embryo survival of the infection (n = 12 per ratio, in triplicates). Embryo survival was determined by candling eggs daily for 7 days. Controls of Zn, TMP, saline or convalescent serum were conducted in parallel. The effect of Tri-Z on virus binding to its cell surface receptor was evaluated in a hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay using chicken red cells. Tri-Z was prepared to concentration of 10 mg TMP and 1.8 mg Zn per ml, then serial dilutions were made. HAI effect was expressed as scores where ++++ = no effect; 0 = complete HAI effect. RESULTS: TMP, Zn or saline separately had no effect on embryo survival, none of the embryos survived influenza virus infection. All embryos treated with convalescent serum survived. Tri-Z, at ratio range of 0.15-0.2 (optimal ratio of 0.18) Zn/TMP, enabled embryos to survive influenza virus despite increasing viral load (> 80% survival at optimal ratio). At concentration of 15 µg/ml of optimal ratio, Tri-Z had total HAI effect (scored 0). However, at clinical concentration of 5 µg/ml, Tri-Z had partial HAI effect (+ +). CONCLUSION: Acting on host cells, Tri-Z at optimal ratio can reduce the lethal effect of influenza A virus in chick embryo. Tri-Z has HAI effect. These findings suggest that combination of trimethoprim and zinc at optimal ratio can be provided as treatment for influenza and possibly other respiratory RNA viruses infection in man.

Influenza A virus , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Trimethoprim/pharmacology , Zinc/pharmacology , Animals , Chick Embryo , Humans , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy
bioRxiv ; 2020 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900770


The search for vaccines that protect from severe morbidity and mortality as a result of infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a race against the clock and the virus. Several vaccine candidates are currently being tested in the clinic. Inactivated virus and recombinant protein vaccines can be safe options but may require adjuvants to induce robust immune responses efficiently. In this work we describe the use of a novel amphiphilic imidazoquinoline (IMDQ-PEG-CHOL) TLR7/8 adjuvant, consisting of an imidazoquinoline conjugated to the chain end of a cholesterol-poly(ethylene glycol) macromolecular amphiphile). This amphiphile is water soluble and exhibits massive translocation to lymph nodes upon local administration, likely through binding to albumin. IMDQ-PEG-CHOL is used to induce a protective immune response against SARS-CoV-2 after single vaccination with trimeric recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in the BALB/c mouse model. Inclusion of amphiphilic IMDQ-PEG-CHOL in the SARS-CoV-2 spike vaccine formulation resulted in enhanced immune cell recruitment and activation in the draining lymph node. IMDQ-PEG-CHOL has a better safety profile compared to native soluble IMDQ as the former induces a more localized immune response upon local injection, preventing systemic inflammation. Moreover, IMDQ-PEG-CHOL adjuvanted vaccine induced enhanced ELISA and in vitro microneutralization titers, and a more balanced IgG2a/IgG1 response. To correlate vaccine responses with control of virus replication in vivo, vaccinated mice were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 virus after being sensitized by intranasal adenovirus-mediated expression of the human angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) gene. Animals vaccinated with trimeric recombinant spike protein vaccine without adjuvant had lung virus titers comparable to non-vaccinated control mice, whereas animals vaccinated with IMDQ-PEG-CHOL-adjuvanted vaccine controlled viral replication and infectious viruses could not be recovered from their lungs at day 4 post infection. In order to test whether IMDQ-PEG-CHOL could also be used to adjuvant vaccines currently licensed for use in humans, proof of concept was also provided by using the same IMDQ-PEG-CHOL to adjuvant human quadrivalent inactivated influenza virus split vaccine, which resulted in enhanced hemagglutination inhibition titers and a more balanced IgG2a/IgG1 antibody response. Enhanced influenza vaccine responses correlated with better virus control when mice were given a lethal influenza virus challenge. Our results underscore the potential use of IMDQ-PEG-CHOL as an adjuvant to achieve protection after single immunization with recombinant protein and inactivated virus vaccines against respiratory viruses, such as SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses.

Poult Sci ; 99(6): 2944-2954, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-824735


This trial assessed the efficacy of a commercial essential oil (EO) product on the immune response to vaccination against Newcastle disease (ND) and subsequent challenge with virulent ND virus genotype VII (vNDv genotype VII) by using the following experimental groups of broiler chickens (Each group had 21 birds with 3 replicates in each, n = 7): NC (negative control), PC (positive control), VC (vaccinated), and VTC (vaccinated and treated with EOs). Moreover, in a trial to study the effect of EOs on vNDv genotype VII in vivo as a preventive or therapeutic measure, 2 additional ND-vaccinated groups were used (PRV: medicated 1 D before vNDv challenge for 5 D; and TTT: medicated 2 D after vNDv challenge for 5 D). In addition, the immune-modulatory effect of EOs on the avian influenza (AI), infectious bronchitis (IB), and infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccines was assessed through the serological response. The use of EOs along with administration of ND vaccines (VTC) revealed a lower mortality rate (42.86%), clinical signs, and postmortem lesion score (11) than ND vaccines alone (VC) (52.28% mortality and score 15), in addition to lower hemagglutination inhibition (P < 0.05) (6.5 ± 0.46) and viral shedding (10 log 2.28 ± 0.24) titres 1 wk after challenge in comparison with VC (8.63 ± 0.65 and 10 log 3.29 ± 0.72, respectively). Nevertheless, the EOs mixture (VTC) (1952 ± 28.82) did not significantly (P > 0.05) improve growth performance compared with the nontreated birds (NC and VC) (1970 ± 19.56 and 1904 ± 38.66). EOs showed an antiviral effect on vNDv in vivo (in chickens) as a preventive measure (PRV) as well as some therapeutic effect (TTT) through decreasing the viral shedding titres (loNC0), mortality rate, and severity of clinical signs and postmortem lesions, in addition to serum malondialdhyde level. Regarding the other viruses, the EOs mixture did not improve the immune response to the AI and IB vaccines but significantly (P < 0.05) increased the ELISA antibody titre for IBD virus at the 28th D of age (2,108 ± 341.05). The studied EOs mixture showed an immune-stimulating response to ND and IBD vaccines, antiviral effect against ND virus, especially if administered before the challenge; however, it did not have a growth-promoting effect.

Chickens , Immunity, Humoral , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology , Animals , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/classification