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1.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e038191, 2021 02 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962174

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Offering primary healthcare through mobile medical units is an innovative way to reach the rural and the vulnerable population. With 292 mobile medical units, the Andhra Pradesh mobile medical unit (APMMU) programme is one of the largest health outreach programmes in rural India. However, India lacks reliable cost estimates for the health services delivered through mobile medical platforms. This study aims to estimate the unit cost of providing primary care services through mobile medical units in rural and tribal areas of Andhra Pradesh. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: Cost analysis of 12 mobile medical units will be undertaken. We will use the activity-based microcosting technique from the providers' perspective. A bottom-up approach will be used for cost estimation. Standardised tools will be used to collect data on activities and resources, and on the costs. Capital investments and recurrent costs will be measured and evaluated. Average unit costs, along with 95% CIs, will be reported. Sensitivity analysis will assess the cost estimate uncertainties and other cost assumptions. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Piramal Swasthya Management Research Institute's ethics committee approved the study. The findings of the study will be disseminated through conference presentations, publications in peer-reviewed journals and advocacy with the national and state governments. This study will provide first-hand comprehensive cost estimates of provisioning primary healthcare services using mobile medical units in India.


Subject(s)
Mobile Health Units , Rural Population , Costs and Cost Analysis , Humans , India
2.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 16(1): 36-39, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900341

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, several frontline workers have expressed their concerns about reduced emergency department (ED) utilization. We aimed to examine the changes in ED utilization during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic, in a country with a well-developed primary care system. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of ED utilization was performed in 3 Dutch hospitals during a 60-day period, starting on February 15, 2020. The identical period in 2019 was used as a reference. ED visits were labeled as COVID-related (defined as COVID-19 suspected) or non-COVID-related. Admission rates were compared using chi-square tests, and the reduction in ED visits was assessed descriptively. RESULTS: During the study period, daily ED volume was 18% lower compared to that of 2019. ED utilization further declined (-29%) during lockdown. Combined admission rates were higher in 2020 compared to those in 2019 (P < 0.001), and they were higher for COVID-19 versus non-COVID-19 ED visits (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: ED utilization was markedly reduced during the local rise of COVID-19 in a region with a well-developed primary care system and relatively low ED self-referral rates. Although it cannot directly be concluded from the findings of our study, this observation likely reflects a complex interaction between pure lockdown effects and viral fear, which warrants further research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Fear , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 1(6): 1542-1551, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898690

ABSTRACT

Study objective: The impact of public health interventions during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic on critical illness in children has not been studied. We seek to determine the impact of SARS-CoV-2 related public health interventions on emergency healthcare utilization and frequency of critical illness in children. Methods: This was an interrupted time series analysis conducted at a single tertiary pediatric emergency department (PED). All patients evaluated by a provider from December 31 through May 14 of 6 consecutive years (2015-2020) were included. Total patient visits (ED and urgent care), shock trauma suite (STS) volume, and measures of critical illness were compared between the SARS-CoV-2 period (December 31, 2019 to May 14, 2020) and the same period for the previous 5 years combined. A segmented regression model was used to explore differences in the 3 outcomes between the study and control period. Results: Total visits, STS volume, and volume of critical illness were all significantly lower during the SARS-CoV-2 period. During the height of public health interventions, per day there were 151 fewer total visits and 7 fewer patients evaluated in the STS. The odds of having a 24-hour period without a single critical patient were >5 times higher. Trends appeared to start before the statewide shelter-in-place order and lasted for at least 8 weeks. Conclusions: In a metropolitan area without significant SARS-CoV-2 seeding, the pandemic was associated with a marked reduction in PED visits for critical pediatric illness.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250853, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infection by SARS-CoV-2 in domestic animals has been related to close contact with humans diagnosed with COVID-19. Objectives: To assess the exposure, infection, and persistence by SARS-CoV-2 of dogs and cats living in the same households of humans that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, and to investigate clinical and laboratory alterations associated with animal infection. METHODS: Animals living with COVID-19 patients were longitudinally followed and had nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal and rectal swabs collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, blood samples were collected for laboratory analysis, and plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to investigate specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RESULTS: Between May and October 2020, 39 pets (29 dogs and 10 cats) of 21 patients were investigated. Nine dogs (31%) and four cats (40%) from 10 (47.6%) households were infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Animals tested positive from 11 to 51 days after the human index COVID-19 case onset of symptoms. Three dogs tested positive twice within 14, 30, and 31 days apart. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies were detected in one dog (3.4%) and two cats (20%). In this study, six out of thirteen animals either infected with or seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 have developed mild but reversible signs of the disease. Using logistic regression analysis, neutering, and sharing bed with the ill owner were associated with pet infection. CONCLUSIONS: The presence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 infection have been identified in dogs and cats from households with human COVID-19 cases in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. People with COVID-19 should avoid close contact with their pets during the time of their illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/veterinary , Pets/virology , Animals , Animals, Domestic/virology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cat Diseases , Cats , Dog Diseases , Dogs , Longitudinal Studies , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S48-S52, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792229

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: COVID-19 pandemic and nationwide lockdown has affected the health system. Many health-care facilities are prioritizing their services, and hence, those suffering from life-limiting conditions will have difficulty in accessing health services. AIMS: The aim of the study was to perform a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis of the palliative care (PC) services provided by the Institute of Palliative Medicine (IPM), Kozhikode, amid COVID-19 pandemic. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A SWOT analysis of PC services provided by IPM. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The data for SWOT analysis was collected by brainstorming and review of records and registers. RESULTS: Good prioritization and documentation system and routinely adhering to infection control practices are notable strengths. Lack of funding and interrupted supply of personal protective equipment are notable weaknesses. Availability of established communication channels with active community participation are a few opportunities available to improve the services. Working with high-risk groups, return of Non-residential Indians (NRI), lack of transparency and stigma among the general public are the threats that can affect the service delivery. CONCLUSIONS: Having good prioritization and documentation system, reinforcing infection control practices, already established emergency homecare system, presence of a well-developed network of community-based PC services, and a vast network of community volunteers and awareness and cooperation of families had helped IPM to quickly reorganize its services and transition smoothly to continue to provide PC for those suffering from life-limiting illnesses in this pandemic situation.

6.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 34(6): 817-819, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593206

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The physiological impact of wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), in particular filtering-face-piece 3 (FFP3) masks, has increasingly been gaining importance since the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). So far, gas exchange has been examined using transcutaneously measured partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), ergo-spirometry and impedance cardiography. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this structured investigation, arterial blood gas analysis in a 30-year-old female resident was carried out during a 13-hour day shift on the COVID-19 Intensive Care Unit of the University Hospital of Innsbruck, Austria. An FFP3 mask (3MTM AuraTM) with an exhalation valve was continuously worn, except for 1 break of 20 min. Arterial blood samples were obtained before putting on the PPE, and after 5 h, 9 h and 13 h of working in the contaminated area. RESULTS: During the multi-hour wearing time, an increase in PaCO2 (the baseline value: 29.3 mm Hg, the max. value: 38.9 mm Hg) and a continuous decrease in partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, the baseline value: 102 mm Hg, the min. value: 80.8 mm Hg) was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: All measured values were within the normal range, but a trend towards an insufficient gas exchange could be suspected. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2021;34(6):817-9.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Adult , Exhalation , Female , Humans , Masks , Medical Staff , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23658, 2021 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lockdowns and shelter-in-place orders during COVID-19 have accelerated the adoption of remote and virtual care (RVC) models, potentially including telehealth, telemedicine, and internet-based electronic physician visits (e-visits) for remote consultation, diagnosis, and care, deterring small health care businesses including clinics, physician offices, and pharmacies from aligning resources and operations to new RVC realities. Current perceptions of small health care businesses toward remote care, particularly perceptions of whether RVC adoption will synergistically improve business sustainability, would highlight the pros and cons of rapidly adopting RVC technology among policy makers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the perceptions of small health care businesses regarding the impact of RVC on their business sustainability during COVID-19, gauge their perceptions of their current levels of adoption of and satisfaction with RVC models and analyze how well that aligns with their perceptions of the current business scenario (SCBS), and determine whether these perceptions influence their view of their midterm sustainability (SUST). METHODS: We randomly sampled small clinics, physician offices, and pharmacies across Colorado and sought assistance from a consulting firm to collect survey data in July 2020. Focal estimated study effects were compared across the three groups of small businesses to draw several insights. RESULTS: In total, 270 respondents, including 82 clinics, 99 small physician offices, and 89 pharmacies, across Colorado were included. SRVC and SCBS had direct, significant, and positive effects on SUST. However, we investigated the effect of the interaction between SRVC and SCBS to determine whether RVC adoption aligns with their perceptions of the current business scenario and whether this interaction impacts their perception of business sustainability. Effects differed among the three groups. The interaction term SRVC×SCBS was significant and positive for clinics (P=.02), significant and negative for physician offices (P=.05), and not significant for pharmacies (P=.76). These variations indicate that while clinics positively perceived RVC alignment with the current business scenario, the opposite held true for small physician offices. CONCLUSIONS: As COVID-19 continues to spread worldwide and RVC adoption progresses rapidly, it is critical to understand the impact of RVC on small health care businesses and their perceptions of long-term survival. Small physician practices cannot harness RVC developments and, in contrast with clinics, consider it incompatible with business survival during and after COVID-19. If small health care firms cannot compete with RVC (or synergistically integrate RVC platforms into their current business practices) and eventually become nonoperational, the resulting damage to traditional health care services may be severe, particularly for critical care delivery and other important services that RVC cannot effectively replace. Our results have implications for public policy decisions such as incentive-aligned models, policy-initiated incentives, and payer-based strategies for improved alignment between RVC and existing models.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pharmacies/economics , Physicians' Offices/economics , Small Business/economics , Telemedicine/methods , Adult , Colorado/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248956, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574916

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Heterogeneity has been observed in outcomes of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Identification of clinical phenotypes may facilitate tailored therapy and improve outcomes. The purpose of this study is to identify specific clinical phenotypes across COVID-19 patients and compare admission characteristics and outcomes. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of COVID-19 patients from March 7, 2020 to August 25, 2020 at 14 U.S. hospitals. Ensemble clustering was performed on 33 variables collected within 72 hours of admission. Principal component analysis was performed to visualize variable contributions to clustering. Multinomial regression models were fit to compare patient comorbidities across phenotypes. Multivariable models were fit to estimate associations between phenotype and in-hospital complications and clinical outcomes. RESULTS: The database included 1,022 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Three clinical phenotypes were identified (I, II, III), with 236 [23.1%] patients in phenotype I, 613 [60%] patients in phenotype II, and 173 [16.9%] patients in phenotype III. Patients with respiratory comorbidities were most commonly phenotype III (p = 0.002), while patients with hematologic, renal, and cardiac (all p<0.001) comorbidities were most commonly phenotype I. Adjusted odds of respiratory, renal, hepatic, metabolic (all p<0.001), and hematological (p = 0.02) complications were highest for phenotype I. Phenotypes I and II were associated with 7.30-fold (HR:7.30, 95% CI:(3.11-17.17), p<0.001) and 2.57-fold (HR:2.57, 95% CI:(1.10-6.00), p = 0.03) increases in hazard of death relative to phenotype III. CONCLUSION: We identified three clinical COVID-19 phenotypes, reflecting patient populations with different comorbidities, complications, and clinical outcomes. Future research is needed to determine the utility of these phenotypes in clinical practice and trial design.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Phenotype , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4131-e4138, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560574

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Population-based literature suggests severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection may disproportionately affect racial/ethnic minorities; however, patient-level observations of hospitalization outcomes by race/ethnicity are limited. Our aim in this study was to characterize coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated morbidity and in-hospital mortality by race/ethnicity. METHODS: This was a retrospective analysis of 9 Massachusetts hospitals including all consecutive adult patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Measured outcomes were assessed and compared by patient-reported race/ethnicity, classified as white, black, Latinx, Asian, or other. Student t test, Fischer exact test, and multivariable regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 379 patients (aged 62.9 ± 16.5 years; 55.7% men) with confirmed COVID-19 were included (49.9% white, 13.7% black, 29.8% Latinx, 3.7% Asian), of which 376 (99.2%) were insured (34.3% private, 41.2% public, 23.8% public with supplement). Latinx patients were younger, had fewer cardiopulmonary disorders, were more likely to be obese, more frequently reported fever and myalgia, and had lower D-dimer levels compared with white patients (P < .05). On multivariable analysis controlling for age, gender, obesity, cardiopulmonary comorbidities, hypertension, and diabetes, no significant differences in in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit admission, or mechanical ventilation by race/ethnicity were found. Diabetes was a significant predictor for mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 1.89; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-3.23), while older age was a predictor of in-hospital mortality (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 1.94-9.04). CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter cohort of hospitalized COVID-19 patients in the largest health system in Massachusetts, there was no association between race/ethnicity and clinically relevant hospitalization outcomes, including in-hospital mortality, after controlling for key demographic/clinical characteristics. These findings serve to refute suggestions that certain races/ethnicities may be biologically predisposed to poorer COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(4): 1665-1674, 2021 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526879

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease with a high rate of progression to critical illness. However, the predictors of mortality in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) are not yet well understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with ICU mortality in our hospital. Materials and methods: In this single-centered retrospective study, we enrolled 86 critically ill adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to ICU of Dokuz Eylül University Hospital (Izmir, Turkey) between 18 March 2020 and 31 October 2020. Data on demographic information, preexisting comorbidities, treatments, the laboratory findings at ICU admission, and clinical outcomes were collected. The chest computerized tomography (CT) of the patients were evaluated specifically for COVID-19 and CT score was calculated. Data of the survivors and nonsurvivors were compared with survival analysis to identify risk factors of mortality in the ICU. Results: The mean age of the patients was 71.1 ± 14.1 years. The patients were predominantly male. The most common comorbidity in patients was hypertension. ICU mortality was 62.8%. Being over 60 years old, CT score > 15, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score ≥ 15, having dementia, treatment without favipiravir, base excess in blood gas analysis ≤ ­2.0, WBC > 10,000/mm3, D-dimer > 1.6 µg/mL, troponin > 24 ng/L, Na ≥ 145 mmol/L were considered to link with ICU mortality according to Kaplan­Meier curves (log-rank test, p < 0.05). The APACHE II score (HR: 1.055, 95% CI: 1.021­1.090) and chest CT score (HR: 2.411, 95% CI:1.193­4.875) were associated with ICU mortality in the cox proportional-hazard regression model adjusted for age, dementia, favipiravir treatment and troponin. Howewer, no difference was found between survivors and nonsurvivors in terms of intubation timing. Conclusions: COVID-19 patients have a high ICU admission and mortality rate. Studies in the ICU are also crucial in this respect. In our study, we investigated the ICU mortality risk factors of COVID-19 patients. We determined a predictive mortality model consisting of APACHE II score and chest CT score. It was thought that this feasible and practical model would assist in making clinical decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/mortality , Critical Care/methods , Hospital Mortality , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526842

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to characterize COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2-infected) patients who develop bloodstream infection (BSI) and to assess risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality. We conducted a retrospective observational study of adult patients admitted for ≥48 h to a large Central Italy hospital for COVID-19 (1 March to 31 May 2020) who had or had not survived at discharge. We included only patients having blood cultures drawn or other inclusion criteria satisfied. Kaplan-Meier survival or Cox regression analyses were performed of 293 COVID-19 patients studied, 46 patients (15.7%) had a hospital-acquired clinically relevant BSI secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection, accounting for 58 episodes (49 monomicrobial and 9 polymicrobial) in total. Twelve episodes (20.7%) occurred at day 3 of hospital admission. Sixty-nine species were isolated, including Staphylococcus aureus (32.8%), Enterobacterales (20.7%), Enterococcus faecalis (17.2%), Candida (13.8%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3%). Of 69 isolates, 27 (39.1%) were multidrug-resistant organisms. Twelve (54.5%) of 22 patients for whom empirical antimicrobial therapy was inappropriate were infected by a multidrug-resistant organism. Of 46 patients, 26 (56.5%) survived and 20 (43.5%) died. Exploring variables for association with in-hospital mortality identified > 75-year age (HR 2.97, 95% CI 1.15-7.68, p = 0.02), septic shock (HR 6.55, 95% CI 2.36-18.23, p < 0.001) and BSI onset ≤ 3 days (HR 4.68, 95% CI 1.40-15.63, p = 0.01) as risk factors independently associated with death. In our hospital, mortality among COVID-19 patients with BSI was high. While continued vigilance against these infections is essential, identification of risk factors for mortality may help to reduce fatal outcomes in patients with COVID-19.

12.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 36(9): 2627-2638, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520348

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 is responsible for the 2019 novel coronavirus disease pandemic. Despite the vast research about the adult population, there has been little data collected on acute kidney injury (AKI) epidemiology, associated risk factors, treatments, and mortality in pediatric COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU. AKI is a severe complication of COVID-19 among children and adolescents. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane Center Trials to find all published literature related to AKI in COVID-19 patients, including incidence and outcomes. RESULTS: Twenty-four studies reporting the outcomes of interest were included. Across all studies, the overall sample size of COVID positive children was 1,247 and the median age of this population was 9.1 years old. Among COVID positive pediatric patients, there was an AKI incidence of 30.51%, with only 0.56% of these patients receiving KRT. The mortality was 2.55% among all COVID positive pediatric patients. The incidence of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) among COVID positive patients was 74.29%. CONCLUSION: AKI has shown to be a negative prognostic factor in adult patients with COVID-19 and now also in the pediatric cohort with high incidence and mortality rates. Additionally, our findings show a strong comparison in epidemiology between adult and pediatric COVID-19 patients; however, they need to be confirmed with additional data and studies.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/immunology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , Adult , Age Factors , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/mortality
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(6)2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476484

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is critical for identifying high-value interventions that address significant unmet need. This study examines whether CEA study volume is proportionate to the burden associated with 21 major disease categories. METHODS: We searched the Tufts Medical Center CEA and Global Health CEA Registries for studies published between 2010 and 2019 that measured cost per quality-adjusted life-year or cost per disability-adjusted life-year (DALY). Stratified by geographical region and country income level, the relationship between literature volume and disease burden (as measured by 2019 Global Burden of Disease estimates of population DALYs) was analysed using ordinary least squares linear regression. Additionally, the number of CEAs per intervention deemed 'essential' for universal health coverage by the Disease Control Priorities Network was assessed to evaluate how many interventions are supported by cost-effectiveness evidence. RESULTS: The results located below the regression line but with relatively high burden suggested disease areas that were 'understudied' compared with expected study volume. Understudied disease areas varied by region. Higher-income and upper-middle-income country (HUMIC) CEA volume for non-communicable diseases (eg, mental/behavioural disorders) was 100-fold higher than that in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (LLMICs). LLMIC study volume remained concentrated in HIV/AIDS as well as other communicable and neglected tropical diseases. Across 60 essential interventions, only 33 had any supporting CEA evidence, and only 21 had a decision context involving a low-income or middle-income country. With the exception of one intervention, available CEA evidence revealed the 21 interventions to be cost-effective, with base-case findings less than three times the GDP per capita. CONCLUSION: Our analysis highlights disease areas that require significant policy attention. Research gaps for highly prevalent, lethal or disabling diseases, as well as essential interventions may be stifling potential efficiency gains. Large research disparities between HUMICs and LLMICs suggest funding opportunities for improving allocative efficiency in LLMIC health systems.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Disabled Persons , Global Health , Humans , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Universal Health Insurance
14.
Hepatology ; 74(3): 1715, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458257
15.
Neurosurgery ; 87(3): 516-522, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455333

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pipeline embolization device (PED; Medtronic) and stent-assisted coiling (SAC) are established modalities for treatment of intracranial aneurysms. OBJECTIVE: To comparatively assess the efficacy of these techniques. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients with aneurysms treated at our institution with either PED from 2013 to 2017 or SAC from 2009 to 2015. All large (>10 mm), ruptured, fusiform, anterior communicating artery, posterior circulation aneurysms, and patients with no available follow-up imaging were eliminated before running the propensity score matching (PSM). Patients were matched using nearest neighbor controlling for: age, gender, smoking, exact location, maximal diameter, and presence of multiple aneurysms. Total hospital costs for equipment and implants were calculated from procedure product and hospital billing records, and compared between the propensity-matched pairs. RESULTS: Out of 165 patients harboring 202 aneurysms; 170 (84.2%) were treated with the PED, and 32 (15.8%) were treated using SAC. PSM resulted in 23 matched pairs; with significantly longer follow up in the SAC group (mean 29.8 vs 14.1 mo; P = .0002). Complete occlusion rates were not different (82.6 vs 87%; P = .68), with no difference between the groups for modified Rankin Scale on last clinical follow-up, procedural complications or retreatment rates. Average total costs calculated from the hospital records, including equipment and implants, were not different between propensity-score matched pairs (P = .48). CONCLUSION: PED placement and SAC offer equally efficacious occlusion rates, functional outcomes, procedural complication rates, and cost profiles for small unruptured anterior circulation saccular aneurysms which do not involve the anterior communicating artery.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessel Prosthesis , Embolization, Therapeutic/instrumentation , Endovascular Procedures/instrumentation , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Stents , Adult , Aged , Embolization, Therapeutic/methods , Endovascular Procedures/methods , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
16.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 68(5): 2787-2794, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411002

ABSTRACT

African swine fever (ASF) is a severe haemorrhagic disease of domestic and wild pigs caused by the African swine fever virus (ASFV). In recent years, ASF has steadily spread towards new geographical areas, reaching Europe and Asia. On January 15th, 2019, Mongolia reported its first ASF outbreak to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), becoming, after China, the second country in the region affected by the disease. Following an event of unusual mortality in domestic pigs in Bulgan Province, a field team visited four farms and a meat market in the region to conduct an outbreak investigation and collect samples for laboratory analysis. Different organs were examined for ASF associated lesions, and total nucleic acid was extracted for real-time PCR, virus isolation and molecular characterization. The real-time PCR results confirmed ASFV DNA in 10 out of 10 samples and ASFV was isolated. Phylogenetic analysis established that ASFVs from Mongolia belong to genotype II and serogroup 8. The viruses were identical to each other, and to domestic pig isolates identified in China and Russia, based on the comparison of five genomic targets. Our results suggest a cross-border spread of ASFV, without indicating the source of infection.


Subject(s)
African Swine Fever Virus , African Swine Fever , Swine Diseases , African Swine Fever/epidemiology , African Swine Fever Virus/genetics , Animals , Genotype , Mongolia , Phylogeny , Sus scrofa , Swine
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(49): 1868-1872, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389861

ABSTRACT

The Head Start program, including Head Start for children aged 3-5 years and Early Head Start for infants, toddlers, and pregnant women, promotes early learning and healthy development among children aged 0-5 years whose families meet the annually adjusted Federal Poverty Guidelines* throughout the United States.† These programs are funded by grants administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Administration for Children and Families (ACF). In March 2020, Congress passed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act,§ which appropriated $750 million for Head Start, equating to approximately $875 in CARES Act funds per enrolled child. In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, most states required all schools (K-12) to close or transition to virtual learning. The Office of Head Start gave its local programs that remained open the flexibility to use CARES Act funds to implement CDC-recommended guidance (1) and other ancillary measures to provide in-person services in the early phases of community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, in April and May 2020, when many similar programs remained closed. Guidance included information on masks, other personal protective equipment, physical setup, supplies necessary for maintaining healthy environments and operations, and the need for additional staff members to ensure small class sizes. Head Start programs successfully implemented CDC-recommended mitigation strategies and supported other practices that helped to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission among children and staff members. CDC conducted a mixed-methods analysis to document these approaches and inform implementation of mitigation strategies in other child care settings. Implementing and monitoring adherence to recommended mitigation strategies reduces risk for COVID-19 transmission in child care settings. These approaches could be applied to other early care and education settings that remain open for in-person learning and potentially reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Day Care Centers/organization & administration , Schools, Nursery/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child, Preschool , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , United States/epidemiology
18.
Front Immunol ; 11: 607314, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389171

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality after viral infections, including influenza A virus H1N1, SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. The angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a key host membrane-bound protein that modulates ALI induced by viral infection, pulmonary acid aspiration, and sepsis. However, the contributions of ACE2 sequence variants to individual differences in disease risk and severity after viral infection are not understood. In this study, we quantified H1N1 influenza-infected lung transcriptomes across a family of 41 BXD recombinant inbred strains of mice and both parents-C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. In response to infection Ace2 mRNA levels decreased significantly for both parental strains and the expression levels was associated with disease severity (body weight loss) and viral load (expression levels of viral NA segment) across the BXD family members. Pulmonary RNA-seq for 43 lines was analyzed using weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and Bayesian network approaches. Ace2 not only participated in virus-induced ALI by interacting with TNF, MAPK, and NOTCH signaling pathways, but was also linked with high confidence to gene products that have important functions in the pulmonary epithelium, including Rnf128, Muc5b, and Tmprss2. Comparable sets of transcripts were also highlighted in parallel studies of human SARS-CoV-infected primary human airway epithelial cells. Using conventional mapping methods, we determined that weight loss at two and three days after viral infection maps to chromosome X-the location of Ace2. This finding motivated the hierarchical Bayesian network analysis, which defined molecular endophenotypes of lung infection linked to Ace2 expression and to a key disease outcome. Core members of this Bayesian network include Ace2, Atf4, Csf2, Cxcl2, Lif, Maml3, Muc5b, Reg3g, Ripk3, and Traf3. Collectively, these findings define a causally-rooted Ace2 modulatory network relevant to host response to viral infection and identify potential therapeutic targets for virus-induced respiratory diseases, including those caused by influenza and coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Lung/virology , Virus Diseases/genetics , Animals , Bayes Theorem , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred DBA , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Signal Transduction/genetics
19.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(12): e1008959, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388958

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 genome annotation revealed the presence of 10 open reading frames (ORFs), of which the last one (ORF10) is positioned downstream of the N gene. It is a hypothetical gene, which was speculated to encode a 38 aa protein. This hypothetical protein does not share sequence similarity with any other known protein and cannot be associated with a function. While the role of this ORF10 was proposed, there is growing evidence showing that the ORF10 is not a coding region. Here, we identified SARS-CoV-2 variants in which the ORF10 gene was prematurely terminated. The disease was not attenuated, and the transmissibility between humans was maintained. Also, in vitro, the strains replicated similarly to the related viruses with the intact ORF10. Altogether, based on clinical observation and laboratory analyses, it appears that the ORF10 protein is not essential in humans. This observation further proves that the ORF10 should not be treated as the protein-coding gene, and the genome annotations should be amended.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Mutation , Open Reading Frames/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Virus Replication , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/genetics , Codon, Nonsense , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Middle Aged , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Proteins/metabolism
20.
Inorg Chem ; 59(23): 17109-17122, 2020 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387106

ABSTRACT

Metal complexes have numerous applications in the current era, particularly in the field of pharmaceutical chemistry and catalysis. A novel synthetic approach for the same is always a beneficial addition to the literature. Henceforth, for the first time, we report the formation of three new Pd(II) complexes through the Michael addition pathway. Three chromone-based thiosemicarbazone ligands (SVSL1-SVSL3) and Pd(II) complexes (1-3) were synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectroscopic tools. The Michael addition pathway for the formation of complexes was confirmed by spectroscopic studies. Distorted square planar structure of complex 2 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complexes 1-3 were subjected to DNA- and BSA-binding studies. The complex with cyclohexyl substituent on the terminal N of thiosemicarbazone (3) showed the highest binding efficacy toward these biomolecules, which was further understood through molecular docking studies. The anticancer potential of these complexes was studied preliminarily by using MTT assay in cancer and normal cell lines along with the benchmark drugs (cisplatin, carboplatin, and gemcitabine). It was found that complex 3 was highly toxic toward MDA-MB-231 and AsPC-1 cancer cells with IC50 values of 0.5 and 0.9 µM, respectively, and was more efficient than the standard drugs. The programmed cell death mechanism of the complexes in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells was confirmed. Furthermore, the complexes induced apoptosis via ROS-mediated mitochondrial signaling pathway. Conveniently, all the complexes showed less toxicity (≥50 µM) against MCF-10a normal cell line. Molecular docking studies were performed with VEGFR2, EGFR, and SARS-CoV-2 main protease to illustrate the binding efficiency of the complexes with these receptors. To our surprise, binding potential of the complexes with SARS-CoV-2 main protease was higher than that with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine.


Subject(s)
Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Coordination Complexes/pharmacology , Mitochondria/drug effects , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Antineoplastic Agents/chemical synthesis , Antineoplastic Agents/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chromones/chemical synthesis , Chromones/metabolism , Chromones/pharmacology , Coordination Complexes/chemical synthesis , Coordination Complexes/metabolism , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , ErbB Receptors/metabolism , Humans , Intercalating Agents/chemical synthesis , Intercalating Agents/metabolism , Intercalating Agents/pharmacology , Ligands , Molecular Docking Simulation , Palladium/chemistry , Protein Binding , Thiosemicarbazones/chemical synthesis , Thiosemicarbazones/metabolism , Thiosemicarbazones/pharmacology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/metabolism
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