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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 14: 2113-2119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808755

ABSTRACT

AIM: The global impact of COVID-19 on mental health increases from time to time. Several studies show that depression is highly prevalent among quarantined individuals. COVID-19 is a pandemic with a rapidly increasing incidence of infections and deaths. People are depressed and psychologically overwhelmed by the illness and possible loss of their friends and loved ones. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals in Tigrai treatment center, Tigrai, Ethiopia, 2020. METHODS: A multicenter Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed among individuals in the Tigrai quarantine centers. A simple random sampling technique was used between April and October 2020 until an adequate sample size was reached. Depression was assessed by using the depression, anxiety, and stress scale (DASS). Epi data manager version 4.4 was used to enter data and data was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Logistic regression was carried out and an odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was computed to identify factors associated with depression. A P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant and the strength of the association was presented by an odds ratio of 95% CI. RESULTS: The finding of the present study on the prevalence of depression among quarantined individuals was 18.1 with 95% CI (14.8-22.9). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed and factors such as being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION: The prevalence of depression symptoms among quarantined individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic was 18.1%. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, being female, duration of quarantine, unemployment, and having perceived stigma were significantly associated with depression. So, clinicians, mental health professionals, and policymakers should work together to address the problem.

2.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 1949-1960, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793375

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the worst global crisis after the Second World War. Since no successful treatment and vaccine have been reported, efforts to enhance the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of the public, especially the high-risk groups, are critical to manage COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, this study aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice towards COVID-19 among patients with chronic disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 404 chronic disease patients from March 02 to April 10, 2020, at Addis Zemen Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. Both bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses with a 95% confidence interval were fitted to identify factors associated with poor knowledge and practice towards COVID-19. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was used to determine the magnitude of the association between the outcome and independent variables. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants was 56.5±13.5. The prevalence of poor knowledge and poor practice was 33.9% and 47.3%, respectively. Forty-one percent of the participants perceived that avoiding of attending a crowded population is very difficult. Age (AOR=1.05, (95% CI (1.01-1.08)), educational status of "can't read and write" (AOR=7.1, 95% CI (1.58-31.93)), rural residence (AOR=19.0, 95% CI (6.87-52.66)) and monthly income (AOR=0.8, 95% CI (0.79-0.89)) were significantly associated with poor knowledge. Being unmarried (AOR=3.9, 95% CI (1.47-10.58)), cannot read and write (AOR=2.7, 95% CI (1.03-7.29)), can read and write (AOR=3.5, 95% CI (1.48-8.38)), rural residence (AOR=2.7, 95% CI (1.09-6.70)), income of <7252 Ethiopian birr (AOR=2.3, 95% CI (1.20-4.15)) and poor knowledge (AOR=8.6, 95% CI (3.81-19.45)) were significantly associated with poor practice. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of poor knowledge and poor practice was high. Leaflets prepared in local languages should be administered and health professionals should provide detailed information about COVID-19 to their patients.

3.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S99-S105, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792216

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization has declared severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) as a pandemic. The interventions employed by various health authorities in combating the infection may help in eliminating the threat; however, they have long-term cognitive and mental health effects on the population. AIMS: The primary objective was to assess the prevalent concerns and coping strategies and perspectives in persons suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection under institutional quarantine in India during the period from April 2020 to May 2020. SETTING AND DESIGN: Its a cross-sectional observational study conducted in the National Cancer Institute, Jhajjar, India. METHODOLOGY: After ethical clearance, convenience sampling was done. Relevant demographic details were obtained. Health-care professionally administered questionnaire to assess psychological concerns and coping mechanisms. All statistics are deemed to be descriptive only. RESULTS: The most common physical concern was fever seen in 37% of respondents, followed by cough in 31% and sore throat in 29%. In terms of emotional concerns, 55.3% of respondents were worried and 43% were anxious and 33% were sad. About 80.6% of participants selected support from family and friends helped them cope during the institutional quarantine. 57% maintained a daily routine, 70% selected praying, and 45% used music as a coping strategy. Only 2% felt that they were unable to cope. CONCLUSION: It highlights that the psychological impact of illness on affected individuals should not be overlooked as it may have the potential to cause major psychiatric morbidity. It also provides a crucial assessment of their coping mechanisms.

4.
Pak J Med Sci ; 36(COVID19-S4): S49-S56, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726825

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge, awareness and practice level of health care workers towards Corona Virus disease - 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted by administering a well-structured questionnaire comprising of three sections including knowledge, attitude and practice amongst health care professionals in various hospitals and clinics, over a duration of two months 'Feb-March' 2020. The data from 810 participants were collected manually as well as through online survey registered on www.surveys.google.com, using a validated questionnaire. The questionnaire comprised of three sections assessing knowledge, awareness and practice of participants. The descriptive analysis was carried out for demographics and dependent variables with statistical program for social sciences. Spearman test was used to detect any relationship between the health care professional response with respect to their gender and level of education. A p value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: More than half (57.2%) of the health care professionals were working in a hospital setting. Fifty two percent of health care professionals had awareness and 72% were practicing adequate measures to combat COVID-19. The majority (81.9%) believed that the sign and symptoms are similar to a common flu and the main strata of population that could be affected by COVID-19 are elderly (79%). Seventy three percent of participants did not attend any lecture, workshop or seminar on COVID-19 for awareness purpose. Sixty seven percent of health care professionals were practicing universal precaution for infection control and 57.4% were using sodium hypochlorite as a surface disinfectant in dental surgeries. There was no significant relationship (p > 0.05) between the health care professionals' responses with gender and their education level. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that the vast majority of the health care professionals have adequate knowledge and awareness related to COVID-19. However some aspects of practice of health care professionals were found to be deficient including, following CDC guidelines during patient care, acquiring verified knowledge related to COVID-19, disinfection protocol and the use of N-95 mask. Mandatory Continued professional development programs including lectures and workshops on COVID-19 for all health care professionals are the need of the hour, to manage the pandemic and limiting the morbidity and mortality related to it.

5.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e24893, 2021 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574527

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal adherence to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is prevalent in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and associated with increased risk of relapse. Rapid uptake of personal technology makes mobile health (mHealth) an attractive platform to promote adherence. OBJECTIVE: Study objectives were to examine access to mobile technology and preferences for an mHealth intervention to improve medication adherence in pediatric ALL. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was administered in oncology clinic to parents of children with ALL as well as adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with ALL receiving maintenance chemotherapy. RESULTS: A total of 49 parents (median age [IQR] 39 [33-42] years; female 76% [37/49]) and 15 patients (median age [IQR] 17 [16-19]; male 80% [12/15]) participated. All parents and AYAs owned electronic tablets, smartphones, or both. Parents' most endorsed mHealth app features included a list of medications (71%, 35/49), information about 6-MP (71%, 35/49), refill reminders (71%, 35/49), and reminders to take 6-MP (71%, 35/49). AYAs' most endorsed features included refill reminders (73%, 11/15), reminders to take 6-MP (73%, 11/15), and tracking 6-MP (73%, 11/15). CONCLUSIONS: Parents and AYAs reported ubiquitous access to mobile technology and strong interest in multiple adherence-specific mHealth app features. Parents and AYAs provided valuable insight into preferred features for a multifunctional behavioral intervention (mHealth app) to promote medication adherence in pediatric ALL.


Subject(s)
Behavior Therapy/methods , Medication Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Technology/methods , Telemedicine/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Mobile Applications/statistics & numerical data , Smartphone , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
J Affect Disord ; 292: 89-94, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between perceived stress and depression among medical students and the mediating role of insomnia in this relationship during the COVID-19 pandemic in China. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to April 2020 in medical university. Levels of perceived stress, insomnia and depression were measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and Patient Health Questionnaire 9 (PHQ-9). The descriptive analyses of the demographic characteristics and correlation analyses of the three variables were calculated. The significance of the mediation effect was obtained using a bootstrap approach with SPSS PROCESS macro. RESULTS: The mean age of medical students was 21.46 years (SD=2.50). Of these medical students, 10,185 (34.3%) were male and 19,478 (65.7%) were female. Perceived stress was significantly associated with depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). Insomnia mediated the association between perceived stress and depression (ß=0.513, P < 0.001). The results of the non-parametric bootstrapping method confirmed the significance of the indirect effect of perceived stress through insomnia (95% bootstrap CI =0.137, 0.149). The indirect effect of insomnia accounted for 44.13% of the total variance in depression. CONCLUSIONS: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the interactive mechanisms underlying perceived stress and depression, and elucidating the mediating effects of insomnia on the association. This research provides a useful theoretical and methodological approach for prevention of depression in medical students. Findings from this study indicated that it may be effective to reduce depression among medical students by improving sleep quality and easing perceived stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Students, Medical , Adult , Anxiety , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e1870-e1877, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455249

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) surface and air contamination during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in London. METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study in a multisite London hospital. Air and surface samples were collected from 7 clinical areas occupied by patients with COVID-19 and a public area of the hospital. Three or four 1.0-m3 air samples were collected in each area using an active air sampler. Surface samples were collected by swabbing items in the immediate vicinity of each air sample. SARS-CoV-2 was detected using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and viral culture; the limit of detection for culturing SARS-CoV-2 from surfaces was determined. RESULTS: Viral RNA was detected on 114 of 218 (52.3%) surfaces and in 14 of 31 (38.7%) air samples, but no virus was cultured. Viral RNA was more likely to be found in areas immediately occupied by COVID-19 patients than in other areas (67 of 105 [63.8%] vs 29 of 64 [45.3%]; odds ratio, 0.5; 95% confidence interval, 0.2-0.9; P = .025, χ2 test). The high PCR cycle threshold value for all samples (>30) indicated that the virus would not be culturable. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of extensive viral RNA contamination of surfaces and air across a range of acute healthcare settings in the absence of cultured virus underlines the potential risk from environmental contamination in managing COVID-19 and the need for effective use of personal protective equipment, physical distancing, and hand/surface hygiene.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , London/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(6): e1321-e1328, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412386

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Zambia have become infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, SARS-CoV-2 prevalence among HCWs is not known in Zambia. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional SARS-CoV-2 prevalence survey among Zambian HCWs in 20 health facilities in 6 districts in July 2020. Participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for health facility clustering, were calculated for each test separately, and a combined measure for those who had PCR and ELISA was performed. RESULTS: In total, 660 HCWs participated in the study, with 450 (68.2%) providing a nasopharyngeal swab for PCR and 575 (87.1%) providing a blood specimen for ELISA. Sixty-six percent of participants were females, and median age was 31.5 years (interquartile range, 26.2-39.8). The overall prevalence of the combined measure was 9.3% (95% CI, 3.8%-14.7%). PCR-positive prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 6.6% (95% CI, 2.0%-11.1%), and ELISA-positive prevalence was 2.2% (95% CI, .5%-3.9%). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 prevalence among HCWs was similar to a population-based estimate (10.6%) during a period of community transmission in Zambia. Public health measures such as establishing COVID-19 treatment centers before the first cases, screening for COVID-19 symptoms among patients who access health facilities, infection prevention and control trainings, and targeted distribution of personal protective equipment based on exposure risk might have prevented increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission among Zambian HCWs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Prevalence , Zambia
9.
J Glob Infect Dis ; 13(1): 33-35, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1383957

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The nonzoonotic (nonsevere acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)/Middle East respiratory syndrome) human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are usually considered as the causative agent for acute respiratory infection. We studied the characteristics and outcome of children with non-SARS HCoV acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study from a tertiary care teaching hospital in eastern India. RESULTS: Of 137 samples tested positive for respiratory viruses, 13 were due to HCoV (7 boys, median age: 2 years). Cough was the most common symptom, followed by breathing difficulty and fever. An underlying comorbid condition present in 38.4%. Co-infection with other viruses was seen in 69% of cases. Chest radiograph was abnormal in 69.3% of children. Antibiotics were administered in 53.8%. The median length of hospitalization was 5 d, irrespective of underlying disease. There was no mortality. CONCLUSIONS: HCoV is an uncommon but increasingly recognized cause of ALRI in hospitalized children. No severe illness was found in children with underlying comorbidities. This study underscores the importance of HCoV in causation of childhood ALRI, necessitating a surveillance system in India.

11.
Lancet ; 396(10259): 1335-1344, 2020 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337016

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many patients receiving dialysis in the USA share the socioeconomic characteristics of underserved communities, and undergo routine monthly laboratory testing, facilitating a practical, unbiased, and repeatable assessment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, in partnership with a central laboratory that receives samples from approximately 1300 dialysis facilities across the USA, we tested the remainder plasma of 28 503 randomly selected adult patients receiving dialysis in July, 2020, using a spike protein receptor binding domain total antibody chemiluminescence assay (100% sensitivity, 99·8% specificity). We extracted data on age, sex, race and ethnicity, and residence and facility ZIP codes from the anonymised electronic health records, linking patient-level residence data with cumulative and daily cases and deaths per 100 000 population and with nasal swab test positivity rates. We standardised prevalence estimates according to the overall US dialysis and adult population, and present estimates for four prespecified strata (age, sex, region, and race and ethnicity). FINDINGS: The sampled population had similar age, sex, and race and ethnicity distribution to the US dialysis population, with a higher proportion of older people, men, and people living in majority Black and Hispanic neighbourhoods than in the US adult population. Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 was 8·0% (95% CI 7·7-8·4) in the sample, 8·3% (8·0-8·6) when standardised to the US dialysis population, and 9·3% (8·8-9·9) when standardised to the US adult population. When standardised to the US dialysis population, seroprevalence ranged from 3·5% (3·1-3·9) in the west to 27·2% (25·9-28·5) in the northeast. Comparing seroprevalent and case counts per 100 000 population, we found that 9·2% (8·7-9·8) of seropositive patients were diagnosed. When compared with other measures of SARS-CoV-2 spread, seroprevalence correlated best with deaths per 100 000 population (Spearman's ρ=0·77). Residents of non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic neighbourhoods experienced higher odds of seropositivity (odds ratio 3·9 [95% CI 3·4-4·6] and 2·3 [1·9-2·6], respectively) compared with residents of predominantly non-Hispanic white neighbourhoods. Residents of neighbourhoods in the highest population density quintile experienced increased odds of seropositivity (10·3 [8·7-12·2]) compared with residents of the lowest density quintile. County mobility restrictions that reduced workplace visits by at least 5% in early March, 2020, were associated with lower odds of seropositivity in July, 2020 (0·4 [0·3-0·5]) when compared with a reduction of less than 5%. INTERPRETATION: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, fewer than 10% of the US adult population formed antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, and fewer than 10% of those with antibodies were diagnosed. Public health efforts to limit SARS-CoV-2 spread need to especially target racial and ethnic minority and densely populated communities. FUNDING: Ascend Clinical Laboratories.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
Future Oncol ; 17(23): 3077-3085, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328057

ABSTRACT

Aim: To assess the perception of telehealth visits among a multiracial cancer population during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at outpatient cancer clinics in Hawaii between March and August 2020. Patients were invited to participate in the survey either by phone or email. Results: Of the 212 survey respondents, 61.3% were Asian, 23.6% were White and 15.1% were Native Hawaiians or Pacific Islanders. Asians, Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders were less likely to desire future telehealth visits compared with Whites. Predictors with regard to preferring future telehealth visits included lower income and hematopoietic cancers. Conclusion: The authors found racial differences in preference for telehealth. Future studies aimed at overcoming these racial disparities are needed to provide equitable oncology care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status Disparities , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/ethnology , Perception , Quality of Health Care
13.
Lancet Healthy Longev ; 2(3): e129-e142, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have occurred in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) worldwide, but the reasons why some facilities are particularly vulnerable to outbreaks are poorly understood. We aimed to identify factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and outbreaks among staff and residents in LTCFs. METHODS: We did a national cross-sectional survey of all LTCFs providing dementia care or care to adults aged 65 years or older in England between May 26 and June 19, 2020. The survey collected data from managers of eligible LTCFs on LTCF characteristics, staffing factors, the use of disease control measures, and the number of confirmed cases of infection among staff and residents in each LTCF. Survey responses were linked to individual-level SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test results obtained through the national testing programme in England between April 30 and June 13, 2020. The primary outcome was the weighted period prevalence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections in residents and staff reported via the survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with infection in staff and residents, an outbreak (defined as at least one case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a resident or staff member), and a large outbreak (defined as LTCFs with more than a third of the total number of residents and staff combined testing positive, or with >20 residents and staff combined testing positive) using data from the survey and from the linked survey-test dataset. FINDINGS: 9081 eligible wLTCFs were identified, of which 5126 (56·4%) participated in the survey, providing data on 160 033 residents and 248 594 staff members. The weighted period prevalence of infection was 10·5% (95% CI 9·9-11·1) in residents and 3·8% (3·4-4·2) in staff members. 2724 (53·1%) LTCFs reported outbreaks, and 469 (9·1%) LTCFs reported large outbreaks. The odds of SARS-CoV-2 infection in residents (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0·80 [95% CI 0·75-0·86], p<0·0001) and staff (0·70 [0·65-0·77], p<0·0001), and of large outbreaks (0·59 [0·38-0·93], p=0·024) were significantly lower in LTCFs that paid staff statutory sick pay compared with those that did not. Each one unit increase in the staff-to-bed ratio was associated with a reduced odds of infection in residents (0·82 [0·78-0·87], p<0·0001) and staff (0·63 [0·59-0·68], p<0·0001. The odds of infection in residents (1·30 [1·23-1·37], p<0·0001) and staff (1·20 [1·13-1·29], p<0·0001), and of outbreaks (2·56 [1·94-3·49], p<0·0001) were significantly higher in LTCFs in which staff often or always cared for both infected or uninfected residents compared with those that cohorted staff with either infected or uninfected residents. Significantly increased odds of infection in residents (1·01 [1·01-1·01], p<0·0001) and staff (1·00 [1·00-1·01], p=0·0005), and of outbreaks (1·08 [1·05-1·10], p<0·0001) were associated with each one unit increase in the number of new admissions to the LTCF relative to baseline (March 1, 2020). The odds of infection in residents (1·19 [1·12-1·26], p<0·0001) and staff (1·19 [1·10-1·29], p<0·0001), and of large outbreaks (1·65 [1·07-2·54], p=0·024) were significantly higher in LTCFs that were for profit versus those that were not for profit. Frequent employment of agency nurses or carers was associated with a significantly increased odds of infection in residents (aOR 1·65 [1·56-1·74], p<0·0001) and staff (1·85 [1·72-1·98], p<0·0001), and of outbreaks (2·33 [1·72-3·16], p<0·0001) and large outbreaks (2·42 [1·67-3·51], p<0·0001) compared with no employment of agency nurses or carers. Compared with LTCFs that did not report difficulties in isolating residents, those that did had significantly higher odds of infection in residents (1·33 [1·28-1·38], p<0·0001) and staff (1·48 [1·41-1·56], p<0·0001), and of outbreaks (1·84 [1·48-2·30], p<0·0001) and large outbreaks (1·62 [1·24-2·11], p=0·0004). INTERPRETATION: Half of LTCFs had no cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the first wave of the pandemic. Reduced transmission from staff is associated with adequate sick pay, minimal use of agency staff, an increased staff-to-bed ratio, and staff cohorting with either infected or uninfected residents. Increased transmission from residents is associated with an increased number of new admissions to the facility and poor compliance with isolation procedures. FUNDING: UK Government Department of Health and Social Care.

14.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2385-2395, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278259

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 vaccination is a safe and effective approach to control the pandemic and to prevent its associated morbidity and mortality. To our knowledge, there is no study conducted to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among pregnant women in Ethiopia. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and its associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was employed from January 1 up to 30, 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 396 study participants. A structured and face-to-face interview was used to collect data. Data were entered into Epi-data version 4.2.0 and exported to SPSS version 23 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. P values <0.05 result were considered as a statistically significant association. RESULTS: The COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was found to be 70.7% (95% CI, 66.7%-74.7%). Maternal age (34-41) years [AOR=1.464, (95% CI; 1.218-5.129)], primary maternal educational status [AOR=3.476, (95% CI; 1.520-7.947), good knowledge [AOR=5.946, (95% CI; 3.147-7.065)], and good practice [AOR =9.15, (95% CI; 8.734-12.189)] of pregnant women towards COVID-19 and its preventive measures were factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 vaccine acceptance was found to be 70.9%. Maternal age (34-41) years, primary maternal educational status, good knowledge, and good practice of pregnant women towards COVID-19 and its preventive measures were factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Health care workers should provide health education to pregnant women to increase their knowledge about the diseases and disseminate leaflets regarding COVID-19 preventive measures. Moreover, before initiation of COVID-19 vaccine administration to pregnant women they must promote the safety and effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccine.

15.
Isr J Health Policy Res ; 10(1): 36, 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1277972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak, (March 1 - June 15, 2020) citizens expressed sympathy and gratitude towards medical staff through the media, while the entire hospital staff faced the same danger of infection as other citizens. This might have made hospital staff develop sympathy, understanding for the patients` and family's needs, and a better communication. OBJECTIVES: To investigate if there is a relation between the mutual change in attitude between citizens and hospital staff during the first COVID-19 outbreak, and the incidence of violence cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a cross sectional study conducted at Rambam Medical Center (RMC) in Israel. The data about the number of violence cases were collected from the security department, and the data about hospital wards activity were collected from the hospital Business Intelligence (BI) software. The number of violence cases in relation to the number of Emergency Department (ED) visits, admissions to hospital wards, and length of stay (LOS) were compared during the COVID-19 outbreak to the corresponding period in 2019 using the T- test. The difference in the incidence of violence between general population and people with a psychiatric or social disorder (like drug abuse and criminal background) in both periods were also compared using the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: During the first COVID-19 outbreak, there were 6 violence cases against medical staff out of 24,740 visits to the ED, vs. 21 cases out of 30,759 visits during the same periods in 2019 (P < 0.05). There were 19 violence cases in the whole hospital with 14,482 admissions in 2020 vs. 51 violence cases of 17,599 admissions in 2019 (P < 0.05). Violence against security guards in the entire hospital dropped from 20 to 11 cases, and in the set of the ED, from 13 to 4 cases in both periods respectively. A 20 % decrease in the number of visits to the ED, might have influenced the average LOS during the study period, 2020 compared to 2019 (4.4 + 0.45 vs. 5.4 + 0.36 h. (P < 0.001). The ratio of violence among general population vs. people with a psychiatric or social background revealed a non-significant change in both periods (P = 0.75 and P = 0.69) respectively. DISCUSSION: The COVID-19 outbreak supplied some evidence that a change in environmental conditions, trust, waiting time, personal attitude and communication might have reduced violence against hospital staff. CONCLUSIONS: Except for violence coming from patients with psychiatric or social disorders, most other violence cases might be reduced if the environment conditions and attitudes of both citizens and staff are improved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital , Workplace Violence/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Israel , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data
16.
Chest ; 160(3): 944-955, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Working in the ICU during the first COVID-19 wave was associated with high levels of mental health disorders. RESEARCH QUESTION: What are the mental health symptoms in health care providers (HCPs) facing the second wave? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study (October 30-December 1, 2020) was conducted in 16 ICUs during the second wave in France. HCPs completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (for post-traumatic stress disorder), and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. RESULTS: Of 1,203 HCPs, 845 responded (70%) (66% nursing staff, 32% medical staff, 2% other professionals); 487 (57.6%) had treated more than 10 new patients with COVID-19 in the previous week. Insomnia affected 320 (37.9%), and 7.7% were taking a psychotropic drug daily. Symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout were reported in 60.0% (95% CI, 56.6%-63.3%), 36.1% (95% CI, 32.9%-39.5%), 28.4% (95% CI, 25.4%-31.6%), and 45.1% (95% CI, 41.7%-48.5%) of respondents, respectively. Independent predictors of such symptoms included respondent characteristics (sex, profession, experience, personality traits), work organization (ability to rest and to care for family), and self-perceptions (fear of becoming infected or of infecting family and friends, feeling pressure related to the surge, intention to leave the ICU, lassitude, working conditions, feeling they had a high-risk profession, and "missing the clapping"). The number of patients with COVID-19 treated in the first wave or over the last week was not associated with symptoms of mental health disorders. INTERPRETATION: The prevalence of symptoms of mental health disorders is high in ICU HCPs managing the second COVID-19 surge. The highest tiers of hospital management urgently need to provide psychological support, peer-support groups, and a communication structure that ensure the well-being of HCPs.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care , Depression/epidemiology , Health Personnel/psychology , Mental Health , Physicians/psychology , Adult , Anxiety/etiology , Burnout, Professional/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/etiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence
17.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100349, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275073

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The social and physical environments in which people live affect the emergence, prevalence, and severity of both infectious and noninfectious diseases. There are limited data on how such social determinants of health, including neighborhood socioeconomic conditions, affect the risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine how social determinants of health are associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 illness in hospitalized pregnant patients in New York during the global coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study evaluated all pregnant patients who delivered and had polymerase chain reaction testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 between March 15, 2020, and June 15, 2020, at 7 hospitals within Northwell Health, the largest academic health system in New York. During the study period, universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing protocols were implemented at all sites. Polymerase chain reaction testing was performed using nasopharyngeal swabs. Patients were excluded if the following variables were not available: polymerase chain reaction results, race, ethnicity, or zone improvement plan (ZIP) code of residence. Clinical data were obtained from the enterprise electronic health record system. For each patient, ZIP code was used as a proxy for neighborhood. Socioeconomic characteristics were determined by linking to ZIP code data from the United States Census Bureau's American Community Survey and the Internal Revenue Service's Statistics of Income Division. Specific variables of interest included mean persons per household, median household income, percent unemployment, and percent with less than high school education. Medical records were manually reviewed for all subjects with positive polymerase chain reaction test results to correctly identify symptomatic patients and then classify those subjects using the National Institutes of Health severity of illness categories. Classification was based on the highest severity of illness throughout gestation and not necessarily at the time of presentation for delivery. RESULTS: A total of 4873 patients were included in the study. The polymerase chain reaction test positivity rate was 11% (n=544). Among this group, 359 patients (66%) were asymptomatic or presymptomatic, 115 (21%) had mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019, and 70 (13%) had severe or critical coronavirus disease 2019. On multiple logistic regression modeling, pregnant patients who had a positive test result for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were more likely to be younger or of higher parity, belong to minoritized racial and ethnic groups, have public health insurance, have limited English proficiency, and reside in low-income neighborhoods with less educational attainment. On ordinal logit regression modeling, obesity, income and education were associated with coronavirus disease 2019 severity. CONCLUSION: Social and physical determinants of health play a role in determining the risk of infection. The severity of coronavirus disease 2019 illness was not associated with race or ethnicity but was associated with maternal obesity and neighborhood level characteristics such as educational attainment and household income.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , New York , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health , United States
18.
Med Lav ; 112(3): 241-249, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278862

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In March 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak a global pandemic. Healthcare professionals directly involved in diagnosing, treating and caring for patients with COVID-19 are at risk of developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the prevalence of PTSD among nurses working in a COVID hospital and evaluated associated factors. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted at Crema Hospital and the Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R) was administered. Data collection took place from July to September 2020, during which 275 questionnaires were distributed. RESULTS: Of the total sample, 39.88% received a provisional PTSD diagnosis deserving of further analysis. Nurses stated that they were predominantly overwhelmed by intrusive thoughts (M = 1.55). Working in the emergency department during the COVID-19 pandemic (OR=2.40; p=0.02), irregular work shifts (OR=5.41; p=0.01) and coming from a mental health ward (OR=3.80; p=0.02) increased the risk of receiving a provisional PTSD diagnosis. Our findings showed significantly higher IES-R scores among women than among men (p = 0.01). The activities that caused the most distress were related to technical skills required for managing ventilation and intubation devices. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study highlighted the presence of considerable psychological distress in the sample. There is an urgent need to monitor the short- and long-term consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic and implement early intervention measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nurses , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology
19.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; : 1-5, 2021 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270638

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the stigma associated with coronavirus disease - 2019 (COVID-19) among health care workers (HCWs) in Indonesia during the early phase of the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 hospitals across the country in March, 2020. A logistic regression was employed to assess the association between stigma and explanatory variables. RESULTS: In total, 288 HCWs were surveyed, of which 93.4% had never experienced any outbreaks. Approximately 21.9% of the respondents had stigma associated with COVID-19. HCWs who were doctors, had not participated in trainings related to COVID-19, worked in the capital of the province, worked at private hospitals, or worked at a hospital with COVID-19 triage protocols were likely to have no stigma associated with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The stigma associated with COVID-19 is relatively high among HCWs in the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Adequate dissemination of knowledge and adequate protection are necessary to reduce stigma among HCWs.

20.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 642784, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268311

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic could have major effects on already vulnerable individuals with psychiatric disorders. It is important to assess how different patient groups respond to stress related to the pandemic, and what additional factors influence it, including family-related stress, migration background, and sex. We conducted a survey in a sample of 294 psychiatric patients in a large outpatient clinic in Berlin, measuring level of distress in relation to COVID-19 lockdown as well as family-related distress. We also measured potential influencing factors such as media consumption and medical support. In the migration background group, we found that women had more lockdown related psychological distress than men. This was not apparent in those patients with a German background. We found that females were more strongly affected by family-related distress, particularly those with a migration background. People with PTSD were most strongly affected by family-related distress, whereas people with psychotic disorders and addiction reported the least distress. There were no effects of media consumption. There were no differences in ability to abide by the lockdown related restrictions across diagnoses. Our results support earlier findings on differential vulnerability of diagnostic groups to these stressors. Thus, clinicians can optimize treatment by taking family-related stressors into account particularly for females and people with a migrant background.

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