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1.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 14: 751-756, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175490

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the mental illness and correlated factors of primary medical staff during the COVID-19 outbreak in Hefei city, China. METHODS: A total of 180 primary medical staff were randomly selected from seven community hospitals in Hefei Economic and Technological Development Zone as a study group. One hundred and eighty-two health people were recruited as the control group. The self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) and Psychological questionnaire of public health emergencies were distributed to them for evaluation. RESULTS: The score of SAS, SDS in study group was higher than that in control group [(35.57±10.39) vs (31.31±7.98); (44.16±8.46) vs (41.47±9.47)] (t=4.371, P< 0.001; t=2.849, P=0.005). The fear subscale and total score in the psychological questionnaire of sudden public health events were negatively correlated with age (r=-0.216, P=0.004; r=-0.154, P=0.039). Marriage was negatively correlated with depression subscales in psychological questionnaires of SAS, SDS and sudden public health events (r=-0.184, P=0.013; r=-0.298, P<0.001; r=-0.161, P=0.031; r=-0.147, P=0.049). Education level was positively correlated with the total score of a psychological questionnaire for sudden public health events (r=0.151, P=0.043); Logistic regression analysis showed that marital status was a protective factor of psychological abnormality. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to pay attention to the psychological status of primary medical staff, especially the young unmarried medical staff.

2.
Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol ; 2021 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106526

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During COVID-19 pandemic, many allergic rhinitis (AR) patients stopped their treatment including pharmacotherapy and allergen immunotherapy. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the anxiety and depression and general effect of COVID-19 pandemic on AR patients' psychological status in Wuhan, China. METHODS: In October 2019, 222 outpatients suffering from AR in our department and 133 healthy controls were enrolled. All participants were asked to finish the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) questionnaire. The demographic characteristics and the severity of AR symptoms were recorded. In April 2020, the AR patients and healthy controls were re-contacted to finish the questionnaires by telephone or online. The SAS and SDS scores in AR patients and healthy controls and the correlation with other variables were analyzed. RESULTS: For AR patients, the SAS and SDS scores were significantly higher than healthy controls. Meanwhile, the rates of anxiety and depression were 24.8% and 19.4% respectively. The education level and symptoms severity were correlated with SAS and SDS scores. Ninety-eight AR patients and 56 healthy controls finished the questionnaires after COVID-19 pandemic. The AR patients' SAS and SDS scores were lower than before COVID-19 pandemic and were correlated with AR symptom scores. The scores of healthy controls were not different with before COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: The occurrence of anxiety and depression is common in AR patients. Severity of symptoms and low education level are the risk factors causing anxiety and depression. COVID-19 pandemic has no significant negative impact on the AR patients' psychological status.

3.
Microb Risk Anal ; 16: 100140, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-779468

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infect the human respiratory tract. A prototype thermodynamic equilibrium model is presented here for the probability of the virions getting through the mucus barrier and infecting epithelial cells based on the binding affinity (Kmucin) of the virions to mucin molecules in the mucus and parameters for binding and infection of the epithelial cell. Both MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 bind strongly to their cellular receptors, DDP4 and ACE2, respectively, and infect very efficiently both bronchus and lung ex vivo cell cultures which are not protected by a mucus barrier. According to the model, mucin binding could reduce the infectivity for MERS-CoV compared to SARS-CoV-2 by at least 100-fold depending on the magnitude of Kmucin. Specifically Kmucin values up to 106 M-1 have little protective effect and thus the mucus barrier would not remove SARS-CoV-2 which does not bind to sialic acids (SA) and hence would have a very low Kmucin. Depending on the viability of individual virions, the ID50 for SARS-CoV-2 is estimated to be ~500 virions (viral RNA genomic copies) representing 1 to 2 pfu. In contrast MERS-CoV binds both SA and human mucin and a Kmucin of 5 × 109 M-1 as reported for lectins would mop up 99.83% of the virus according to the model with the ID50 for MERS-CoV estimated to be ~295,000 virions (viral RNA genomic copies) representing 819 pfu. This could in part explain why MERS-CoV is poorly transmitted from human to human compared to SARS-CoV-2. Some coronaviruses use an esterase to escape the mucin, although MERS-CoV does not. Instead, it is shown here that "clustering" of virions into single aerosol particles as recently reported for rotavirus in extracellular vesicles could provide a co-operative mechanism whereby MERS-CoV could theoretically overcome the mucin barrier locally and a small proportion of 10 µm diameter aerosol particles could contain ~70 virions based on reported maximum levels in saliva. Although recent evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 initiates infection in the nasal epithelium, the thermodynamic equilibrium models presented here could complement published approaches for modelling the physical entry of pathogens to the lung based on the fate and transport of the pathogen particles (as for anthrax spores) to develop a dose-response model for aerosol exposure to respiratory viruses. This would enable the infectivity through aerosols to be defined based on molecular parameters as well as physical parameters. The role of the spike proteins of MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 binding to SA and heparan sulphate, respectively, may be to aid non-specific attachment to the host cell. It is proposed that a high Kmucin is the cost for subsequent binding of MERS-CoV to SAs on the cell surface to partially overcome the unfavourable entropy of immobilisation as the virus adopts the correct orientation for spike protein interactions with its protein cellular receptor DPP4.

4.
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi ; 38(3): 192-195, 2020 Mar 20.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324704

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the mental health of clinical first-line medical staff in COVID-19 epidemic and provide theoretical basis for psychological intervention. Methods: The mental health status of the first-line medical staff was investigated by Self-rating Anxiety Scale(SAS) and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Self- rating Scale (PTSD-SS). From February 7 to 14, 2020, 246 medical staff participated in the treatment of COVID-19 were investigated using cluster sampling, and received 230 responses, with a recovery rate of 93.5%. Results: The incidence of anxiety in medical staff was 23.04% (53/230) , and the score of SAS was(42.91±10.89). Among them, the incidence of severe anxiety, moderate anxiety and mild anxiety were 2.17%(5/230) , 4.78%(11/230) and 16.09%(37/230) , respectively. The incidence of anxiety in female medical staff was higher than that in male [25.67%(48/187) vs 11.63%(5/43) , Z=-2.008, P=0.045], the score of SAS in female medical staff was higher than that in male [(43.78±11.12) vs (39.14±9.01) , t=-2.548, P=0.012]. The incidence of anxiety in nurses was higher than that in doctors[26.88% (43/160) vs 14.29% (10/70) , Z=-2.066, P=0.039], and the score of SAS in nurses was higher than that in doctors [ (44.84±10.42) vs (38.50±10.72) , t=-4.207, P<0.001]. The incidence of stress disorder in medical staff was 27.39% (63/230) , and the score of PTSD-SS was (42.92±17.88) . The score of PTSD-SS in female medical staff was higher than that in male[ (44.30±18.42) vs (36.91±13.95) , t=-2.472, P=0.014]. Conclusion: In COVID-19 epidemic , the incidence of anxiety and stress disorder is high among medical staff. Medical institutions should strengthen the training of psychological skills of medical staff. Special attention should be paid to the mental health of female nurses.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Epidemics , Medical Staff, Hospital/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Health Surveys , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Med Sci Monit Basic Res ; 26: e924085, 2020 May 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-233955

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to understand the changes in psychological factors and sleep status of front-line medical staff in the fight against COVID-19 and provide evidence of exercise interventions to relieve psychological stress and improve sleep status for medical staff. MATERIAL AND METHODS A survey study was conducted among 120 front-line medical staff in the fight against COVID-19, of which 60 medical staff worked at the designated hospital (experimental group) and 60 medical staff worked at the non-designated hospital (control group). The Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C) were used to assess mental status. Sleep status was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). RESULTS SCL-90 scores of somatization, depression, anxiety, and terror were higher than normal in front-line medical staff at the designated hospital. The SAS (45.89±1.117), SDS (50.13±1.813), and PCL-C (50.13±1.813) scores in the experimental group were higher than the normal control group, and were significantly different from those in the control group on SDS and PCL-C scales (P<0.05). The total average PSQI of the experimental group was 16.07±3.761, indicating that the sleep quality was poor. Among them, participants with moderate insomnia reached 61.67%, and participants with severe insomnia reached 26.67%. CONCLUSIONS There are psychological symptoms and sleep symptoms in front-line medical staff who participate in the fight against COVID-19, and they affect each other. Hospitals should improve emergency management measures, strengthen psychological counseling for clinical front-line medical staff, strengthen exercise intervention, and improve their sleep quality and mental health.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dyssomnias/psychology , Exercise Therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Sleep/physiology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Counseling , Depression/epidemiology , Dyssomnias/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Sleep Latency/physiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology
6.
Complement Ther Clin Pract ; 39: 101166, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-23319

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different degrees of disorders are reported in respiratory function, physical function and psychological function in patients with corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), especially in elderly patients. With the experience of improved and discharged COVID-19 patients, timely respiratory rehabilitation intervention may improve prognosis, maximize functional preservation and improve quality of life (QoL), but there lacks of studies worldwide exploring the outcome of this intervention. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of 6-week respiratory rehabilitation training on respiratory function, QoL, mobility and psychological function in elderly patients with COVID-19. METHODS: This paper reported the findings of an observational, prospective, quasi-experimental study, which totally recruited 72 participants, of which 36 patients underwent respiratory rehabilitation and the rest without any rehabilitation intervention. The following outcomes were measured: pulmonary function tests including plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), functional tests (6-min walk distance test), Quality of life (QoL) assessments (SF-36 scores), activities of daily living (Functional Independence Measure, FIM scores), and mental status tests (SAS anxiety and SDS depression scores). RESULTS: After 6 weeks of respiratory rehabilitation in the intervention group, there disclosed significant differences in FEV1(L), FVC(L), FEV1/FVC%, DLCO% and 6-min walk test. The SF-36 scores, in 8 dimensions, were statistically significant within the intervention group and between the two groups. SAS and SDS scores in the intervention group decreased after the intervention, but only anxiety had significant statistical significance within and between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Six-week respiratory rehabilitation can improve respiratory function, QoL and anxiety of elderly patients with COVID-19, but it has little significant improvement on depression in the elderly.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/rehabilitation , Pneumonia, Viral/rehabilitation , Respiratory Therapy , Activities of Daily Living , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/therapy , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Respiratory Function Tests , Respiratory Therapy/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Walking
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