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1.
Neurophotonics ; 8(2): 025002, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1666346

ABSTRACT

Significance: High-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) has been shown to approach the resolution and localization accuracy of blood oxygen level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging in the adult brain by exploiting densely spaced, overlapping samples of the probed tissue volume, but the technique has to date required large and cumbersome optical fiber arrays. Aim: To evaluate a wearable HD-DOT system that provides a comparable sampling density to large, fiber-based HD-DOT systems, but with vastly improved ergonomics. Approach: We investigated the performance of this system by replicating a series of classic visual stimulation paradigms, carried out in one highly sampled participant during 15 sessions to assess imaging performance and repeatability. Results: Hemodynamic response functions and cortical activation maps replicate the results obtained with larger fiber-based systems. Our results demonstrate focal activations in both oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin with a high degree of repeatability observed across all sessions. A comparison with a simulated low-density array explicitly demonstrates the improvements in spatial localization, resolution, repeatability, and image contrast that can be obtained with this high-density technology. Conclusions: The system offers the possibility for minimally constrained, spatially resolved functional imaging of the human brain in almost any environment and holds particular promise in enabling neuroscience applications outside of the laboratory setting. It also opens up new opportunities to investigate populations unsuited to traditional imaging technologies.

2.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3443-3447, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19 affects the brain in various ways, amongst which delirium is worrying. An assessment was made of whether a specific, long-lasting, COVID-19-related brain injury develops in acute respiratory distress syndrome patients after life-saving re-oxygenation. METHODS: Ten COVID+ patients (COVID+) with unusual delirium associated with neuroimaging suggestive of diffuse brain injury and seven controls with non-COVID encephalopathy were studied. The assessment took place when the intractable delirium started at weaning off ventilation support. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed followed by standard cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses and assessment of CSF erythropoietin concentrations (as a marker for the assessment of tissue repair), and of non-targeted CSF metabolomics using liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry. RESULTS: Patients were similar as regards severity scores, but COVID+ were hospitalized longer (25 [11.75; 25] vs. 9 [4.5; 12.5] days, p = 0.03). On admission, but not at MRI and lumbar puncture performance, COVID+ were more hypoxic (p = 0.002). On MRI, there were leptomeningeal enhancement and diffuse white matter haemorrhages only in COVID+. In the latter, CSF erythropoietin concentration was lower (1.73 [1.6; 2.06] vs. 3.04 [2.9; 3.91] mIU/ml, p = 0.01), and CSF metabolomics indicated (a) increased compounds such as foodborne molecules (sesquiterpenes), molecules from industrialized beverages and micro-pollutants (diethanolamine); and (b) decreased molecules such as incomplete breakdown products of protein catabolism and foodborne molecules (glabridin). At 3-month discharge, fatigue, anxiety and depression as well as MRI lesions persisted in COVID+. CONCLUSIONS: Some COVID+ are at risk of a specific delirium. Imperfect brain repair after re-oxygenation and lifestyle factors might influence long-lasting brain injuries in a context of foodborne micro-pollutants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Delirium , Environmental Pollutants , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Critical Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(8): 2603-2613, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nasu-Hakola disease (NHD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by skeletal and neurological symptoms. Behavioral symptoms with cognitive impairment may mimic the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) and other early-onset dementias. Our patients were analyzed and the literature was reviewed to delineate neurological and neuroimaging findings suggestive of NHD. METHOD: Fourteen patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in the TREM2 gene were found in our database. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological data were retrieved and analyzed. RESULTS: The presenting clinical picture was behavioral changes with cognitive decline resembling bvFTD in all patients. The mean age was 37.1 ± 4.97 years and the mean duration of the disease was 8.9 ± 3.51 years. Only two patients had typical bone cysts. Seven patients had bilateral calcification of the basal ganglia in computed tomography of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed severe atrophy of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and periventricular white matter changes in all patients. Symmetrical global atrophy of the brain mainly affecting frontoparietal and lateral temporal regions were observed in all cases, and 13 patients had atrophy of the hippocampus. Cerebrospinal fluid examination of 10 patients showed elevated protein levels in six and the presence of oligoclonal bands in four patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of white matter changes, enlarged ventricles, atrophy of the caudate nuclei and thinning of the corpus callosum in magnetic resonance imaging strongly suggests NHD in patients with FTD syndrome. Molecular genetic analysis should be performed in suspected cases, and families should receive genetic counseling.


Subject(s)
Frontotemporal Dementia , Lipodystrophy , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Osteochondrodysplasias , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis , Adult , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/diagnostic imaging , Frontotemporal Dementia/genetics , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neuroimaging
4.
Cardiol Rev ; 29(5): 230-237, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511053

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is a broad term encompassing any disease leading to myocardial inflammation with associated cardiac dysfunction. While endomyocardial biopsy remains the gold standard for diagnosis, noninvasive imaging techniques, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, have become powerful tools to facilitate the identification of underlying myocardial inflammation. This review presents a series of clinical cases with some common etiologies of inflammatory cardiomyopathy, including diagnosis and management.


Subject(s)
Myocarditis , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/therapy
5.
Bone Res ; 8: 8, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1452500

ABSTRACT

The most severe sequelae after rehabilitation from SARS are femoral head necrosis and pulmonary fibrosis. We performed a 15-year follow-up on the lung and bone conditions of SARS patients. We evaluated the recovery from lung damage and femoral head necrosis in an observational cohort study of SARS patients using pulmonary CT scans, hip joint MRI examinations, pulmonary function tests and hip joint function questionnaires. Eighty medical staff contracted SARS in 2003. Two patients died of SARS, and 78 were enrolled in this study from August 2003 to March 2018. Seventy-one patients completed the 15-year follow-up. The percentage of pulmonary lesions on CT scans diminished from 2003 (9.40 ± 7.83)% to 2004 (3.20 ± 4.78)% (P < 0.001) and remained stable thereafter until 2018 (4.60 ± 6.37)%. Between 2006 and 2018, the proportion of patients with interstitial changes who had improved pulmonary function was lower than that of patients without lesions, as demonstrated by the one-second ratio (FEV1/FVC%, t = 2.21, P = 0.04) and mid-flow of maximum expiration (FEF25%-75%, t = 2.76, P = 0.01). The volume of femoral head necrosis decreased significantly from 2003 (38.83 ± 21.01)% to 2005 (30.38 ± 20.23)% (P = 0.000 2), then declined slowly from 2005 to 2013 (28.99 ± 20.59)% and plateaued until 2018 (25.52 ± 15.51)%. Pulmonary interstitial damage and functional decline caused by SARS mostly recovered, with a greater extent of recovery within 2 years after rehabilitation. Femoral head necrosis induced by large doses of steroid pulse therapy in SARS patients was not progressive and was partially reversible.

7.
Cureus ; 12(11): e11452, 2020 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389783

ABSTRACT

Previous reports have shown various neurological manifestations in about 36.4% of patients infected with SARS-Cov-2. However, peripheral neuropathy was only reported once before. A 40-year-old healthy woman presented with two weeks of cough, nasal congestion, sore throat, intermittent fevers, fatigue, and myalgia but no weakness. She tested positive for the SARS-Cov-2. Physical exam showed no neurologic deficit. Two weeks later, respiratory symptoms were improving but she developed sudden leg pain, numbness, and weakness. She described it as a "pain crisis". Neurological exam showed bilateral symmetrical, non-ascending lower extremity weakness and normal, symmetric reflexes. She had normal magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and spine, spinal fluid analysis, serum studies including creatinine kinase and C-reactive protein. She had elevated lactate dehydrogenase, low serum copper (72.9 (ref: 80.0-155.0 ug/dL)) and low vitamin B6 (14.6 (ref: 20.0-125.0 nmol/L)). A diagnosis of SARS-Cov-2-associated peripheral neuropathy was considered. We pursued empiric treatment with intravenous steroids (1000 mg methylprednisolone for three days), followed by a total of 2 g/kg of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) given over five days. Pain management was done with gabapentin and ketorolac. We replaced copper and vitamin B6. Six weeks later, she reported improvement and was closer to baseline, but she endorsed residual, exertional, mild bilateral lower extremity pain, numbness, and weakness. Previous reports of treatment of SARS-Cov-2-associated neuropathy included corticosteroids and IVIG. Our patient saw the most symptomatic improvement with gabapentin. In our case, the preserved reflexes, lack of ascending pattern, sudden onset of symptoms, and normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) argued against Guillain-Barre syndrome. Copper deficiency can result in myelopathy but not peripheral neuropathy, so is unlikely the sole explanation. Awareness and early treatment of peripheral neuropathy in SARS-Cov-2 can result in improved clinical outcomes for patients.

8.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(2): ytaa521, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the first documented outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome inducing Coronavirus in China at the end of 2019 the virus has spread to all continents, leading the WHO to declare a pandemic in March 2020. While this virus primarily targets the alveoli in the lungs, multiple authors have described an increased rate of thrombo-embolic events in affected patients. We present this case of a myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary atherosclerosis in an otherwise healthy 48-year-old patient. CASE SUMMARY: A 48-year-old female, presenting with chest pain radiating to her left shoulder with no cardiovascular risk factors other than genetic predisposition, was screened for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and tested positive. Although computed tomography angiography excluded obstructive coronary heart disease, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging showed an acute myocardial infarction with no obstructive coronary arteries of the inferior wall. The patient was treated with dual anti-platelet therapy, an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor and a statin, and assigned to a cardiac rehabilitation program. CONCLUSION: We report a serious thrombo-embolic event during an oligosymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in a healthy, young patient. While these two diseases may have occurred simultaneously, by chance, it is possible that the pro-thrombotic effects of the SARS-CoV-2 infection facilitated the infarction. This case further demonstrates the significant cardiovascular morbidity potentially caused by SARS-CoV-2.

9.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(2): 143-150, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1307571

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Age-related sporadic cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) has gained increasing attention over the past decades because of its increasing prevalence associated with an aging population. The widespread application of and advances in brain magnetic resonance imaging in recent decades have significantly increased researchers' understanding in the in vivo evolution of CSVD, its impact upon the brain, its risk factors, and the mechanisms that explain the various clinical manifestation associated with sporadic CSVD. In this review, we aimed to provide an update on the pathophysiology, risk factors, biomarkers, and the determinants and spectrum of the clinical manifestation of sporadic CSVD.


Subject(s)
Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases , Pandemics , Aged , Aging , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging
10.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-4, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304575

ABSTRACT

Herein, the authors present the case of a 54-year-old male diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) during a screening test. The patient was asked to self-isolate at home and report with any exacerbations of symptoms. He presented later with pneumonia complicated by encephalopathy at days 14 and 15 from initial diagnosis, respectively. MRI of the brain showed bithalamic and gangliocapsular FLAIR signal abnormality with mild right-sided thalamic and periventricular diffusion restriction. A CT venogram was obtained given the distribution of edema and demonstrated deep venous thrombosis involving the bilateral internal cerebral veins and the vein of Galen. CSF workup was negative for encephalitis, as the COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test and bacterial cultures were negative. A complete hypercoagulable workup was negative, and the venous thrombosis was attributed to a hypercoagulable state induced by COVID-19. The mental decline was attributed to bithalamic and gangliocapsular venous infarction secondary to deep venous thrombosis. Unfortunately, the patient's condition continued to decline, and care was withdrawn.

11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 31: 100683, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The medium-term effects of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on organ health, exercise capacity, cognition, quality of life and mental health are poorly understood. METHODS: Fifty-eight COVID-19 patients post-hospital discharge and 30 age, sex, body mass index comorbidity-matched controls were enrolled for multiorgan (brain, lungs, heart, liver and kidneys) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), spirometry, six-minute walk test, cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), quality of life, cognitive and mental health assessments. FINDINGS: At 2-3 months from disease-onset, 64% of patients experienced breathlessness and 55% reported fatigue. On MRI, abnormalities were seen in lungs (60%), heart (26%), liver (10%) and kidneys (29%). Patients exhibited changes in the thalamus, posterior thalamic radiations and sagittal stratum on brain MRI and demonstrated impaired cognitive performance, specifically in the executive and visuospatial domains. Exercise tolerance (maximal oxygen consumption and ventilatory efficiency on CPET) and six-minute walk distance were significantly reduced. The extent of extra-pulmonary MRI abnormalities and exercise intolerance correlated with serum markers of inflammation and acute illness severity. Patients had a higher burden of self-reported symptoms of depression and experienced significant impairment in all domains of quality of life compared to controls (p<0.0001 to 0.044). INTERPRETATION: A significant proportion of patients discharged from hospital reported symptoms of breathlessness, fatigue, depression and had limited exercise capacity. Persistent lung and extra-pulmonary organ MRI findings are common in patients and linked to inflammation and severity of acute illness. FUNDING: NIHR Oxford and Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centres, British Heart Foundation Centre for Research Excellence, UKRI, Wellcome Trust, British Heart Foundation.

12.
Neurol Sci ; 42(9): 3527-3530, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274855

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 are increasingly being recognised and can arise as a result of direct viral invasion, para-infectious or postinfectious immune mechanisms. We report a delayed presentation of COVID-19 postinfectious immune-mediated encephalitis and status epilepticus occurring in a 47-year-old woman 4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary disease. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in her cerebrospinal fluid with features of encephalitis evident in both magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram. She made a complete recovery following treatment with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Diagnosis of COVID-19 postinfectious encephalitis may prove challenging in patients presenting many weeks following the initial infection. A high index of clinical suspicion and testing intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are key to its diagnosis. Early immunotherapy is likely to result in a good outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis/complications , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 69(7): 1915-1927, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278615

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is an established clinical entity in India. In the past 4 months, there has been a sharp upsurge in the number of CAM cases in most parts of the country. Early diagnosis can be lifesaving. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging remains the corner stone of management in patients with ROCM. This review discussed the utility of MRI imaging in ROCM with an emphasis on the ideal MRI protocol in a suspected case of ROCM, the pathways of spread of infection, the classic diagnostic features, MRI for staging of the disease, MRI for prognostication, MRI for follow up, and imaging features of common differentials in ROCM. The pit falls of MRI imaging and a comparison of CT and MRI imaging in ROCM are discussed. The clinical interpretation of areas of contrast uptake and those of necrosis and its relevance to treatment are discussed. This review aims to familiarize every member of the multidisciplinary team involved in managing these patients to be able to interpret the findings on MRI in ROCM.


Subject(s)
Mucormycosis , Nose Diseases , Orbital Diseases , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , India , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mucormycosis/diagnostic imaging , Nose Diseases/drug therapy , Orbital Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Orbital Diseases/drug therapy
14.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 77, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266491

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, myocardial injury is increasingly reported and associated with adverse outcomes. However, the pathophysiology, extent of myocardial injury and clinical significance remains unclear. METHODS: COVID-HEART is a UK, multicentre, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 and elevated troponin (sex-specific > 99th centile). Baseline assessment will be whilst recovering in-hospital or recently discharged, and include cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, quality of life (QoL) assessments, electrocardiogram (ECG), serum biomarkers and genetics. Assessment at 6-months includes repeat CMR, QoL assessments and 6-min walk test (6MWT). The CMR protocol includes cine imaging, T1/T2 mapping, aortic distensibility, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging in selected patients. The main objectives of the study are to: (1) characterise the extent and nature of myocardial involvement in COVID-19 patients with an elevated troponin, (2) assess how cardiac involvement and clinical outcome associate with recognised risk factors for mortality (age, sex, ethnicity and comorbidities) and genetic factors, (3) evaluate if differences in myocardial recovery at 6 months are dependent on demographics, genetics and comorbidities, (4) understand the impact of recovery status at 6 months on patient-reported QoL and functional capacity. DISCUSSION: COVID-HEART will provide detailed characterisation of cardiac involvement, and its repair and recovery in relation to comorbidity, genetics, patient-reported QoL measures and functional capacity. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 58667920. Registered 04 August 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Heart Diseases/virology , Research Design , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Contrast Media , Electrocardiography , Female , Heart Diseases/physiopathology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Male , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Myocardial Perfusion Imaging , Observation , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin/blood , United Kingdom , Walk Test
15.
J Thorac Imaging ; 36(5): 279-285, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Coronavirus 2019 disease (COVID-19) has been shown to affect the myocardium, resulting in a worse clinical outcome. In this registry study, we aimed to identify differences in cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) between COVID-19 and all-cause myocarditis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined CMRI of patients with COVID-19 and elevated high-sensitivity serum troponin levels performed between March 31st and May 5th and compared them to CMRI of patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection with suspected myocarditis in the same time period. For this purpose, we evaluated Lake-Louise Criteria for myocarditis by determining nonischemic myocardial injury via T1-mapping, extracellular volume, late gadolinium enhancement, and myocardial edema (ME) by T2-mapping and fat-saturated T2w imaging (T2Q). RESULTS: A total of 15 of 18 (89%) patients with COVID-19 had abnormal findings. The control group consisted of 18 individuals. There were significantly fewer individuals with COVID-19 who had increased T2 (5 vs. 10; P=0.038) and all-cause ME (7 vs. 15; P=0.015); thus, significantly fewer patients with COVID-19 fulfilled Lake-Louise Criteria (6 vs. 17; P<0.001). In contrast, nonischemic myocardial injury was not significantly different. In the COVID-19 group, indexed end-diastolic volume of the left ventricle showed a significant correlation to the extent of abnormal T1 (R2=0.571; P=0.017) and extracellular volume (R2=0.605; P=0.013) and absolute T1, T2, and T2Q (R2=0.644; P=0.005, R2=0.513; P=0.035 and R2=0.629; P=0.038, respectively); in the control group, only extracellular volume showed a weak correlation (R2=0.490; P=0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac involvement in COVID-19 seems to show less ME than all-cause myocarditis. Abnormal CMRI markers correlated to left ventricle dilation only in the COVID-19 group. Larger comparative studies are needed to verify our findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine , Myocarditis , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Contrast Media , Diagnosis, Differential , Gadolinium , Humans , Myocarditis/diagnostic imaging , Myocardium , Predictive Value of Tests
16.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 23(1): 68, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262508

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of myocardial involvement can be relevant in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to timely target symptomatic treatment and decrease the occurrence of the cardiac sequelae of the infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in characterizing myocardial damage in active COVID-19 patients, through the correlation between qualitative and quantitative imaging biomarkers with clinical and laboratory evidence of myocardial injury. METHODS: In this retrospective observational cohort study, we enrolled 27 patients with diagnosis of active COVID-19 and suspected cardiac involvement, referred to our institution for CMR between March 2020 and January 2021. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, including high sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT), and CMR imaging data were obtained. Relationships between CMR parameters, clinical and laboratory findings were explored. Comparisons were made with age-, sex- and risk factor-matched control group of 27 individuals, including healthy controls and patients without other signs or history of myocardial disease, who underwent CMR examination between January 2020 and January 2021. RESULTS: The median (IQR) time interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and CMR examination was 20 (13.5-31.5) days. Hs-cTnT values were collected within 24 h prior to CMR and resulted abnormally increased in 18 patients (66.6%). A total of 20 cases (74%) presented tissue signal abnormalities, including increased myocardial native T1 (n = 11), myocardial T2 (n = 14) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (n = 10), late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (n = 12) or pericardial enhancement (n = 2). A CMR diagnosis of myocarditis was established in 9 (33.3%), pericarditis in 2 (7.4%) and myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries in 3 (11.11%) patients. T2 mapping values showed a moderate positive linear correlation with Hs-cTnT (r = 0.58; p = 0.002). A high degree positive linear correlation between ECV and Hs-cTnT was also found (r 0.77; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: CMR allows in vivo recognition and characterization of myocardial damage in a cohort of selected COVID-19 individuals by means of a multiparametric scanning protocol including conventional imaging and T1-T2 mapping sequences. Abnormal T2 mapping was the most commonly abnormality observed in our cohort and positively correlated with hs-cTnT values, reflecting the predominant edematous changes characterizing the active phase of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cardiomyopathies/complications , Cardiomyopathies/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Adult , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Heart/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
17.
ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec ; 83(6): 387-394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262429

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There are limited treatment options for postinfectious olfactory dysfunction (PIOD). Olfactory training has recently been used in clinical practice, but no medical treatment is widely accepted. Although there is weak evidence for their value, some physicians use oral corticosteroids as first-line treatment. The aim of this study was to compare combined oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training with olfactory training alone in the management of PIOD. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 131 patients with PIOD over a 2-year period before the COVID-19 pandemic. Seventy-eight patients who were treated with oral methylprednisolone and olfactory training (group A) were compared with 53 patients who were treated with olfactory training only (group B). Olfactory function was evaluated with "Sniffin' Sticks" at baseline and 2, 8, and 16 weeks after initial assessment. Patients who improved after steroid treatment underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the paranasal sinuses, skin prick tests, lung spirometry, and sputum eosinophil assessment. RESULTS: Oral steroids improved 19.23% of patients (n = 15) of group A. History, clinical evaluation, imaging, and laboratory tests identified an inflammatory background in half of them (n = 8). The remaining 7 had no findings of nasal inflammation, and all had a short history of olfactory dysfunction. Both groups significantly improved in olfactory testing results at the end of the olfactory training scheme without significant difference between them. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of improved patients after oral methylprednisolone was relatively low to suggest it as first-line treatment. Half of the improved patients had an underlying upper airway inflammatory condition not related to the infection that caused the acute loss of olfactory function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/diagnosis , Olfaction Disorders/drug therapy , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Steroids
18.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e043488, 2021 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1259007

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Stroke is a common cause of epilepsy that may be mediated via glutamate dysregulation. There is currently no evidence to support the use of antiseizure medications as primary prevention against poststroke epilepsy. Perampanel has a unique antiglutamatergic mechanism of action and may have antiepileptogenic properties. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of perampanel as an antiepileptogenic treatment in patients at high risk of poststroke epilepsy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Up to 328 patients with cortical ischaemic stroke or lobar haemorrhage will be enrolled, and receive their first treatment within 7 days of stroke onset. Patients will be randomised (1:1) to receive perampanel (titrated to 6 mg daily over 4 weeks) or matching placebo, stratified by stroke subtype (ischaemic or haemorrhagic). Treatment will be continued for 12 weeks after titration. 7T MRI will be performed at baseline for quantification of cerebral glutamate by magnetic resonance spectroscopy and glutamate chemical exchange saturation transfer imaging. Blood will be collected for measurement of plasma glutamate levels. Participants will be followed up for 52 weeks after randomisation.The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants in each group free of late (more than 7 days after stroke onset) poststroke seizures by the end of the 12-month study period, analysed by Fisher's exact test. Secondary outcomes will include time to first seizure, time to treatment withdrawal and 3-month modified Rankin Scale score. Quality of life, cognitive function, mood and adverse events will be assessed by standardised questionnaires. Exploratory outcomes will include correlation between cerebral and plasma glutamate concentration and stroke and seizure outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study was approved by the Alfred Health Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC No 44366, Reference 287/18). TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12618001984280; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia , COVID-19 , Stroke , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Nitriles , Pyridones , Quality of Life , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/complications , Stroke/drug therapy , Treatment Outcome
19.
Front Mol Biosci ; 8: 653148, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247882

ABSTRACT

The highly infectious disease COVID-19 caused by the Betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2 poses a severe threat to humanity and demands the redirection of scientific efforts and criteria to organized research projects. The international COVID19-NMR consortium seeks to provide such new approaches by gathering scientific expertise worldwide. In particular, making available viral proteins and RNAs will pave the way to understanding the SARS-CoV-2 molecular components in detail. The research in COVID19-NMR and the resources provided through the consortium are fully disclosed to accelerate access and exploitation. NMR investigations of the viral molecular components are designated to provide the essential basis for further work, including macromolecular interaction studies and high-throughput drug screening. Here, we present the extensive catalog of a holistic SARS-CoV-2 protein preparation approach based on the consortium's collective efforts. We provide protocols for the large-scale production of more than 80% of all SARS-CoV-2 proteins or essential parts of them. Several of the proteins were produced in more than one laboratory, demonstrating the high interoperability between NMR groups worldwide. For the majority of proteins, we can produce isotope-labeled samples of HSQC-grade. Together with several NMR chemical shift assignments made publicly available on covid19-nmr.com, we here provide highly valuable resources for the production of SARS-CoV-2 proteins in isotope-labeled form.

20.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 654405, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247849

ABSTRACT

Background: Accumulating evidence has revealed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients may be complicated with myocardial injury during hospitalization. However, data regarding persistent cardiac involvement in patients who recovered from COVID-19 are limited. Our goal is to further explore the sustained impact of COVID-19 during follow-up, focusing on the cardiac involvement in the recovered patients. Methods: In this prospective observational follow-up study, we enrolled a total of 40 COVID-19 patients (20 with and 20 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) who were discharged from Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University for more than 6 months, and 27 patients (13 with and 14 without cardiac injury during hospitalization) were finally included in the analysis. Clinical information including self-reported symptoms, medications, laboratory findings, Short Form 36-item scores, 6-min walk test, clinical events, electrocardiogram assessment, echocardiography measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was collected and analyzed. Results: Among 27 patients finally included, none of patients reported any obvious cardiopulmonary symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. There were no statistically significant differences in terms of the quality of life and exercise capacity between the patients with and without cardiac injury. No significant abnormalities were detected in electrocardiogram manifestations in both groups, except for nonspecific ST-T changes, premature beats, sinus tachycardia/bradycardia, PR interval prolongation, and bundle-branch block. All patients showed normal cardiac structure and function, without any statistical differences between patients with and without cardiac injury by echocardiography. Compared with patients without cardiac injury, patients with cardiac injury exhibited a significantly higher positive proportion in late gadolinium enhancement sequences [7/13 (53.8%) vs. 1/14 (7.1%), p = 0.013], accompanied by the elevation of circulating ST2 level [median (interquartile range) = 16.6 (12.1, 22.5) vs. 12.5 (9.5, 16.7); p = 0.044]. Patients with cardiac injury presented higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, high-sensitivity troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide than those without cardiac injury, although these indexes were within the normal range for all recovered patients at the 6-month follow-up. Among patients with cardiac injury, patients with positive late gadolinium enhancement presented higher cardiac biomarker (high-sensitivity troponin I) and inflammatory factor (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) on admission than the late gadolinium enhancement-negative subgroup. Conclusions: Our preliminary 6-month follow-up study with a limited number of patients revealed persistent cardiac involvement in 29.6% (8/27) of recovered patients from COVID-19 after discharge. Patients with cardiac injury during hospitalization were more prone to develop cardiac fibrosis during their recovery. Among patients with cardiac injury, those with relatively higher cardiac biomarkers and inflammatory factors on admission appeared more likely to have cardiac involvement in the convalescence phase.

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