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1.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 9: 664868, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273326

ABSTRACT

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most prevalent complications among hospitalized coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Here, we aim to investigate the causes, risk factors, and outcomes of AKI in COVID-19 patients. We found that angiotensin-converting enzyme II (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) were mainly expressed by different cell types in the human kidney. However, in autopsy kidney samples, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) nucleoprotein was detected in ACE2+ or TMPRSS2+ renal tubular cells, whereas the RNAscope® Assay targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike gene was positive mainly in the distal tubular cells and seldom in the proximal tubular cells. In addition, the TMPRSS2 and kidney injury marker protein levels were significantly higher in the SARS-CoV-2-infected renal distal tubular cells, indicating that SARS-CoV-2-mediated AKI mainly occurred in the renal distal tubular cells. Subsequently, a cohort analysis of 722 patients with COVID-19 demonstrated that AKI was significantly related to more serious disease stages and poor prognosis of COVID-19 patients. The progressive increase of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level during the course of COVID-19 suggests that the patient's condition is aggravated. These results will greatly increase the current understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection.

2.
Phytother Res ; 35(8): 4246-4257, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1162957

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) triggered by a new viral pathogen, named severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), is now a global health emergency. This debilitating viral pandemic not only paralyzed the normal daily life of the global community but also spread rapidly via global travel. To date there are no effective vaccines or specific treatments against this highly contagious virus; therefore, there is an urgent need to advocate novel prophylactic or therapeutic interventions for COVID-19. This brief opinion critically discusses the potential of Silymarin, a flavonolignan with diverse pharmacological activity having antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antiplatelet, and antiviral properties, with versatile immune-cytokine regulatory functions, that able to bind with transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and induce endogenous antiviral cytokine interferon-stimulated gene 15, for the management of COVID-19. Silymarin inhibits the expression of host cell surface receptor TMPRSS2 with a docking binding energy corresponding to -1,350.61 kcal/mol and a full fitness score of -8.11. The binding affinity of silymarin with an impressive virtual score exhibits significant potential to interfere with SARS-CoV-2 replication. We propose in-depth pre-clinical and clinical review studies of silymarin for the development of anti-COVID-19 lead, based on its clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and multifaceted bioactivities.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Silymarin , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silymarin/pharmacology , Silymarin/therapeutic use
3.
Mol Divers ; 26(1): 265-278, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1160696

ABSTRACT

Transmembrane protease serine-2 (TMPRSS2) is a cell-surface protein expressed by epithelial cells of specific tissues including those in the aerodigestive tract. It helps the entry of novel coronavirus (n-CoV) or Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the host cell. Successful inhibition of the TMPRSS2 can be one of the crucial strategies to stop the SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the present study, a set of bioactive molecules from Morus alba Linn. were screened against the TMPRSS2 through two widely used molecular docking engines such as Autodock vina and Glide. Molecules having a higher binding affinity toward the TMPRSS2 compared to Camostat and Ambroxol were considered for in-silico pharmacokinetic analyses. Based on acceptable pharmacokinetic parameters and drug-likeness, finally, five molecules were found to be important for the TMPRSS2 inhibition. A number of bonding interactions in terms of hydrogen bond and hydrophobic interactions were observed between the proposed molecules and ligand-interacting amino acids of the TMPRSS2. The dynamic behavior and stability of best-docked complex between TRMPRSS2 and proposed molecules were assessed through molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Several parameters from MD simulation have suggested the stability between the protein and ligands. Binding free energy of each molecule calculated through MM-GBSA approach from the MD simulation trajectory suggested strong affection toward the TMPRSS2. Hence, proposed molecules might be crucial chemical components for the TMPRSS2 inhibition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Morus , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Serine , Virus Internalization
4.
J Virol ; 95(9)2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093846

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects cells through interaction of its spike protein (SARS2-S) with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and activation by proteases, in particular transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2). Viruses can also spread through fusion of infected with uninfected cells. We compared the requirements of ACE2 expression, proteolytic activation, and sensitivity to inhibitors for SARS2-S-mediated and SARS-CoV-S (SARS1-S)-mediated cell-cell fusion. SARS2-S-driven fusion was moderately increased by TMPRSS2 and strongly by ACE2, while SARS1-S-driven fusion was strongly increased by TMPRSS2 and less so by ACE2 expression. In contrast to that of SARS1-S, SARS2-S-mediated cell-cell fusion was efficiently activated by batimastat-sensitive metalloproteases. Mutation of the S1/S2 proteolytic cleavage site reduced effector cell-target cell fusion when ACE2 or TMPRSS2 was limiting and rendered SARS2-S-driven cell-cell fusion more dependent on TMPRSS2. When both ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were abundant, initial target cell-effector cell fusion was unaltered compared to that of wild-type (wt) SARS2-S, but syncytia remained smaller. Mutation of the S2 cleavage (S2') site specifically abrogated activation by TMPRSS2 for both cell-cell fusion and SARS2-S-driven pseudoparticle entry but still allowed for activation by metalloproteases for cell-cell fusion and by cathepsins for particle entry. Finally, we found that the TMPRSS2 inhibitor bromhexine, unlike the inhibitor camostat, was unable to reduce TMPRSS2-activated cell-cell fusion by SARS1-S and SARS2-S. Paradoxically, bromhexine enhanced cell-cell fusion in the presence of TMPRSS2, while its metabolite ambroxol exhibited inhibitory activity under some conditions. On Calu-3 lung cells, ambroxol weakly inhibited SARS2-S-driven lentiviral pseudoparticle entry, and both substances exhibited a dose-dependent trend toward weak inhibition of authentic SARS-CoV-2.IMPORTANCE Cell-cell fusion allows viruses to infect neighboring cells without the need to produce free virus and contributes to tissue damage by creating virus-infected syncytia. Our results demonstrate that the S2' cleavage site is essential for activation by TMPRSS2 and unravel important differences between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, among those, greater dependence of SARS-CoV-2 on ACE2 expression and activation by metalloproteases for cell-cell fusion. Bromhexine, reportedly an inhibitor of TMPRSS2, is currently being tested in clinical trials against coronavirus disease 2019. Our results indicate that bromhexine enhances fusion under some conditions. We therefore caution against the use of bromhexine in high dosages until its effects on SARS-CoV-2 spike activation are better understood. The related compound ambroxol, which similarly to bromhexine is clinically used as an expectorant, did not exhibit activating effects on cell-cell fusion. Both compounds exhibited weak inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 infection at high concentrations, which might be clinically attainable for ambroxol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Ambroxol/pharmacology , Amino Acid Substitution , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Bromhexine/pharmacology , COVID-19/genetics , Cell Line , Humans , Mutation, Missense , Proteolysis/drug effects , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
5.
Cell Transplant ; 30: 963689721991477, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058182

ABSTRACT

TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: No prophylactic treatments for COVID-19 have been clearly proven and found. In this pandemic context, cancer patients constitute a particularly fragile population that would benefit the best from such treatments, a present unmet need. TMPRSS2 is essential for COVID-19 replication cycle and it is under androgen control. Estrogen and androgen receptor dependent cues converge on TMPRSS2 regulation through different mechanisms of action that can be blocked by the use of hormonal therapies. We believe that there is enough body of evidence to foresee a prophylactic use of hormonal therapies against COVID-19 and this hypothesis can be easily tested on cohorts of breast and prostate cancer patients who follow those regimens. In case of pandemic, if the protective effect of hormonal therapies will be proven on cancer patients, the use of specific hormonal therapies could be extended to other oncological groups and to healthy individuals to decrease the overall risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2.Given the COVID-19 coronavirus emergency, a special focus is needed on the impact of this rapidly spreading viral infection on cancer patients. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling in the transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) regulation is emerging as an important determinant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) susceptibility. In our study, we analyzed AR and TMPRSS2 expression in 17,352 normal and 9,556 cancer tissues from public repositories and stratified data according to sex and age. The emerging picture is that some patient groups may be particularly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and may benefit from antiandrogen- or tamoxifen-based therapies. These findings are relevant to choose proper treatments in order to protect cancer patients from concomitant SARS-CoV-2 contagion and related symptoms and put forward the idea that hormonal therapies could be used as prophylactic agents against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Androgen Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , Estrogen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Prostatic Neoplasms/complications , Tamoxifen/therapeutic use , Androgen Receptor Antagonists/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal/pharmacology , Breast Neoplasms/drug therapy , Breast Neoplasms/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Drug Discovery , Estrogen Antagonists/pharmacology , Female , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Prostatic Neoplasms/metabolism , Receptors, Androgen/analysis , Receptors, Androgen/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/analysis , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Tamoxifen/pharmacology
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(4): 989-1005, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039483

ABSTRACT

Pernio or chilblains is characterized by erythema and swelling at acral sites (eg, toes and fingers), typically triggered by cold exposure. Clinical and histopathologic features of pernio are well described, but the pathogenesis is not entirely understood; vasospasm and a type I interferon (IFN-I) immune response are likely involved. During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, dermatologists have observed an increase in pernio-like acral eruptions. Direct causality of pernio due to COVID-19 has not been established in many cases because of inconsistent testing methods (often negative results) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, a form of COVID-19‒associated pernio (also called COVID toes) is probable because of increased occurrence, frequently in young patients with no cold exposure or a history of pernio, and reports of skin biopsies with positive SARS-CoV-2 immunohistochemistry. PubMed was searched between January 1, 2020, and December 31, 2020 for publications using the following keywords: pernio, chilblain, and acral COVID-19. On the basis of our review of the published literature, we speculate that several unifying cutaneous and systemic mechanisms may explain COVID-19‒associated pernio: (1) SARS-CoV-2 cell infection occurs through the cellular receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 mediated by transmembrane protease serine 2, subsequently affecting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system with an increase in the vasoconstricting, pro-inflammatory, and prothrombotic angiotensin II pathway. (2) Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 cell infection triggers an immune response with robust IFN-I release in patients predisposed to COVID-19‒associated pernio. (3) Age and sex discrepancies correlated with COVID-19 severity and manifestations, including pernio as a sign of mild disease, are likely explained by age-related immune and vascular differences influenced by sex hormones and genetics, which affect susceptibility to viral cellular infection, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system balance, and the IFN-I response.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chilblains , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vasoconstriction , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chilblains/immunology , Chilblains/physiopathology , Chilblains/virology , Disease Susceptibility , Fingers/blood supply , Humans , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Toes/blood supply
7.
J Clin Med ; 9(11)2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976313

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused a huge impact on health and economic issues. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes cellular damage by entry mediated by the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 of the host cells and its conjugation with spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Beyond airway infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury is common in SARS-CoV-2-associated infection, and acute kidney injury (AKI) is predictive to multiorgan dysfunction in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Beyond the cytokine storm and hemodynamic instability, SARS-CoV-2 might directly induce kidney injury and cause histopathologic characteristics, including acute tubular necrosis, podocytopathy and microangiopathy. The expression of apparatus mediating SARS-CoV-2 entry, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), within the renal tubular cells is highly associated with acute kidney injury mediated by SARS-CoV-2. Both entry from the luminal and basolateral sides of the renal tubular cells are the possible routes for COVID-19, and the microthrombi associated with severe sepsis and the dysregulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system worsen further renal injury in SARS-CoV-2-associated AKI. In the podocytes of the glomerulus, injured podocyte expressed CD147, which mediated the entry of SARS-CoV-2 and worsen further foot process effacement, which would worsen proteinuria, and the chronic hazard induced by SARS-CoV-2-mediated kidney injury is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the review is to summarize current evidence on SARS-CoV-2-associated AKI and the possible pathogenesis directly by SARS-CoV-2.

8.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(3): 419-427, 2021 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752835

ABSTRACT

Previous studies reported on the safety and applicability of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) to ameliorate pulmonary inflammation in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Thus, multiple clinical trials assessing the potential of MSCs for COVID-19 treatment are underway. Yet, as SARS-inducing coronaviruses infect stem/progenitor cells, it is unclear whether MSCs could be infected by SARS-CoV-2 upon transplantation to COVID-19 patients. We found that MSCs from bone marrow, amniotic fluid, and adipose tissue carry angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 at low levels on the cell surface under steady-state and inflammatory conditions. We did not observe SARS-CoV-2 infection or replication in MSCs at steady state under inflammatory conditions, or in direct contact with SARS-CoV-2-infected Caco-2 cells. Further, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 production in MSCs was not impaired in the presence of SARS-CoV-2. We show that MSCs are resistant to SARS-CoV-2 infection and retain their immunomodulation potential, supporting their potential applicability for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Inflammation/virology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/virology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/metabolism , Caco-2 Cells , Cell Line, Tumor , Humans , Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism
9.
Bioorg Chem ; 104: 104269, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-747220

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2 has been declared a pandemic by the WHO is causing havoc across the entire world. As of May end, about 6 million people have been affected, and 367 166 have died from COVID-19. Recent studies suggest that the SARS-CoV-2 genome shares about 80% similarity with the SARS-CoV-1 while their protein RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) shares 96% sequence similarity. Remdesivir, an RdRp inhibitor, exhibited potent activity against SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. 3-Chymotrypsin like protease (also known as Mpro) and papain-like protease, have emerged as the potential therapeutic targets for drug discovery against coronaviruses owing to their crucial role in viral entry and host-cell invasion. Crystal structures of therapeutically important SARS-CoV-2 target proteins, namely, RdRp, Mpro, endoribonuclease Nsp15/NendoU and receptor binding domain of CoV-2 spike protein has been resolved, which have facilitated the structure-based design and discovery of new inhibitors. Furthermore, studies have indicated that the spike proteins of SARS-CoV-2 use the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor for its attachment similar to SARS-CoV-1, which is followed by priming of spike protein by Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) which can be targeted by a proven inhibitor of TMPRSS2, camostat. The current treatment strategy includes repurposing of existing drugs that were found to be effective against other RNA viruses like SARS, MERS, and Ebola. This review presents a critical analysis of druggable targets of SARS CoV-2, new drug discovery, development, and treatment opportunities for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Discovery , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Pandemics
10.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 40(1): 1-13, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-436584

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) initiated in December 2019 in Wuhan, China and became pandemic causing high fatality and disrupted normal life calling world almost to a halt. Causative agent is a novel coronavirus called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2/2019-nCoV). While new line of drug/vaccine development has been initiated world-wide, in the current scenario of high infected numbers, severity of the disease and high morbidity, repurposing of the existing drugs is heavily explored. Here, we used a homology-based structural model of transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), a cell surface receptor, required for entry of virus to the target host cell. Using the strengths of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, we examined the binding potential of Withaferin-A (Wi-A), Withanone (Wi-N) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester to TPMRSS2 in comparison to its known inhibitor, Camostat mesylate. We found that both Wi-A and Wi-N could bind and stably interact at the catalytic site of TMPRSS2. Wi-N showed stronger interactions with TMPRSS2 catalytic residues than Wi-A and was also able to induce changes in its allosteric site. Furthermore, we investigated the effect of Wi-N on TMPRSS2 expression in MCF7 cells and found remarkable downregulation of TMPRSS2 mRNA in treated cells predicting dual action of Wi-N to block SARS-CoV-2 entry into the host cells. Since the natural compounds are easily available/affordable, they may even offer a timely therapeutic/preventive value for the management of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We also report that Wi-A/Wi-N content varies in different parts of Ashwagandha and warrants careful attention for their use.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.


Subject(s)
SARS-CoV-2 , Serine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Withanolides/pharmacology , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Humans , MCF-7 Cells , Molecular Docking Simulation , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Serine , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics
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