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1.
Evid Based Dent ; 21(2): 49, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096680

ABSTRACT

Design Case series.Introduction The most common signs and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection include headache, sore throat, hyposmia, hypogeusia, diarrhoea, dyspnoea and pneumonia. Dermatological manifestations have also been reported but few authors have documented oral signs and symptoms. Methods Three cases are reported where oral ulceration or blistering is found in patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19.Results One patient had serologically confirmed COVID-19, whilst the remaining two cases were only suspected. Two patients reported pain from the palate, whilst the third reported in the tongue. The first two patients had lesions affecting keratinised tissue consistent with herpes simplex lesions but with no history of herpetic infection. The third patient had lesions compatible with erythema multiforme.Conclusions The authors suggest a link between COVID-19 and oral ulceration and blistering, but acknowledge these signs may often go undetected due to a lack of intraoral examination during hospital admission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Korean J Radiol ; 21(5): 541-544, 2020 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089767

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is a recent outbreak in mainland China and has rapidly spread to multiple countries worldwide. Pulmonary parenchymal opacities are often observed during chest radiography. Currently, few cases have reported the complications of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. We report a case where serial follow-up chest computed tomography revealed progression of pulmonary lesions into confluent bilateral consolidation with lower lung predominance, thereby confirming COVID-19 pneumonia. Furthermore, complications such as mediastinal emphysema, giant bulla, and pneumothorax were also observed during the course of the disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Mediastinal Emphysema/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumothorax/etiology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , Blister , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Disease Progression , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
3.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(22): e017364, 2020 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064368

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes the angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) receptor to enter human cells. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARB) are associated with ACE-2 upregulation. We hypothesized that antecedent use of ACEI/ARB may be associated with mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods and Results We used the Coracle registry, which contains data of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in 4 regions of Italy, and restricted analyses to those ≥50 years of age. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Among these 781 patients, 133 (17.0%) used an ARB and 171 (21.9%) used an ACEI. While neither sex nor smoking status differed by user groups, patients on ACEI/ARB were older and more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure. The overall mortality rate was 15.1% (118/781) and increased with age (PTrend<0.0001). The crude odds ratios (ORs) for death for ACEI users and ARB users were 0.98, 95% CI, 0.60-1.60, P=0.9333, and 1.13, 95% CI, 0.67-1.91, P=0.6385, respectively. After adjusting for age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and congestive heart failure, antecedent ACEI administration was associated with reduced mortality (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.31-0.98, P=0.0436); a similar, but weaker trend was observed for ARB administration (OR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.32-1.07, P=0.0796). Conclusions In those aged ≥50 years hospitalized with COVID-19, antecedent use of ACEI was independently associated with reduced risk of inpatient death. Our findings suggest a protective role of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition in patients with high cardiovascular risk affected by COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Protective Factors , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 69(4): 1782-1793, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1973736

ABSTRACT

Since 2010, several duck Tembusu viruses (DTMUVs) have been isolated from infected ducks in China, and these virus strains have undergone extensive variation over the years. Although the infection rate is high, the mortality rate is usually relatively low-~5%-30%; however, since fall 2019, an infectious disease similar to DTMUV infection but with a high mortality rate of ~50% in goslings has been prevalent in Anhui Province, China. The present study identified a new Tembusu virus, designated DTMUV/Goose/China/2019/AQ-19 (AQ-19), that is believed to be responsible for the noticeably high mortality in goslings. To investigate the genetic variation of this strain, its entire genome was sequenced and analysed for specific variations, and goslings and mice were challenged with the isolated virus to investigate its pathogenicity. The AQ-19 genome shared only 94.3%-96.9% and 90.9% nucleotide identity with other Chinese and Malaysian DTMUVs, respectively; however, AQ-19 has high homology with Thailand DTMUVs (97.2%-98.1% nucleotide identity). Phylogenetic analysis of the E gene revealed that AQ-19 and most of Thailand DTMUVs form a branch separate from any of the previously reported DTMUV strains in China. After the challenge, some goslings and mice showed typical clinical signs of DTMUV, particularly severe neurological dysfunction. AQ-19 has high virulence in goslings and mice, resulting in 60% and 70% mortality through intramuscular and intracerebral routes, respectively. Pathological examination revealed severe histological lesions in the brain and liver of the infected goslings and mice. Taken together, these results demonstrated the emergence of a novel Tembusu virus with high virulence circulating in goslings in China for the first time, and our findings highlight the high genetic diversity of DTMUVs in China. Further study of the pathogenicity and host range of this novel Tembusu virus is particularly important.


Subject(s)
Flavivirus Infections , Flavivirus , Poultry Diseases , Rodent Diseases , Animals , China/epidemiology , Ducks , Flavivirus/genetics , Flavivirus Infections/epidemiology , Flavivirus Infections/veterinary , Geese , Mice , Nucleotides , Phylogeny , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology
5.
Crit Care Explor ; 2(10): e0266, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1795045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There is accumulating evidence of a distinct coagulopathy in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection which is associated with poor prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019. Coagulation abnormalities in blood samples resemble systemic coagulopathies in other severe infections but demonstrate specific features such as a very high d-dimer. These clinical observations are consistent with histopathologic findings of locally disturbed pulmonary microvascular thrombosis and angiopathy in end-stage coronavirus disease 2019. However, exact underlying processes and the sequence of events are not fully understood. DATA SOURCES: CT perfusion may provide insight in the dynamic aspect of the vascularity in pulmonary lesions in coronavirus disease 2019 infection as, in contrast to dual energy CT, a multiphase perfusion pattern is displayed. STUDY SELECTION: In six patients with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia, findings on additional CT perfusion series were correlated with known histopathologic vascular patterns upon pulmonary autopsy of patients who had died of coronavirus disease 2019. DATA EXTRACTION: In this case series, we were able to show perfusion changes on CT scans in typical pulmonary lesions illustrating diverse patterns. DATA SYNTHESIS: We demonstrated hyperperfusion in areas with ground glass and a severely decreased perfusion pattern in more consolidated areas often seen later in the course of disease. A combination was also observed, illustrating temporal heterogeneity. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide new insights into the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia and further understanding of the mechanisms that lead to respiratory failure in these patients.

6.
Infect Drug Resist ; 13: 2681-2687, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557264

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine whether new pulmonary lesions will develop in COVID-19 patients with negative initial chest CT findings and to investigate their CT features and outcome during treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively from 29 patients who had tested positive for COVID-19 by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction testing but negative by initial chest CT from January 22 to February 17, 2020. Clinical manifestations, laboratory indicators, and follow-up CT data were evaluated. RESULTS: Among 317 confirmed COVID-19 patients, 29 (9.1%) (mean ± SD, 38.5 ± 20.5 years; 12 women) with negative initial chest CT findings were evaluated. New pulmonary lesions developed in 10 (34.5%) patients on follow-up CT. Mean time from onset of new lesions to initial CT was 5.8 ± 3.0 days (range: 2-12 days). New lesions (mean involved lobes and segments: 2.5 ± 1.6 [range: 1-5] and 4.5 ± 4.5 [range: 1-13]) were mainly spherical/patchy ground-glass opacities frequently located in the left lower lobe (9, 90.0%). Among the 10 patients, lesions in 6 (60.0%) indicated progression after occurrence, and those in 10 (100.0%) indicated significant absorption on latest CT. When new lesions developed, 6 (60.0%) patients developed new symptoms or had aggravated symptoms and 3 (30.0%) had decreased lymphocyte count. Patients with worsening symptoms had higher involvement of lung segments (mean: 6.5 ± 5.0, range: 1-13) than asymptomatic patients (mean: 1.5 ± 0.6, range: 1-2) (P = 0.057). CONCLUSION: In COVID-19 patients with negative initial chest CT findings, new pulmonary lesions may develop during treatment. Repeat CT is necessary for monitoring the disease, especially when patients have worsening symptoms or laboratory indicators.

7.
Clin Exp Dent Res ; 7(5): 772-785, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479394

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Clinical validation of a bioluminescence imaging system (Cis) as measured by the level of agreement between clinician visual and tactile assessment of carious lesion presence and activity and the presence/absence of elevated luminescence on a tooth surface determined from intraoral image mapping. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a regulatory clinical study designed in consultation with the FDA. The design was a prospective, five-investigator, nonrandomized, post-approval, clinical study utilizing the Cis to provide images of elevated calcium ion concentration (indicative of active demineralization) on tooth surfaces via use of a photoprotein. Imaged teeth were identified as "sound" or having "active lesions." Images were scored independently for luminescence. RESULTS: A total of 110 participants aged 7-74 years were imaged. Of the 90 teeth assessed as "sound," 88 were deemed to show no luminescence by the reviewing investigator, a negative percentage agreement of 97.8% (significantly >50% agreement [p < .0001]; one-sided 97.5% confidence interval [CI]: 0.9220). Of the 86 teeth initially assessed as having an "active lesion," 78 were deemed to show luminescence by the reviewing investigator, a positive percentage agreement of 90.7% (significantly >50% agreement [p < .0001]; 97.5% CI: 0.8249). There were no patient-related adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Results show, with a high level of agreement, that Cis can differentiate tooth surfaces clinically identified as involving active enamel lesions (ICDAS code 2/3), from sound sites (biochemically equivalent to inactive lesions) and that the system is safe for clinical use.


Subject(s)
Dental Caries , Tooth , Dental Caries/diagnostic imaging , Dental Enamel , Humans , Prospective Studies , Technology
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(26): e20991, 2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455401

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Pial arteriovenous fistula (PAVF) occurs when intracranial arteries communicate directly with veins. PAVFs are very rare congenital vascular lesions that are commonly seen in infants and children. Arachnoid cysts are congenital cavitation often filled with cerebrospinal fluid. We present a very rare associated occurrence of bilateral pediatric PAVF and a giant arachnoid cyst presenting as torticollis in a child. So far, this is the first case. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 6-year-old male child was referred to our facility from a local hospital due to severe torticollis. DIAGNOSES: An enhanced computed tomography scan revealed 2 slightly high-density masses at the anterior pontine cistern, right circumferential cistern, as well as left posterior occipital region. The same computed tomography scan revealed a giant arachnoid cyst in the left occipital as well as the temporal region with a thin cerebral cortex adjacent to the cyst. INTERVENTIONS: Digital subtraction angiography confirmed that the 2 high-flow lesions were PAVFs. The patient was treated with a combination of detachable coils and Onyx Liquid Embolic System (Onyx HD-500) (Covidien/ev3 Neurovascular) via the transarterial endovascular route while the giant arachnoid cyst was managed conservatively. OUTCOMES: The torticollis resolved 2 days after the procedure. He is currently well with no neurologic deficit. LESSONS: We advocate that in cases of PAVF with accompanying cyst, the cyst should be managed conservatively if it is not associated with intracranial hemorrhage or focal neurologic deficit.


Subject(s)
Arteriovenous Fistula/diagnosis , Cerebral Veins/abnormalities , Arachnoid Cysts , Arteriovenous Malformations/complications , Arteriovenous Malformations/surgery , Child , Computed Tomography Angiography/methods , Humans , Male , Torticollis/etiology
10.
Data Brief ; 28: 104920, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454113

ABSTRACT

Data (attached) for a focused review and meta-analysis of cerebral levels of glutamate, Glx, and GABA levels assessed with 1H-MRS in high-risk of psychosis states was collected and stored at covidence.org and extracted to The Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager software package (RevMan Version 5.3) for meta-analytical purposes. Meta-analyses were performed with a random-effects, inverse-variance weighted model to calculate the pooled effect size. Heterogeneity was measured using the I2 value. Significance was assessed using two-sided 95% confidence intervals. Potential publication bias was assessed by visual inspection of funnel plots. Supplementary to the co-submitted article are comprehensive meta-analyses of glutamate, Glx, and GABA, as well as the PRISMA flow diagram of included studies and a list of studies included in the review along with available measures and methodological variables. The attached data offers an insight into the included studies and the specified metabolite values for each study and offers possible further investigation for other researchers, as well as an insight into the review and meta-analyses performed. The supplementary material also serves to support findings and interpretations in the main article.

11.
Bone Res ; 8: 8, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452500

ABSTRACT

The most severe sequelae after rehabilitation from SARS are femoral head necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. We performed a 15-year follow-up on the lung and bone conditions of SARS patients. We evaluated the recovery from lung damage and femoral head necrosis in an observational cohort study of SARS patients using pulmonary CT scans, hip joint MRI examinations, pulmonary function tests and hip joint function questionnaires. Eighty medical staff contracted SARS in 2003. Two patients died of SARS, and 78 were enrolled in this study from August 2003 to March 2018. Seventy-one patients completed the 15-year follow-up. The percentage of pulmonary lesions on CT scans diminished from 2003 (9.40 ± 7.83)% to 2004 (3.20 ± 4.78)% (P < 0.001) and remained stable thereafter until 2018 (4.60 ± 6.37)%. Between 2006 and 2018, the proportion of patients with interstitial changes who had improved pulmonary function was lower than that of patients without lesions, as demonstrated by the one-second ratio (FEV1/FVC%, t = 2.21, P = 0.04) and mid-flow of maximum expiration (FEF25%-75%, t = 2.76, P = 0.01). The volume of femoral head necrosis decreased significantly from 2003 (38.83 ± 21.01)% to 2005 (30.38 ± 20.23)% (P = 0.000 2), then declined slowly from 2005 to 2013 (28.99 ± 20.59)% and plateaued until 2018 (25.52 ± 15.51)%. Pulmonary interstitial damage and functional decline caused by SARS mostly recovered, with a greater extent of recovery within 2 years after rehabilitation. Femoral head necrosis induced by large doses of steroid pulse therapy in SARS patients was not progressive and was partially reversible.

12.
Heart Vessels ; 35(10): 1349-1359, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1451965

ABSTRACT

Fractional flow reserve (FFR) assessed during adenosine-induced maximal hyperemia has emerged as a useful tool for the guidance of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). However, interindividual variability in the response to adenosine has been claimed as a major limitation to the use of adenosine for the measurement of FFR, carrying the risk of underestimating the severity of coronary stenoses, with potential negative prognostic consequences. Genetic variants of the adenosine receptor A2a (ADORA2A gene), located in the coronary circulation, have been involved in the modulation of the hyperemic response to adenosine. However, no study has so far evaluated the impact of the single nucleotide polymorphism rs5751876 of ADORA2A on the measurement of FFR in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention that was, therefore, the aim of our study. We included patients undergoing coronary angiography and FFR assessment for intermediate (40-70%) coronary lesions. FFR measurement was performed by pressure-recording guidewire (Prime Wire, Volcano), after induction of hyperemia with intracoronary boli of adenosine (from 60 to 1440 µg, with dose doubling at each step). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed to assess the presence of rs5751876 C>T polymorphism of ADORA2a receptor. We included 204 patients undergoing FFR measurement of 231 coronary lesions. A total of 134 patients carried the polymorphism (T allele), of whom 41 (30.6%) in homozygosis (T/T).Main clinical and angiographic features did not differ according to ADORA2A genotype. The rs5751876 C>T polymorphism did not affect mean FFR values (p = 0.91), the percentage of positive FFR (p = 0.54) and the duration of maximal hyperemia. However, the time to recovery to baseline FFR values was more prolonged among the T-allele carriers as compared to wild-type patients (p = 0.04). Based on these results, in patients with intermediate coronary stenoses undergoing FFR assessment with adenosine, the polymorphism rs5751876 of ADORA2A does not affect the peak hyperemic response to adenosine and the results of FFR. However, a more prolonged effect of adenosine was observed in T-carriers.


Subject(s)
Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Coronary Stenosis/genetics , Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Receptor, Adenosine A2A/genetics , Adenosine/administration & dosage , Aged , Cardiac Catheterization , Coronary Angiography , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Coronary Artery Disease/therapy , Coronary Stenosis/diagnosis , Coronary Stenosis/physiopathology , Coronary Stenosis/therapy , Female , Humans , Hyperemia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Percutaneous Coronary Intervention , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Vasodilator Agents/administration & dosage
13.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 214(6): 1287-1294, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1408325

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to investigate 62 subjects in Wuhan, China, with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonia and describe the CT features of this epidemic disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective study of 62 consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia was performed. CT images and clinical data were reviewed. Two thoracic radiologists evaluated the distribution and CT signs of the lesions and also scored the extent of involvement of the CT signs. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare lesion distribution and CT scores. The chi-square test was used to compare the CT signs of early-phase versus advanced-phase COVID-19 pneumonia. RESULTS. A total of 62 patients (39 men and 23 women; mean [± SD] age, 52.8 ± 12.2 years; range, 30-77 years) with COVID-19 pneumonia were evaluated. Twenty-four of 30 patients who underwent routine blood tests (80.0%) had a decreased lymphocyte count. Of 27 patients who had their erythrocyte sedimentation rate and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level assessed, 18 (66.7%) had an increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and all 27 (100.0%) had an elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level. Multiple lesions were seen on the initial CT scan of 52 of 62 patients (83.9%). Forty-eight of 62 patients (77.4%) had predominantly peripheral distribution of lesions. The mean CT score for the upper zone (3.0 ± 3.4) was significantly lower than that for the middle (4.5 ± 3.8) and lower (4.5 ± 3.7) zones (p = 0.022 and p = 0.020, respectively), and there was no significant difference in the mean CT score of the middle and lower zones (p = 1.00). The mean CT score for the anterior area (4.4 ± 4.1) was significantly lower than that for the posterior area (7.7 ± 6.3) (p = 0.003). CT findings for the patients were as follows: 25 patients (40.3%) had ground-glass opacities (GGO), 21 (33.9%), consolidation; 39 (62.9%), GGO plus a reticular pattern; 34 (54.8%), vacuolar sign; 28 (45.2%), microvascular dilation sign; 35 (56.5%), fibrotic streaks; 21 (33.9%), a subpleural line; and 33 (53.2%), a subpleural transparent line. With regard to bronchial changes seen on CT, 45 patients (72.6%) had air bronchogram, and 11 (17.7%) had bronchus distortion. In terms of pleural changes, CT showed that 30 patients (48.4%) had pleural thickening, 35 (56.5%) had pleural retraction sign, and six (9.7%) had pleural effusion. Compared with early-phase disease (≤ 7 days after the onset of symptoms), advanced-phase disease (8-14 days after the onset of symptoms) was characterized by significantly increased frequencies of GGO plus a reticular pattern, vacuolar sign, fibrotic streaks, a subpleural line, a subpleural transparent line, air bronchogram, bronchus distortion, and pleural effusion; however, GGO significantly decreased in advanced-phase disease. CONCLUSION. CT examination of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia showed a mixed and diverse pattern with both lung parenchyma and the interstitium involved. Identification of GGO and a single lesion on the initial CT scan suggested early-phase disease. CT signs of aggravation and repair coexisted in advanced-phase disease. Lesions presented with a characteristic multifocal distribution in the middle and lower lung regions and in the posterior lung area. A decreased lymphocyte count and an increased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level were the most common laboratory findings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(9): e24081, 2021 09 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403378

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak has now become a pandemic and has had a serious adverse impact on global public health. The effect of COVID-19 on the lungs can be determined through 2D computed tomography (CT) imaging, which requires a high level of spatial imagination on the part of the medical provider. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to determine whether viewing a 3D hologram with mixed reality techniques can improve medical professionals' understanding of the pulmonary lesions caused by COVID-19. METHODS: The study involved 60 participants, including 20 radiologists, 20 surgeons, and 20 medical students. Each of the three groups was randomly divided into two groups, either the 2D CT group (n=30; mean age 29 years [range 19-38 years]; males=20) or the 3D holographic group (n=30; mean age 30 years [range 20=38 years]; males=20). The two groups completed the same task, which involved identifying lung lesions caused by COVID-19 for 6 cases using a 2D CT or 3D hologram. Finally, an independent radiology professor rated the participants' performance (out of 100). All participants in two groups completed a Likert scale questionnaire regarding the educational utility and efficiency of 3D holograms. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index (NASA-TLX) was completed by all participants. RESULTS: The mean task score of the 3D hologram group (mean 91.98, SD 2.45) was significantly higher than that of the 2D CT group (mean 74.09, SD 7.59; P<.001). With the help of 3D holograms, surgeons and medical students achieved the same score as radiologists and made obvious progress in identifying pulmonary lesions caused by COVID-19. The Likert scale questionnaire results showed that the 3D hologram group had superior results compared to the 2D CT group (teaching: 2D CT group median 2, IQR 1-2 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001; understanding and communicating: 2D CT group median 1, IQR 1-1 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001; increasing interest: 2D CT group median 2, IQR 2-2 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001; lowering the learning curve: 2D CT group median 2, IQR 1-2 versus 3D group median 4, IQR 4-5; P<.001; spatial awareness: 2D CT group median 2, IQR 1-2 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001; learning: 2D CT group median 3, IQR 2-3 versus 3D group median 5, IQR 5-5; P<.001). The 3D group scored significantly lower than the 2D CT group for the "mental," "temporal," "performance," and "frustration" subscales on the NASA-TLX. CONCLUSIONS: A 3D hologram with mixed reality techniques can be used to help medical professionals, especially medical students and newly hired doctors, better identify pulmonary lesions caused by COVID-19. It can be used in medical education to improve spatial awareness, increase interest, improve understandability, and lower the learning curve. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR2100045845; http://www.chictr.org.cn/showprojen.aspx?proj=125761.


Subject(s)
Augmented Reality , COVID-19 , Students, Medical , Adult , Humans , Lung , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
16.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 25(2): 325-331, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388254

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 virus has forced profound change on all aspects of society, with significant impact on dental education. Dental students like all other dental clinical personnel are considered to be at the highest risk amongst healthcare workers due to the nature of treatment, namely, working in the oral cavity (known reservoir for the virus) and the routine use of aerosol-generating procedures. The nature of this pandemic has created several challenges to dental clinical education. The aim of this paper is to discuss these challenges and how educators have sought to overcome them. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the evidence base around bio-aerosol and infection control measures specifically in the context of dental education. RESULTS: Using current knowledge of bio-aerosol and increasing understanding of the virus, dental educators can implement evidence-based measures to ensure safe teaching within both simulation and clinical environments. DISCUSSION: This paper contextualises the current pandemic in a dental education setting by providing a critical appraisal of the challenges posed by SARS-CoV-2 and how these challenges may be managed. CONCLUSION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has created unique challenges for dental schools worldwide. Dental educators have sought to identify these challenges and find solutions appropriate to the stage of the pandemic specific to their geographical location.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Education, Dental , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics
17.
Rev Francoph Lab ; 2021(528): 30-35, 2021 Jan.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386946

ABSTRACT

The histological lesions associated with an infection with the Sars-CoV-2 are mainly observed at the respiratory tract level, but not exclusively. Analyses of these lesions strongly beneficied from autopsic studies allowing us to improve the knowledge of the pathophysiology mechanisms of this emerging infectious disease. Cytological analyses, notably those obtained from broncho-alveolar lavages, poorly contribute to the Covid-19 diagnosis, but can be usefull for eliminate a couple of differential diagnoses. Although non specific, the lesions observed in the pulmonary parenchyma can be directly associated with the presence of the Sars-CoV-2 thanks to ancillary tools allowing its detection. Indeed, the presence of the virus can be detected using immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, molecular biology and/or electron microscopy approaches. Several uncertainties still exist concerning the direct role due to the Sars-CoV-2 in the observed lesions which can be due too to a cardiovascular failure and/or to the treatment(s) received in intensive care units. Thus, it is critical to keep going to increase our efforts for the tissue analyses, notably thanks to the autopsies of Covid-19 patients, in order to better understand the consequences of this infectious disease, and, particularly according the epidemiological factors and the different associated morbidities. An increased knowledge will participate to the further therapeutic strategies against the Covid-19. This review adresses the main histological lesions of the lung parenchyma currently described in patients infected by the Sars-CoV-2.

18.
Trials ; 21(1): 828, 2020 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge. TRIAL DESIGN: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care. PARTICIPANTS: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1µg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs). INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O2 saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment). RANDOMISATION: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants). BLINDING (MASKING): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group. TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3rd Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2nd Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3rd Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4th Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Plasma/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Risk Adjustment , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
19.
Eur J Clin Pharmacol ; 76(11): 1615-1618, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384377

ABSTRACT

AIM: SARS-CoV-2 infection has been divided by scientific opinion into three phases: the first as asymptomatic or slightly symptomatic and the second and the third with greater severity, characterized by a hyperinflammatory and fibrotic state, responsible for lung lesions, in some cases fatal. The development of antiviral drugs directed against SARS-CoV-2 and effective vaccines is progressing; meanwhile, the best pharmacological objective is related to the management of all the complications caused by this viral infection, mainly controlling the inflammatory and fibrotic state and preventing the infection from moving into the most serious phases. SUBJECT AND METHOD: Describe the scientific rationale related to the use of an antifibrotic therapy with pirfenidone, as monotherapy and/or in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs to manage and control complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Based on the scientific literature and epidemiological results and considering the pathophysiological, biological, and molecular characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, an antifibrotic drug such as pirfenidone as monotherapy or in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs can be (acting early, at the right doses and at the right time) therapeutically effective to avoid serious complications during viral infection. The same approach can also be effective as postinfection therapy in patients with residual pulmonary fibrotic damage. Management of inflammation and fibrotic status with a combination therapy of pirfenidone and IL-6 or IL-1 inhibitors could represent a pharmacological synergy with added value. CONCLUSION: In this article, we consider the role of antifibrotic therapy with pirfenidone in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection on going or in the stage of postinfection with pulmonary fibrotic consequences. The scientific rationale for its use is also described.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/drug therapy , Pulmonary Fibrosis/etiology , Pyridones/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Drug Therapy, Combination , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1/antagonists & inhibitors , Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(4): 959-974, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365501

ABSTRACT

Neurologic involvement is well-recognized in COVID-19. This article reviews the neuroimaging manifestations of COVID-19 on CT and MRI, presenting cases from the New York City metropolitan region encountered by the authors during the first surge of the pandemic. The most common neuroimaging manifestations are acute infarcts with large clot burden and intracranial hemorrhage, including microhemorrhages. However, a wide range of additional imaging patterns occur, including leukoencephalopathy, global hypoxic injury, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, cytotoxic lesions of the corpus callosum, olfactory bulb involvement, cranial nerve enhancement, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The described CNS abnormalities largely represent secondary involvement from immune activation that leads to a prothrombotic state and cytokine storm; evidence for direct neuroinvasion is scant. Comorbidities such as hypertension, complications of prolonged illness and hospitalization, and associated supportive treatments also contribute to the CNS involvement in COVID-19. Routine long-term neurologic follow-up may be warranted, given emerging evidence of long-term microstructural and functional changes on brain imaging after COVID-19 recovery.


Subject(s)
Brain Diseases/complications , Brain Diseases/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/complications , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Neuroimaging/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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