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1.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 8(3): 417-425, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are admitted to intensive care units so they can be comprehensively managed and provided with services not covered in general hospital wards, with the aim to increase their chances of survival. These procedures include invasive mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with survival in critically ill patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit of a tertiary-level hospital in Colombia. METHODS: This was a retrospective follow-up study of a cohort of adult patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit in San José de Buga Hospital, between 2017 and 2018. Sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables were identified. Using Cox regression, variables associated with survival and complications were identified. RESULTS: A total of 357 patients were analyzed. The average age was 64.8 ± 18.9 years, and 52.9% were male. The most frequent diagnoses were sepsis/septic shock (38.4%) and trauma (17.4%). The main factors associated with shorter survival were advanced age (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96-0.99), a diagnosis of septic shock (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.18-0.48) or diabetes mellitus at admission (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.33-0.98), a healthcare-associated infection (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.33-0.80), and the need for vasopressors (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.22-0.59). The administration of systemic corticosteroids was associated with a higher probability of survival (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.15-3.25). CONCLUSIONS: The use of systemic corticosteroids was associated with a greater probability of survival in critically ill patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit. The identification of the variables associated with a higher risk of dying should allow care protocols to be improved, thereby extending the life expectancy of these patients.

2.
J Clin Med ; 10(8)2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526841

ABSTRACT

Infection by SARS-CoV-2 is associated with a high risk of thrombosis. The laboratory documentation of hypercoagulability and impaired fibrinolysis remains a challenge. Our aim was to assess the potential usefulness of viscoelastometric testing (VET) to predict thrombotic events in COVID-19 patients according to the literature. We also (i) analyzed the impact of anticoagulation and the methods used to neutralize heparin, (ii) analyzed whether maximal clot mechanical strength brings more information than Clauss fibrinogen, and (iii) critically scrutinized the diagnosis of hypofibrinolysis. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Scopus databases until 31st December 2020. VET methods and parameters, and patients' features and outcomes were extracted. VET was performed for 1063 patients (893 intensive care unit (ICU) and 170 non-ICU, 44 studies). There was extensive heterogeneity concerning study design, VET device used (ROTEM, TEG, Quantra and ClotPro) and reagents (with non-systematic use of heparin neutralization), timing of assay, and definition of hypercoagulable state. Notably, only 4 out of 25 studies using ROTEM reported data with heparinase (HEPTEM). The common findings were increased clot mechanical strength mainly due to excessive fibrinogen component and impaired to absent fibrinolysis, more conspicuous in the presence of an added plasminogen activator. Only 4 studies out of the 16 that addressed the point found an association of VETs with thrombotic events. So-called functional fibrinogen assessed by VETs showed a variable correlation with Clauss fibrinogen. Abnormal VET pattern, often evidenced despite standard prophylactic anticoagulation, tended to normalize after increased dosing. VET studies reported heterogeneity, and small sample sizes do not support an association between the poorly defined prothrombotic phenotype of COVID-19 and thrombotic events.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(11)2020 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456326

ABSTRACT

In the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the gut microbiota has been established as a key factor. Recently, metabolomics has become important for understanding the functional relevance of gut microbial changes in disease. Animal models for IBD enable the study of factors involved in disease development. However, results from animal studies may not represent the human situation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether results from metabolomics studies on animal models for IBD were similar to those from studies on IBD patients. Medline and Embase were searched for relevant studies up to May 2017. The Covidence systematic review software was used for study screening, and quality assessment was conducted for all included studies. Data showed a convergence of ~17% for metabolites differentiated between IBD and controls in human and animal studies with amino acids being the most differentiated metabolite subclass. The acute dextran sodium sulfate model appeared as a good model for analysis of systemic metabolites in IBD, but analytical platform, age, and biological sample type did not show clear correlations with any significant metabolites. In conclusion, this systematic review highlights the variation in metabolomics results, and emphasizes the importance of expanding the applied detection methods to ensure greater coverage and convergence between the various different patient phenotypes and animal models of inflammatory bowel disease.


Subject(s)
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Metabolome , Metabolomics/methods , /methods , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/etiology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/pathology , Mice , Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/toxicity
4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 10(1): 24, 2020 Feb 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453061

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) function evaluation by echocardiography is key in the management of ICU patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), however, it remains challenging. Quantification of RV deformation by speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) is a recently available and reproducible technique that provides an integrated analysis of the RV. However, data are scarce regarding its use in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to assess its feasibility and clinical usefulness in moderate-severe ARDS patients. RESULTS: Forty-eight ARDS patients under invasive mechanical ventilation (MV) were consecutively enrolled in a prospective observational study. A full transthoracic echocardiography was performed within 36 h of MV initiation. STE-derived and conventional parameters were recorded. Strain imaging of the RV lateral, inferior and septal walls was highly feasible (47/48 (98%) patients). Interobserver reproducibility of RV strain values displayed good reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) > 0.75 for all STE-derived parameters) in ARDS patients. ROC curve analysis showed that lateral, inferior, global (average of the 3 RV walls) longitudinal systolic strain (LSS) and global strain rate demonstrated significant diagnostic values when compared to several conventional indices (TAPSE, S', RV FAC). A RV global LSS value > - 13.7% differentiated patients with a TAPSE < vs > 12 mm with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 83%. Regarding clinical outcomes, mortality and cumulative incidence of weaning from MV at day 28 were not different in patients with normal versus abnormal STE-derived parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Global STE assessment of the RV was highly achievable and reproducible in moderate-severe ARDS patients under MV and additionally correlated with several conventional parameters of RV function. In our cohort, STE-derived parameters did not provide any incremental value in terms of survival or weaning from MV prediction. Further investigations are needed to evaluate their theranostic usefulness. Trial registration NCT02638844: NCT.

5.
Transplantation ; 105(10): 2165-2169, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447690

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) remain rare. We sought to shed further light on this issue by conducting a single-center study in a kidney transplant center located in one of the France's highest risk zone (Grand Est) for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) during the initial disease outbreak. METHODS: To this aim, we used a survey approach coupled with systematic investigation of SARS-CoV-2 serology in a cohort of 1390 KTRs. RESULTS: SARS-CoV-2 serologies were available for 780 survey respondents, among whom 48 had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (total seroprevalence: 6.2%). Thirty-five of the 48 seropositive KTRs had previously received a diagnosis of Covid-19, whereas the remaining 13 patients were not known to be infected (8 asymptomatic cases). Specifically, 18.7% of seropositive KTRs and 1.1% of the entire cohort were asymptomatic. Household exposure was found to markedly increase the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that the overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in KTRs living in one of the France's highest risk zone for Covid-19 during the first French lockdown was as low as 6.3%. Rapid and strict implementation of protective measures could have significantly mitigated virus spread even in an area of high virus circulation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Kidney Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
6.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020025, 2020 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389953

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: The ongoing pandemic has elicited an increasing interest regarding the SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA detection in saliva specimens rather than through nasopharyngeal swabs. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis on the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA detection through RT-qPCR based on salivary specimens compared to conventional nasopharyngeal swabs. METHODS: We reported our meta-analysis according to the PRISMA statement. We searched Pubmed, Embase, and pre-print archive medRxiv.og for eligible studies published up to June 1st, 2020. Raw data included true/false positive and negative tests, and the total number of tests. Sensitivity and specificity data were calculated for every study, and then pooled in a random-effects model. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 measure. Reporting bias was assessed by means of funnel plots and regression analysis. RESULTS: The systematic review eventually retrieved 14 studies including a total of 15 estimates, the were included in quantitative synthesis. We found a pooled specificity of 97.7% (95%CI 93.8-99.2) and a pooled sensitivity of 83.4% (95%CI 73.1-90.4), with an overall agreement assessed by means of Cohen's kappa equals to 0.750, 95%CI 0.62-0.88 (i.e. moderate agreement), with high heterogeneity and risk of reporting bias. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, diagnostic tests based on salivary specimens are somewhat reliable, but relatively few studies have been carried out. Moreover, such studies are characterized by low numbers and low sample power. Therefore, the of salivary samples is currently questionable for clinical purposes and cannot substitute other more conventional RT-qPCR based on nasopharyngeal swabs.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Saliva/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(7)2021 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1378296

ABSTRACT

Men, especially young men, have been consistently missing from the HIV care cascade, leading to poor health outcomes in men and ongoing transmission of HIV in young women in South Africa. Although these men may not be missing for the same reasons across the cascade and may need different interventions, early work has shown similar trends in men's low uptake of HIV care services and suggested that the social costs of testing and accessing care are extremely high for men, particularly in South Africa. Interventions and data collection have hitherto, by and large, focused on men in relation to HIV prevention in women and have not approached the problem through the male lens. Using the participatory method, the overall aim of this study is to improve health outcomes in men and women through formative work to co-create male-specific interventions in an HIV-hyper endemic setting in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Rural Population , South Africa/epidemiology
8.
Dig Liver Dis ; 53(12): 1539-1545, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260397

ABSTRACT

Treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) frequently requires administration of immunosuppressive therapies, which increases susceptibility to a number of infectious pathogens. However, many infections can be prevented by correct and appropriate utilization of vaccinations. While several guidelines have been published on vaccination schedules in patients with IBD, vaccination rates remain suboptimal and even lower than those in the general population. This is due to many factors including poor awareness of the importance of vaccines by gastroenterologists and general practitioners as well as potential prejudices of patients regarding the safety and benefits of vaccines. With the aim of increasing awareness about the key role of immunization in the management of patients with IBD, the present review examines the existing literature relating to the main vaccinations and their application in these patients. We also summarize current evidence in order to provide clinicians with an easy source of reference for the principal recommendations for prevention of infectious diseases in patients with IBD. In addition, the recommendations about traveling for IBD patients are briefly explored. Lastly, since it is important for gastroenterologists to be aware of recommendations on vaccination, we recommend implementing educational programs to ensure compliance with current guidelines.


Subject(s)
Colitis, Ulcerative/immunology , Crohn Disease/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Vaccination/standards , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gastroenterology/standards , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Immunocompetence , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage
9.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(7): 2181-2185, 2021 06 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300960

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Lockdown due to COVID-19 pandemic has forced a decrease in physical activity (PA), an increase in sedentary behavior (SB) and a possibly worsening of fat accumulation in already obese subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate how social restriction may have contributed to weight changes in adolescents with obesity. Secondary aim was to evaluate possible parameters influencing weight changes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Parameters of 51 obese adolescents were compared between two visits: within 2 months before 8 March, start of lockdown, and within 40 days after the end of it. RESULTS: Mean weight gain during lockdown was 2.8 ± 3.7 kg (p < 0.001). Weight increase was higher in males than in females (3.8 ± 3.4 kg vs 1.2 ± 3.7 kg, p = 0.02). The hours dedicated to SB increased (+2.9 ± 2.8 h/day; p < 0.001) while the hours of PA decreased (-1.0 ± 1.6 h/week; p < 0.001). Males spent more hours in SB than females (+3.8 ± 2.7 h/day vs +1.5 ± 2.5 h/day; p = 0.003). There were minor changes in diet during lockdown. The most significant variables influencing both delta BMI and waist/height ratio increase were hours devoted to SB during lockdown and differences in mild and moderate PA before and after lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents showed a worsening of obesity during lockdown, with males mainly affected, mainly due to a reduced mild PA and increased hours spent in SB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Pediatric Obesity/physiopathology , Physical Distancing , Weight Gain , Adolescent , Age Factors , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Diet/adverse effects , Exercise , Female , Humans , Male , Pediatric Obesity/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior , Sex Factors , Time Factors
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(7)2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1299434

ABSTRACT

The conformational variation of the viral capsid structure plays an essential role both for the environmental resistance and acid nuclear release during cellular infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate how capsid rearrangement in engineered phages of M13 protects viral DNA and peptide bonds from damage induced by UV-C radiation. From in silico 3D modelling analysis, two M13 engineered phage clones, namely P9b and 12III1, were chosen for (i) chemical features of amino acids sequences, (ii) rearrangements in the secondary structure of their pVIII proteins and (iii) in turn the interactions involved in phage capsid. Then, their resistance to UV-C radiation and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was compared to M13 wild-type vector (pC89) without peptide insert. Results showed that both the phage clones acquired an advantage against direct radiation damage, due to a reorganization of interactions in the capsid for an increase of H-bond and steric interactions. However, only P9b had an increase in resistance against H2O2. These results could help to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the stability of new virus variants, also providing quick and necessary information to develop effective protocols in the virus inactivation for human activities, such as safety foods and animal-derived materials.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophage M13/radiation effects , Capsid Proteins/chemistry , Radiation Tolerance , Ultraviolet Rays , Bacteriophage M13/chemistry , Bacteriophage M13/drug effects , Drug Resistance, Viral , Hydrogen Peroxide/toxicity , Protein Domains
11.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 1(2): e80-e88, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284648

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Housing characteristics and neighbourhood context are considered risk factors for COVID-19 mortality among older adults. The aim of this study was to investigate how individual-level housing and neighbourhood characteristics are associated with COVID-19 mortality in older adults. METHODS: For this population-based, observational study, we used data from the cause-of-death register held by the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare to identify recorded COVID-19 mortality and mortality from other causes among individuals (aged ≥70 years) in Stockholm county, Sweden, between March 12 and May 8, 2020. This information was linked to population-register data from December, 2019, including socioeconomic, demographic, and residential characteristics. We ran Cox proportional hazards regressions for the risk of dying from COVID-19 and from all other causes. The independent variables were area (m2) per individual in the household, the age structure of the household, type of housing, confirmed cases of COVID-19 in the borough, and neighbourhood population density. All models were adjusted for individual age, sex, country of birth, income, and education. FINDINGS: Of 279 961 individuals identified to be aged 70 years or older on March 12, 2020, and residing in Stockholm in December, 2019, 274 712 met the eligibility criteria and were included in the study population. Between March 12 and May 8, 2020, 3386 deaths occurred, of which 1301 were reported as COVID-19 deaths. In fully adjusted models, household and neighbourhood characteristics were independently associated with COVID-19 mortality among older adults. Compared with living in a household with individuals aged 66 years or older, living with someone of working age (<66 years) was associated with increased COVID-19 mortality (hazard ratio 1·6; 95% CI 1·3-2·0). Living in a care home was associated with an increased risk of COVID-19 mortality (4·1; 3·5-4·9) compared with living in independent housing. Living in neighbourhoods with the highest population density (≥5000 individuals per km2) was associated with higher COVID-19 mortality (1·7; 1·1-2·4) compared with living in the least densely populated neighbourhoods (0 to <150 individuals per km2). INTERPRETATION: Close exposure to working-age household members and neighbours is associated with increased COVID-19 mortality among older adults. Similarly, living in a care home is associated with increased mortality, potentially through exposure to visitors and care workers, but also due to poor underlying health among care-home residents. These factors should be considered when developing strategies to protect this group. FUNDING: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE), Swedish Foundation for Humanities and Social Sciences.

12.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 59(7): 1315-1322, 2021 Jun 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278216

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are characterized by an excessive production of inflammatory cytokines. Activated monocytes secrete high levels of cytokines. Human monocytes are divided into three major populations: conventional (CD14posCD16neg), non-classical (CD14dimCD16pos), and intermediate (CD14posCD16pos) monocytes. The aim of this study was to analyze whether the distribution of conventional (CD16neg) and CD16pos monocytes is different in patients with COVID-19 and whether the variations could be predictive of the outcome of the disease. METHODS: We performed a prospective study on 390 consecutive patients referred to the Emergency Unit, with a proven diagnosis of SARS-CoV 2 infection by RT-PCR. Using the CytoDiff™ reagent, an automated routine leukocyte differential, we quantified CD16neg and CD16pos monocytes. RESULTS: In the entire population, median CD16neg and CD16pos monocyte levels (0.398 and 0.054×109/L, respectively) were in the normal range [(0.3-0.7×109/L) and (0.015-0.065×109/L), respectively], but the 35 patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) had a significantly (p<0.001) lower CD16pos monocyte count (0.018 × 109/L) in comparison to the 70 patients who were discharged (0.064 × 109/L) or were hospitalized in conventional units (0.058 × 109/L). By ROC curve analysis, the ratio [absolute neutrophil count/CD16pos monocyte count] was highly discriminant to identify patients requiring ICU hospitalization: with a cut-off 193.1, the sensitivity and the specificity were 74.3 and 81.8%, respectively (area under the curve=0.817). CONCLUSIONS: Quantification of CD16pos monocytes and the ratio [absolute neutrophil count/CD16pos monocyte count] could constitute a marker of the severity of disease in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Monocytes/cytology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Leukocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/classification , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
13.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 47(9): 3001-3007, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276735

ABSTRACT

AIM: The aim of this study was to clarify the physical and mental burden of the COIVD-19 pandemic on obstetricians and gynecologists in Japan and to identify factors that increase the burden of their psychological stress. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was sent to obstetricians and gynecologists in Japan via email and social media to collect voluntary responses. This survey was conducted from September 1 to 30, 2020. RESULTS: A total of 852 valid responses were included in the analysis; 76% (644) of the physicians felt that the COVID-19 pandemic caused them physical and mental stress equal to or greater than the most severe disaster they had ever experienced. Physicians who reported high mental and physical stress were more likely to be in areas with high numbers of infected patients (odds ratio (OR) 1.571, p = 0.012). Physicians experienced great stress to the point of wearing heavy personal protective equipment during routine vaginal deliveries by mothers with no COVID-19 symptoms. This trend was markedly pronounced for physicians working in regions with fewer cases of COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Obstetricians and gynecologists who reported high mental and physical stress were more likely to be in areas with high numbers of infected patients. One potential reason for this may be that they were required to wear more personal protective equipment than necessary. Infection control methods that ensure the safety of obstetricians and gynecologists while not causing unnecessary physical or psychological stress are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
14.
J Adv Nurs ; 77(10): 4226-4233, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276679

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Aim of this study is to better understand the role of nurses' professional judgment in nurse staffing systems. DESIGN: Qualitative comparative case study design of nurse staffing systems in England and Wales. METHODS: Data will be collected through a variety of sources: individual interviews, observations of relevant meetings and analysis of key documents. Ethical approval for the study was granted in August 2020 from The Healthcare Research Ethics Committee (SREC reference: REC741). Data generation will be informed by science and technology studies and practice theories. DISCUSSION: Ensuring adequate numbers of nurses are available to care for patients in response to shifting demand is an international policy priority. Emerging evidence on the use of formal workforce planning methodologies across the developed world highlights both the centrality of nurses' professional judgement in nurse staffing methodologies and the urgent need for theoretically informed research to better understand and conceptualise its contribution to decision-making. This study is designed to address this gap in understanding. It takes advantage of nurses' experiences of managing the service and staffing impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic and differences in strategic approaches to nurse staffing systems between England and Wales. IMPACT: The research will: make visible the knowledge and skills that underpin professional judgement in nurse staffing decisions and provide a conceptual language with which to articulate this; lay the foundations for evidence-based programmes of nurse education and continuing professional development; furnish the evidence to inform the development of nurse-led decision support tools to augment professional judgement; and generate wider insights into the effectiveness of nurse staffing systems in practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Humans , Pandemics , Personnel Staffing and Scheduling , SARS-CoV-2 , Workforce
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 301: 113978, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275647

ABSTRACT

The aim was to examine the psychological effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic on pregnant women, as well as the factors influencing these effects. The study design was cross-sectional and the participants were 200 pregnant women. The first group called the Pandemic Group (PG) included 100 women who were evaluated with psychological assessment instruments during the COVID-19 pandemic. The second group titled Pre-Pandemic Group (PPG) consisted of 100 women who were evaluated prior to the pandemic. Perceived stress, prenatal concerns and psychopathological symptoms were evaluated and compared. Pandemic Group scored significantly higher than Pre-Pandemic Group in the depression dimension of the SCL-90, in the phobic anxiety dimension, and in the Perceived Stress Scale. In addition, insomnia, along with having recently suffered the loss of a loved one explained 25% of the score variance in the depression dimension of the SCL-90. Insomnia also explained 13% of the variance of the results found in the Perceived Stress Scale. The fear of contagion by COVID-19 increased the scores obtained in the phobic anxiety dimension, explaining 11% of the variance. Thus, the COVID-19 pandemic could produce an increase in psychopathological symptomatology and stress, which can lead to negatively affecting pregnant women's mental health.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/epidemiology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/psychology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/psychology , Spain/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 666442, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268317

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between psychological distress and taste and sense of smell dysfunctions on healthcare workers (HCW) who contracted the COVID-19 infection in the midst of the disease outbreak. Reports of sudden loss of taste and smell which persist even after recovery from COVID-19 infection are increasingly recognized as critical symptoms for COVID-19 infections. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study on COVID-19 HCW (N = 104) who adhered to respond to a phone semistructured interview addressing the virus symptoms and associated psychological distress. Data were collected from June to September 2020. Findings confirm the association between experienced taste/olfactory loss and emotional distress and suggest that dysfunctions of taste and smell correlate positively with anxiety and depression. Furthermore, their psychological impact tends to persist even after the recovery from the disease, suggesting the need for appropriate psychological interventions to prevent people from developing more serious or long-lasting psychological disorders and, as far as HCW, to reduce the risk of work-related distress.


Subject(s)
Ageusia , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Smell , Taste
17.
J Infect ; 83(2): e18-e19, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1267754

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus infects children but, contrary to other respiratory viruses, children tend to be asymptomatic or to have less symptoms than adults and are rarely the index case in household transmission chains. The aim of this study was to compare the relative viral loads in nasopharyngeal samples from children aged 0 to 17 years with those of an adult population. We selected 126 positive nasopharyngeal samples from children. Relative viral loads were measured by RT-PCR and the comparative ∆Ct method using primers and probes targeting the viral gene E and the human RNAseP. Relative viral loads were significantly lower in the children population than in the adult one.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Humans , Nasopharynx , Serologic Tests , Viral Load
18.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 633539, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266656

ABSTRACT

Background: Lung injury is a common condition among hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, whether lung ultrasound (LUS) score predicts all-cause mortality in patients with COVID-19 is unknown. The aim of the present study was to explore the predictive value of lung ultrasound score for mortality in patients with COVID-19. Methods: Patients with COVID-19 who underwent lung ultrasound were prospectively enrolled from three hospitals in Wuhan, China between February 2020 and March 2020. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected from digital patient records. Lung ultrasound scores were analyzed offline by two observers. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Results: Of the 402 patients, 318 (79.1%) had abnormal lung ultrasound. Compared with survivors (n = 360), non-survivors (n = 42) presented with more B2 lines, pleural line abnormalities, pulmonary consolidation, and pleural effusion (all p < 0.05). Moreover, non-survivors had higher global and anterolateral lung ultrasound score than survivors. In the receiver operating characteristic analysis, areas under the curve were 0.936 and 0.913 for global and anterolateral lung ultrasound score, respectively. A cutoff value of 15 for global lung ultrasound score had a sensitivity of 92.9% and specificity of 85.3%, and 9 for anterolateral score had a sensitivity of 88.1% and specificity of 83.3% for prediction of death. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that both global and anterolateral scores were strong predictors of death (both p < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that global lung ultrasound score was an independent predictor (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.16; p = 0.03) of death together with age, male sex, C-reactive protein, and creatine kinase-myocardial band. Conclusion: Lung ultrasound score as a semiquantitative tool can be easily measured by bedside lung ultrasound. It is a powerful predictor of in-hospital mortality and may play a crucial role in risk stratification of patients with COVID-19.

19.
J Headache Pain ; 22(1): 55, 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266470

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation has an important role in the pathophysiology of migraine, which is a complex neuro-glio-vascular disorder. The main aim of this review is to highlight findings of cortical spreading depolarization (CSD)-induced neuroinflammatory signaling in brain parenchyma from the inflammasome perspective. In addition, we discuss the limited data of the contribution of inflammasomes to other aspects of migraine pathophysiology, foremost the activation of the trigeminovascular system and thereby the generation of migraine pain. MAIN BODY: Inflammasomes are signaling multiprotein complexes and key components of the innate immune system. Their activation causes the production of inflammatory cytokines that can stimulate trigeminal neurons and are thus relevant to the generation of migraine pain. The contribution of inflammasome activation to pain signaling has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) is the best characterized inflammasome and there is emerging evidence of its role in a variety of inflammatory pain conditions, including migraine. In this review, we discuss, from an inflammasome point of view, cortical spreading depolarization (CSD)-induced neuroinflammatory signaling in brain parenchyma, the connection with genetic factors that make the brain vulnerable to CSD, and the relation of the inflammasome with diseases that are co-morbid with migraine, including stroke, epilepsy, and the possible links with COVID-19 infection. CONCLUSION: Neuroinflammatory pathways, specifically those involving inflammasome proteins, seem promising candidates as treatment targets, and perhaps even biomarkers, in migraine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Migraine Disorders , Humans , Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 8: 2333794X211022250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262443

ABSTRACT

Many children needing pediatric intensive care units care require inotropes, which are started peripherally prior to securing a central venous access. However, many hospitals in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) may not have access to central lines and the vasoactive medications are frequently given through a peripheral venous access. Aim: The aim of our study was to describe the role of peripheral vasoactive inotropes in children. Methods: Children requiring peripheral vasoactive medications were included in this study. We retrospectively collected data at 2 time points on use and complications of peripheral vasoactive medications. Results: Eighty-four children (51 pre-COVID era and 33 COVID pandemic) received peripheral vasoactive medications. Only 3% of children (3/84) developed extravasation injury, all of whom recovered completely. Conclusions: Results from our study suggest that extravasation injury due to peripheral inotrope infusion is very low (3%) and it may be safely administered in children at a diluted concentration.

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