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1.
J Clin Med ; 10(1)2020 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753519

ABSTRACT

Candida species are common global opportunistic pathogens that could repeatedly and chronically cause oral mucosa infection and create an inflammatory environment, leading to organ dysfunction. Oral Candida infections may cause temporary or permanent damage to salivary glands, resulting in the destruction of acinar cells and the formation of scar tissue. Restricted function of the salivary glands leads to discomfort and diseases of the oral mucosa, such as dry mouth and associated infection. This narrative review attempts to summarize the anatomy and function of salivary glands, the associations between Candida and saliva, the effects of Candida infection on salivary glands, and the treatment strategies. Overall, clinicians should proactively manage Candida infections by educating patients on oral hygiene management for vulnerable populations, conducting frequent checks for a timely diagnosis, and providing an effective treatment plan.

2.
Langmuir ; 37(24): 7492-7502, 2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260916

ABSTRACT

One of the main protective measures against COVID-19's spread is the use of face masks. It is therefore of the utmost importance for face masks to be high functioning in terms of their filtration ability and comfort. Notwithstanding the prevalence of the commercial polypropylene face masks, its effectiveness is under contention, leaving vast room for improvement. During the pandemic, the use of at least one mask per day for each individual results in a massive number of masks that need to be safely disposed of. Fabricating biodegradable filters of high efficiency not only can protect individuals and save the environment but also can be sewed on reusable/washable cloth masks to reduce expenses. Wearing surgical masks for long periods of time, especially in hot regions, causes discomfort by irritating sensitive facial skin and warmed inhaled air. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of novel electrospun composites layers as face mask filters for protection against pathogens and tiny particulates. The combinatorial filter layers are made by integrating TiO2 nanotubes as fillers into chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) polymeric electrospun nanofibers as the outer layer. The other two filler-free layers, chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) and silk/poly(vinyl alcohol) as the middle and inner composite layers, respectively, were used for controlled protection, contamination prevention, and comfort for prolonged usage. The ASTM standards evaluation tests were adopted to evaluate the efficacy of the assembled filter, revealing high filtration efficiency compared to that of commercial surgical masks. The TiO2/Cs/PVA outer layer significantly reduced Staphylococcus aureus bacteria by 44.8% compared to the control, revealing the dual effect of TiO2 and chitosan toward the infectious bacterial colonies. Additionally, molecular dynamics calculations were used to assess the mechanical properties of the filter layers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Filtration , Masks , Nanofibers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Humans
3.
Oxf Med Case Reports ; 2021(2): omaa142, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238225

ABSTRACT

A 31-year- old male with no comorbidities presented with chest discomfort and shortness of breath following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Primary viral myocarditis was confirmed with the aid of cardiac biomarkers and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. Herein, we detail his clinical presentation, management and highlight the role of CMR in viral myocarditis.

4.
Logoped Phoniatr Vocol ; : 1-8, 2021 May 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, professional caregivers caring for the elderly may experience more vocal tract problems in addition to regular high vocal demands while wearing face masks/coverings. METHODS AND PARTICIPANTS: Vocal tract discomfort (VTD) was assessed in 64 caregivers in one home for the elderly (64% participation rate) in June 2020 using the German version of the VTD scale. RESULTS: More than one-half of the participating caregivers experienced VTD, described mostly as dryness, irritability, and tightness. Approximately, 80% reported that sensations were not perceived before enhanced infection prevention standards were implemented. CONCLUSIONS: Among caregivers caring for the elderly during the COVID-19 pandemic, special care should be focused on the voice and vocal tract well-being.

5.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 3133-3142, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206828

ABSTRACT

PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases were searched to identify studies published up to December 2020 on the involvement of urinary and male genital systems in COVID-19. Sixteen studies involving a total of 575 patients (538 males and 37 females) were included in this systematic review. The COVID-19 phase was available for 479 patients: 426 in the acute and 53 in the recovery phase. De novo lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were observed in 43 patients and deterioration of pre-existing LUTS in 7. Bladder hemorrhage was observed in three patients and acute urinary retention in one. Regarding the male genital system, scrotal discomfort was observed in 8 patients, swelling in 14, pain in 16, and erythema in 1; low flow priapism was observed in 2 patients. Ultrasound examination identified acute orchitis in 10 patients, acute epididymitis in 7, and acute epididymo-orchitis in 16. A case-control study reported that patients with moderate COVID-19 show a significant reduction in sperm concertation, the total number of sperms per ejaculate, progressive motility, and complete motility. In contrast to what is known from the first studies on the subject, this review also includes subsequent studies that give evidence of the involvement of the lower urinary tract and male genital system in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Genitalia, Male/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Tract/pathology , Humans , Male
6.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(6): 2748-2751, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1173126

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by SARS-COV 2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus) that has become a global pandemic. COVID-19 mainly causes the respiratory complications of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), cytokine storm, and severe immune disruptions. The assays depict that though people recuperate from COVID-19, there are still symptoms that persists in the body causing discomfort, which is the consequence of the viral infection due to severe immune disruptions. Upon various difficulties of post COVID-19, the pulmonary fibrosis is the stumbling block in the lungs causing severe damage. In this review, we have shown the effectiveness and importance of the Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) secreted by Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) therapy on selective stoppage of the Transforming Growth Factor-Beta (TGF-ß) signalling pathway by causing immunomodulatory effects that ameliorate the pulmonary fibrosis through paracrine signalling. However, more pilot studies have to be carried out to determine the efficacy and outcomes of the re-emerging complication.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/cytology , Pulmonary Fibrosis/therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/virology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Global Health , Humans , Pulmonary Fibrosis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
7.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 32(4): NP17-NP21, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158187

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Ocular symptoms are uncommon manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Earlier study reported that dry eye, blurred vision, foreign body sensation, tearing, itching, conjunctival secretion, conjunctival congestion, ocular pain, and photophobia are among the ocular symptoms that could be found in COVID-19 patients. However, there are only a few reports available regarding corneal involvement in this disease. Here we report a case of keratoconjunctivitis as the only symptom of COVID-19 infection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old man who worked as an obstetrics and gynecology resident came to the outpatient clinic with the chief complaints of eye discomfort, foreign body sensation, conjunctival hyperemia, lacrimation, and photophobia in his right eye for the past 3 weeks. Fluorescence test showed a small corneal lesion. The patient was then diagnosed with keratoconjunctivitis. A week after the treatment, all symptoms were resolved. A month later, the patient came to the emergency room with the same eye complaints but with a more severe pain. The fluorescence test showed wider corneal lesion compared to last month. The result from the corneal swab is negative for bacterial or fungal infection, indicating a viral infection. Afterwards, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction test from nasopharyngeal swab was performed and revealed that the patient was positive for COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: This case report showed that keratoconjunctivitis may occur as the only manifestation of COVID-19 infection. Thus, patient presented with unexplainable eye symptoms should be evaluated for COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Keratoconjunctivitis , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Keratoconjunctivitis/diagnosis , Keratoconjunctivitis/virology , Male , Recurrence
8.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248929, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143297

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Primary objective of this study was to identify potential difficulties and/or discomfort when using a facemask. Moreover, to explore the impact of spectacles, contact lenses and visual acuity on the compliance to the facemask directive. METHODS: This is a prospective study that was conducted at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Greece between June 2020 and August 2020. Greek speaking citizens with permanent residency in Greece above 18 years old were included. A custom questionnaire (DeMask-20) was constructed and validated, which pertained to the perceived difficulty and discomfort when using a facemask. It contained 20 items grouped in 8 subscales (driving, near vision, distance vision, ocular discomfort, role limitation, collaboration, dependency on others, emotional stress). Perceived difficulty and discomfort when using a facemask, compliance and correlations of compliance with DeMask-20 scores, demographics, spectacle and/or contact lens use, and visual acuity were evaluated. RESULTS: The number of factors was determined through factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.716 for the "Role limitation" subscale to 0.938 for "Ocular discomfort" subscale. 1,214 participants (402 men, 812 women, mean age 36.79±12.50 years) completed the DeMask-20 instrument. Mean DeMask-20 score of all study participants was 3.79±0.71. Significant differences in DeMask-20 score were detected in gender (p = 0.009), spectacle use (p = 0.034), contact lens use (p = 0.049), and binocular distance visual acuity (bDVA) (p = 0.001). Mean compliance of all participants was 4.05±0.96. Men, people <50 years and spectacle wearers showed significantly worse compliance (p<0.05). Moreover, professional workers and professional drivers demonstrated significantly better compliance (p = 0.008 and p = 0.047). Significant correlation was detected between compliance and DeMask-20 score (p<0.001, R2 = 0.471). Significant correlations were detected with driving, near vision, distance vision, collaboration, role limitation, emotional stress (p<0.05, R2: 0.386-0.493). CONCLUSIONS: Factor analysis suggested that the DeMask-20 instrument demonstrates adequate validity, while Cronbach's alpha indicated sufficient internal consistency of all subscales. This study provided the necessary methods that could evaluate compliance trends and the efficacy of healthcare interventions against COVID-19. Our outcomes suggest that young males who use spectacles should be targeted by Greek Healthcare authorities in order to improve compliance rates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Masks , Adult , Age Factors , Automobile Driving , COVID-19/virology , Contact Lenses , Eyeglasses , Female , Greece , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Social Media , Surveys and Questionnaires , Visual Acuity , Young Adult
9.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 32(1): 680-687, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105653

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the Ophthalmic Emergency Department (OED) activity of the tertiary eye centre of Verona. METHODS: OED reports of patients visited during lockdown (COVID-period) and in the corresponding period of 2017, 2018 and 2019 (COVID-free period) have been retrieved to draw a comparison. Patients' demographic and clinical data recorded and analysed are the following: age, gender, previous ocular history, aetiology, symptoms onset, type of symptoms, discharge diagnosis, urgency and severity of diagnosis. RESULTS: OED consultations dropped from 20.6 ± 7.3 visits/day of the COVID-free period to 8.6 ± 4.6 visits/day of the COVID-period. In the COVID-period patients waited longer before physically going to the OED, lamented more vision loss and less redness and reported a higher percentage of traumatic events when compared to the COVID-free period. A significant reduction of ocular surface conditions occurred, while vitreo-retinal disorders increased. Overall, both urgency and severity of diagnosed diseases raised significantly in the COVID-period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic drove a significant reduction of the overall OED activity. People with less urgent and milder conditions preferred to wait and endure their ocular discomfort for a few days rather than leaving home and risking to contract the infection. Our analysis highlights how several times the OED is used improperly by patients diagnosed with non-urgent disorders. A more accurate use of the OED would allow a reduction of management costs and the avoidance of overcrowding, which can lead to delays in the care of patients that really need assistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytab027, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093499

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Post-myocardial infarction ventricular septal defects (VSDs) have become rare in the reperfusion era but remain associated with very high morbidity and mortality. As patients defer prompt evaluation and management of acute coronary syndromes during the COVID-19 global pandemic, the incidence of these and other post-infarction mechanical complications is expected to increase. CASE SUMMARY: A 37-year-old gentleman with multiple coronary artery disease risk factors presented with intermittent chest discomfort and 1 week of heart failure symptoms. An echocardiogram demonstrated a large muscular VSD and coronary angiography confirmed the presence of an anterior wall infarction. He was subsequently referred for transcatheter VSD repair and showed rapid clinical improvement in his symptoms. DISCUSSION: Post-infarction VSDs remain associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Surgical repair of acutely ruptured myocardium can be technically challenging, and transcatheter repair has emerged as a safe and effective alternative.

11.
Ann Transl Med ; 9(2): 100, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate the temporal pattern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) presence on ocular surfaces using conjunctival swabs in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. METHODS: This study included 59 patients (32 newly admitted and 27 hospitalized for ≥2 weeks) with a COVID-19-confirmed diagnosis at the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from March 3, 2020, to March 21, 2020. Conjunctival swab samples were collected from both eyes of all the 59 patients and were tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The range of sampling time lies widely between 1 and 50 days since symptom onset. RESULTS: Among the 32 newly admitted patients, positive RT-PCR results for SARS-CoV-2 in conjunctival swab samples were reported in 2 patients (one eye for each) without ocular discomfort, but 1 positive case had conjunctival congestion. The positive results were detected on Day 5 for 1 patient and Day 7 for the other, but repeated tests after 1 week were negative for both patients. All 27 patients who had been hospitalized for ≥2 weeks had negative test results. The mean time from symptom onset to sampling of 2 positive cases was significantly less than that of 57 negative cases (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 on the ocular surface can be detected in the early phase of COVID-19. The risk of ocular transmission remains and might be higher in the early phase.

12.
Andrology ; 9(4): 1027-1037, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The testes are suspected target organs of SARS-CoV-2. However, the results of studies on the effect of COVID-19 on male reproduction are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To summarize current research on the effects of COVID-19 on male reproduction. METHODS: A systematic review of English literature was performed using PubMed and Ovid Embase up to 18 August 2020. Research articles on the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in semen, the effects of the virus on semen parameters and any pathological changes in the testes were evaluated. RESULTS: Fourteen studies were included in this review. Six of 176 survivors (3.4%) and 1 of 13 decedents (7.7%) in 2 of 12 studies were positive for viral RNA in semen and testicular tissue, respectively. After stratification of patient groups, we found that the virus was detected in the relatively early stage of infection, 6-16 days after disease onset, in semen from survivors. Two of 3 studies reported that some participants had substandard semen quality after COVID-19, and 1 study found that COVID-19 may impair semen quality in a severity-related manner. Pathological analyses showed that injuries to the seminiferous tubule occurred in all decedents (N = 11). Another study found that orchitic and testis fibrin microthrombi occurred in patients with fatal disease (100%, N = 2). Scrotal discomfort of orchiepididymitis or spermatic cord inflammation has also been reported in COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: Current studies suggest that semen is rarely considered a carrier of SARS-CoV-2 genetic material during the infection period but not in the semen of recovered patients. Fatal COVID-19 may cause testicular structure damage without the presence of virus.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Reproduction , Semen/virology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Male , Semen Analysis , Seminiferous Tubules/pathology , Seminiferous Tubules/virology , Testis/pathology , Testis/virology
13.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; 45(2): 101408, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1039312

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the widespread use of face masks was recommended as a key measure against the spread of SARS-CoV-2. A marked increase in dry eye symptoms among regular mask users was reported, but the prevalence of this condition has not been described in the literature yet. The aim of this observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was to measure self-reported symptoms of mask-associated dry eye in the general population and to identify factors influencing this condition. METHODS: An anonymous online survey was distributed using Google Forms through different social media platforms. RESULTS: A total of 3,605 surveys were analysed. Of the 2,447 having symptoms, 658 (26.9 %) participants reported their symptoms were exacerbated when wearing a mask, thus 18.3 % of all participants experienced mask-associated dry eye. There was no significant association between perceived mask-associated dry eye and age, refractive correction, and pre-existing ocular discomfort, while a positive association was observed with female sex and retail work. CONCLUSIONS: Although the results of this survey showed that most people reported no change in ocular symptoms while wearing a face mask, a significant proportion reported an increase in ocular discomfort when wearing a face mask. As face masks are necessary to slow down the spread of COVID-19, it is important not to underestimate all symptoms that could discourage the population from using them. Eye care professionals should verify the presence of clinical signs in all patients complaining about mask-induced eye discomfort, and suggest methods to mitigate this condition.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dry Eye Syndromes , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dry Eye Syndromes/diagnosis , Dry Eye Syndromes/epidemiology , Dry Eye Syndromes/etiology , Female , Humans , Masks , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
14.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(12): 002145, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033004

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The typical clinical picture of COVID-19 is gradually becoming clearer, both in the acute phase and in the long-term. However, new symptoms are gradually being identified. We describe a long-term symptom that has not yet been reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 49-year-old man consulted for persistent asthenia. The general practitioner found a fever (39.2°C), and COVID-19 was confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction test. Further symptoms appeared, notably thick, white, painless tracheal hypersecretion for 3 months before diminishing, without disappearing. CONCLUSION: Non-inflammatory tracheal hypersecretion, not yet reported in COVID-19, may be an additional long-term symptom. The hyperstimulation of tracheal goblet cells secreting mucus is 1 pathophysiological hypothesis. LEARNING POINTS: Painless, non-inflammatory tracheal hypersecretion, which has yet to be described in post-acute COVID-19, may be an additional long-term symptom of the disease.The hyperstimulation of mucus-secreting tracheal goblet cells by the coronavirus, leading to tracheal discomfort and a feeling of suffocation, is 1 pathophysiological hypothesis.

15.
Trials ; 22(1): 23, 2021 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1011236

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to test our hypothesis that traditional Japanese (Kampo) medicine, hochuekkito (Hochu-ekki-to: HET) has a preventive effect for the symptoms on COVID-19. TRIAL DESIGN: The study is designed as a multi-center, interventional, parallel-group, randomized (1:1 ratio), investigator sponsored, two-arm study. PARTICIPANTS: Six thousand participants will be recruited from healthy hospital workers in 7 Japanese University Hospitals. INCLUSION CRITERIA: 1. Age from 20 to 75 years old at the time of registration 2. Asymptomatic and body temperature below 37°C at the time of registration 3. Capable of eating orally Exclusion criteria: 1. Previous upper respiratory inflammation due to viral infection (including suspected COVID-19) 2. Taking immunosuppressants 3. Allergic to the Kampo medicines used in this study 4. History of hypokalaemia, severe hypertension, severe liver dysfunction, and interstitial pneumonia 5. Regularly taking other Kampo medicines 6. Pregnant or possibly pregnant 7. Participating in other research 8. Judged to be unsuitable for this study by the doctor in charge INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Kampo group: participants receive HET in 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks. CONTROL GROUP: participants receive placebo in the same dosage as the Intervention group - 9 tablets 2 times per day for 8 weeks. Placebo tablets are identical in appearance and package to HET. Taste of placebo is different from that of HET. The Ohsugi Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan manufactured the placebo and HET. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary outcome: Number of patients with a SARS-CoV-2 RNA by ploymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive result with at least one symptom (fever, cough, sputum, malaise, shortness of breath) during the 12-week study period (including the 4-week observation period after oral administration). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: 1. Period from infection to onset 2. Period from the appearance of symptoms to the disappearance of PCR positive 3. Number of days until the appearance or improvement of symptoms 4. Severe stage: presence of hospitalization 5. Shock stage: ICU management required for mechanical ventilation, shock vitals or failure of organ(s) other than lungs Safety endpoints include numbness in the hands and/or feet, edema, skin rash or other allergic symptoms, and gastric discomfort. RANDOMISATION: Patients are randomized (1:1 ratio) to each group using minimization implemented with the Electric data capture system (DATATRAK Enterprise Cloud), with balancing of the arms with age range (under 50 years of age or not) and having a history of risk factors for COVID-19 (cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, respiratory diseases). BLINDING (MASKING): Only participants will be randomized. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The main research hypothesis of this study is that Kampo medicines significantly prevent the onset of COVID-19. It is assumed that the infection rate before the administration of the drug under consideration will be 0% and that the incidence of COVID-19 thereafter will be 2- 3%, of which 70%-80% will show symptoms of COVID-19. Assuming that the pharmaceutical effect of the drug will be effective in 50% of patients and that the incidence rates in the placebo and drug groups will be 1.4%-2.4% and 0.7%-1.2%, respectively, the placebo is calculated at 2%, and the study drug at 1%. Since the frequency of verification is low and the number of cases will be large, we set a total of 10 analyses (9 interim analyses and a final analysis). Since the number of cases at the time of the final analysis will be 4,986 under the conditions of α = 0.05 and a power of 80% by the Peto method. We set at 600 cases in each interim analysis with an estimated dropout rate of 16.9%. Finally, the total number of cases is set to 6,000 with 3,000 in the placebo group and 3,000 in the HET group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.3 of October 23rd , 2020. Recruitment start (expected): December 1st, 2020. Recruitment finish (expected): December 31st, 2022. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial is registered in the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT) ( jRCTs031200150 ) on 14 October 2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Medicine, Kampo/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Administration, Oral , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Drug Administration Schedule , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/adverse effects , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Medicine, Kampo/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
16.
Cornea ; 40(1): 123-124, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998523

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To report a case of acute corneal endothelial graft rejection with the concurrent onset of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 31-year-old African American woman with a history of asthma, sleep apnea, obesity (body mass index of 40), and bilateral keratoconus was noted to have acute corneal endothelial graft rejection 3 months after uncomplicated penetrating keratoplasty of the left eye. The patient developed dysgeusia and subjective fever on the same day as ocular discomfort, and she was subsequently diagnosed with COVID-19 with only these 2 classic symptoms of the viral infection. CONCLUSIONS: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is known to cause conjunctivitis and has demonstrated transmissibility through ocular secretions. Acute immune and inflammatory dysregulations have been seen in cases of COVID-19 through various mechanisms. COVID-19 infection may potentially compromise ocular immune privilege contributing to acute corneal graft rejection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Endothelium, Corneal/pathology , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Keratoconus/surgery , Keratoplasty, Penetrating , SARS-CoV-2 , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Testing , Dysgeusia/diagnosis , Female , Graft Rejection/etiology , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reoperation , Visual Acuity/physiology
17.
Andrology ; 9(1): 99-106, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-910378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading all over the world since December 2019. However, medical information regarding the urogenital involvement in recovered COVID-19 patients is limited or unknown. OBJECTIVES: To comprehensively evaluate urogenital involvement in recovered COVID-19 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men aged between 20 years and 50 years who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection and recovered when the study was conducted were enrolled in our study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, and history of hospitalization were collected and analyzed. Urine, expressed prostatic secretions (EPSs), and semen samples were collected for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection. Semen quality and hormonal profiles were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 74 male recovered COVID-19 patients, 11 (14.9%) were asymptomatic, classified into mild type, and 31 (41.9%) were classified into moderate type. The remaining patients (32/74, 43.2%) had severe pneumonia. No critically ill recovered COVID-19 patient was recruited in our cohort. The median interval between last positive pharyngeal swab RT-PCR test and semen samples collection was 80 days (IQR, 64-93). The median age was 31 years (IQR, 27-36; range, 21-49), and the median body mass index (BMI) was 24.40 (IQR, 22.55-27.30). Forty-five (61.6%) men were married, and 28 (38.4%) were unmarried. Fifty-three (72.6%) patients denied cigarette smoking, 18 (24.7%) were active smokers, and 2 of them were past smokers. The majority of our participants (53/74, 72.6%) did not consume alcohol. Fever occurred in most of the patients (75.3%), and 63 of them had abnormal chest CT images. Only one patient complained of scrotal discomfort during the course of COVID-19, which was ruled out orchitis by MRI (data not shown). A total of 205 samples were collected for SARS-CoV-2 detection (74 urine samples, 70 semen samples, and 61 EPS samples). However, viral nucleic acid was not detected in body fluids from the urogenital system. In terms of hormonal profiles, the levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol were 5.20 [4.23] mIU/mL, 3.95 [1.63] mIU/mL, 3.65 [1.19] ng/mL, and 39.48 [12.51] pg/mL, respectively. And these values were within the normal limits. The overall semen quality of recovered COVID-19 patients was above the lower reference limit released by the WHO. While compared with healthy control, sperm concentration, total sperm count, and total motility were significantly declined. In addition, different clinical types of COVID-19 have no significant difference in semen parameters, but total sperm count showed a descending trend. Interestingly, subjects with a longer recovery time showed worse data for sperm quality. Small sample size and lacking semen parameters before the infection are the major limitations of our study. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, it is the largest cohort study with longest follow-up for urogenital evaluation comprehensively so far. Direct urogenital involvement was not found in the recovered COVID-19 male patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was undetectable in the urogenital secretions, and semen quality declined slightly, while hormonal profiles remained normal. Moreover, patients with a long time (≥90 days) since recovery had lower total sperm count. Great attention and further study should be conducted and follow-up on the reproductive function in the following months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Prostate/virology , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Semen/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/urine , Remission Induction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Semen Analysis , Time Factors , Urine/virology , Young Adult
18.
J Tissue Viability ; 30(1): 21-27, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-894087

ABSTRACT

AIM: The present study was carried out as a comparative observational study in order to determine the effect of prophylactic dressing on the prevention of skin injuries due to the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in health care workers (HCWs) working with COVID-19 patients. In addition, the effect of nasal strip on the prevention of discomfort in breathing with mask was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was carried out with 48 HCWs (Control Group-CG, n = 20; Experimental Group 1-EG1, n = 20; Experimental Group 2-EG2, n = 8) who use PPE on the face region and work with COVID-19 patients. Data was collected with Data Collection Form developed by researchers. In participants in CG, normal procedures of the institution in using PPE were followed. In EG1, prophylactic dressing was used on risky areas on the face. In EG2, nasal strip sticky on one side was used in addition to prophylactic dressing. The evaluation of the facial skin was made once a day by a researcher with expertise in wound management. RESULTS: Groups were similar in terms of demographic characteristics of participants. Overall rate of skin injuries associated with PPE use was 47.9%. Skin injuries developed in all participants in CG (n = 20), and in two and one participants in EG1 and EG2 respectively, with significant difference between groups. The most common skin injuries were Stage 1 pressure injury (29.2%), blanchable erythema of intact skin (27.1%) and itching (18.8%). No participant in EG2 reported discomfort in breathing (n = 8). Significant difference was found between groups in favor of EG2 in terms of experiencing discomfort in breathing (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, it was established that using prophylactic dressing under PPE prevents skin injuries on the facial skin and using nasal strip prevents discomfort in breathing with mask. In view of these results, it was recommended that prophylactic dressing should be used under PPE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Skin/injuries , Adult , Bandages , Facial Injuries/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Masks/adverse effects
19.
Engineering (Beijing) ; 7(10): 1452-1458, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-893756

ABSTRACT

It is difficult to identify suspected cases of atypical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and data on severe or critical patients are scanty. This retrospective study presents the clinical, laboratory, and radiological profiles, treatments, and outcomes of atypical COVID-19 patients without respiratory symptoms or fever at onset. The study examined ten atypical patients out of 909 severe or critical patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Wuhan Union Hospital West Campus between 25 January 2020 and 10 February 2020. Data were obtained from the electronic medical records of severe or critical patients without respiratory symptoms or fever at onset. Outcomes were followed up to discharge or death. Among 943 COVID-19 patients, 909 (96.4%) were severe or critical type. Of the severe or critical patients, ten (1.1%) presented without respiratory symptoms or fever at admission. The median age of the ten participants was 63 years (interquartile range (IQR): 57-72), and seven participants were men. The median time from symptom onset to admission was 14 d (IQR: 7-20). Eight of the ten patients had chronic diseases. The patients had fatigue (n = 5), headache or dizziness (n = 4), diarrhea (n = 5), anorexia (n = 3), nausea or vomiting (n = 3), and eye discomfort (n = 1). Four patients were found to have lymphopenia. Imaging examination revealed that nine patients had bilateral pneumonia and one had unilateral pneumonia. Eventually, two patients died and eight were discharged. In the discharged patients, the median time from admission to discharge lasted 24 d (IQR: 13-43). In summary, some severe or critical COVID-19 patients were found to have no respiratory symptoms or fever at onset. All such atypical cases should be identified and quarantined as early as possible, since they tend to have a prolonged hospital stay or fatal outcomes. Chest computed tomography (CT) scan and nucleic acid detection should be performed immediately on close contacts of COVID-19 patients to screen out those with atypical infections, even if the contacts present without respiratory symptoms or fever at onset.

20.
Balkan Med J ; 37(6): 348-350, 2020 10 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-895573

ABSTRACT

Background: Coccydynia is a painful condition of the sacrococcygeal region, with symptoms associated with sitting and rising from a seated position. It is frequently related to trauma and idiopathic causes, and the pain is mostly chronic. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and sacroplasty are the methods that are widely used for treating compression fractures and sacral insufficiency fractures, respectively. However, the success of polymethylmethacrylate injection in the treatment of osteoporotic coccyx fractures and coccydynia is still unknown. Case Report: A 68-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with complaints of pain in the sacrococcygeal and perianal regions. In the imaging studies, a fracture line in the fifth sacral and first coccygeal segments was observed as evidenced by a bony edema. Since the patient's pain did not improve with conservative methods, we treated him with coccygeoplasty. No complication was encountered. The day after the operation, he was discharged from the hospital with complete pain relief. The patient confirmed having no pain on the third postoperative month and so did not need any analgesics. Conclusion: Coccyceoplasty may be a good treatment option for retractable pain in patients with acute or subacute osteoporotic coccygeal fractures and coccydinia with edema.


Subject(s)
Bone Cements/standards , Coccyx/drug effects , Fractures, Bone/drug therapy , Polymethyl Methacrylate/pharmacology , Aged , Coccyx/physiopathology , Fractures, Bone/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Pain Management/instrumentation , Pain Management/methods , Pain Management/standards , Pain Measurement/methods , Polymethyl Methacrylate/therapeutic use
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