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1.
Front Physiol ; 12: 652198, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1229227

ABSTRACT

The detrimental effects of tobacco exposure on children's health are well known. Nonetheless, the prevalence of secondhand or direct cigarette smoke exposure (CSE) in the pediatric population has not significantly decreased over time. On the contrary, the rapid incline in use of e-cigarettes among adolescents has evoked public health concerns since increasing cases of vaping-induced acute lung injury have highlighted the potential harm of these new "smoking" devices. Two pediatric populations are especially vulnerable to the detrimental effects of cigarette smoke. The first group is former premature infants whose risk is elevated both due to their prematurity as well as other risk factors such as oxygen and mechanical ventilation to which they are disproportionately exposed. The second group is children and adolescents with chronic respiratory diseases, in particular asthma and other wheezing disorders. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a spectrum of diseases caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has spread worldwide over the last year. Here, respiratory symptoms ranging from mild to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are at the forefront of COVID-19 cases among adults, and cigarette smoking is associated with worse outcomes in this population, and cigarette smoking is associated with worse outcomes in this population. Interestingly, SARS-CoV-2 infection affects children differently in regard to infection susceptibility, disease manifestations, and complications. Although children carry and transmit the virus, the likelihood of symptomatic infection is low, and the rates of hospitalization and death are even lower when compared to the adult population. However, multisystem inflammatory syndrome is recognized as a serious consequence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the pediatric population. In addition, recent data demonstrate specific clinical patterns in children infected with SARS-CoV-2 who develop multisystem inflammatory syndrome vs. severe COVID-19. In this review, we highlight the pulmonary effects of CSE in vulnerable pediatric populations in the context of the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.

2.
ATS Sch ; 1(4): 416-435, 2020 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191227

ABSTRACT

The American Thoracic Society Core Curriculum updates clinicians annually in adult and pediatric pulmonary disease, medical critical care, and sleep medicine in a 3- to 4-year recurring cycle of topics. The topics of the 2020 Pulmonary Core Curriculum include pulmonary vascular disease (submassive pulmonary embolism, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and pulmonary hypertension) and pulmonary infections (community-acquired pneumonia, pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria, opportunistic infections in immunocompromised hosts, and coronavirus disease [COVID-19]).

3.
Front Pediatr ; 8: 614076, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069741

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic led to rapid global spread with far-reaching impacts on health-care systems. Whilst pediatric data consistently shown a milder disease course, chronic lung disease has been identified as a risk factor for hospitalization and severe disease. In Africa, comprised predominantly of low middle-income countries (LMIC), the additional burden of HIV, tuberculosis, malnutrition and overcrowding is high and further impacts health risk. This paper reviewed the literature on COVID-19 and chronic lung disease in children and provides our experience from an African pediatric pulmonary center in Cape Town, South Africa. South African epidemiological data confirms a low burden of severe disease with children <18 years comprising 8% of all diagnosed cases and 3% of all COVID-19 admissions. A decrease in hospital admission for other viral lower respiratory tract infections was found. While the pulmonology service manages children with a wide range of chronic respiratory conditions including bronchiectasis, cystic fibrosis, asthma, interstitial lung disease and children with tracheostomies, no significant increase in COVID-19 admissions were noted and in those who developed COVID-19, the disease course was not severe. Current evidence suggests that pre-existing respiratory disease in children does not appear to be a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19. Longitudinal data are still needed to assess risk in children with immunosuppression and interstitial lung diseases. The indirect impacts of the pandemic response on child respiratory health are notable and still likely to be fully realized and quantified. Ensuring children have access to full preventive and care services during this time is priority.

4.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(1): 19-32, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064462

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) is a pediatric hyperinflammation disorder caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has now been reported from several countries the world over. Some of the clinical manifestations of MIS-C mimic Kawasaki disease (KD) shock syndrome. MIS-C develops 4-6 weeks following SARS-CoV-2 infection, and is presumably initiated by adaptive immune response. Though it has multisystem involvement, it is the cardiovascular manifestations that are most prominent. High titres of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies are seen in these patients. As this is a new disease entity, its immunopathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Whether it has some overlap with KD is still unclear. Current treatment guidelines recommend use of intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose corticosteroids as first-line treatment. Mortality rates of MIS-C are lower compared to adult forms of severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/physiopathology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Child , Child, Preschool , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
5.
Can J Kidney Health Dis ; 7: 2054358120970713, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927168

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The goal of these recommendations is to provide guidance on the optimal care of children with glomerular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with glomerular diseases are known to be more susceptible to infection. Risk factors include decreased vaccine uptake, urinary loss of immunoglobulins, and treatment with immunosuppressive medications. The Canadian Society of Nephrology (CSN) recently published guidelines on the care of adult glomerulonephritis patients. This guideline aims to expand and adapt those recommendations for programs caring for children with glomerular diseases. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: We used the CSN COVID-19 Rapid Response Team adult glomerulonephritis recommendations, published in the Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease, as the foundation for our guidelines. We reviewed documents published by nephrology and non-nephrology societies and health care agencies focused on kidney disease and immunocompromised populations. Finally, we conducted a formal literature review of publications relevant to pediatric and adult glomerular disease, chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and immunosuppression in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The leadership of the Canadian Association of Pediatric Nephrologists (CAPN), which is affiliated with the CSN, identified a team of clinicians and researchers with expertise in pediatric glomerular diseases. The aim was to adapt Canadian adult glomerulonephritis guidelines to make them applicable to children and discuss pediatric-specific considerations. The updated guidelines were peer-reviewed by senior clinicians with expertise in the care of childhood glomerular diseases. KEY FINDINGS: We identified a number of key areas of glomerular disease care likely to be affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, including (1) clinic visit scheduling, (2) visit types, (3) provision of multidisciplinary care, (4) blood work and imaging, (5) home monitoring, (6) immunosuppression, (7) other medications, (8) immunizations, (9) management of children with suspected COVID-19, (10) renal biopsy, (11) patient education and support, and (12) school and child care. LIMITATIONS: There are minimal data regarding the characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in adult or pediatric glomerular disease patients, as well as the efficacy of strategies to prevent infection transmission within these populations. Therefore, the majority of these recommendations are based on expert opinion and consensus guidance. To expedite the publication of these guidelines, an internal peer-review process was conducted, which may not have been as rigorous as formal journal peer-review. IMPLICATIONS: These guidelines are intended to promote optimal care delivery for children with existing or newly diagnosed glomerular diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic. The implications of modified care delivery, altered immunosuppression strategies, and limited access to existing resources remain uncertain.

6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17846, 2020 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-882929

ABSTRACT

In order to understand the clinical manifestations and incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in children and discuss the importance of fecal nucleic acid testing.We retrospectively analyzed studies on gastrointestinal symptoms and fecal nucleic acid detection in pediatric COVID-19 patients from January 1, 2020 to August 10, 2020, including prospective clinical studies and case reports. The results of fecal nucleic acid detection were analyzed systematically. Stata12.0 software was used for meta-analysis.The results showed that the most common gastrointestinal symptoms in children with COVID-19 were vomiting and diarrhea, with a total incidence of 17.7% (95% Cl 13.9-21.5%). However, the prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms in other countries (21.1%, 95% CI 16.5-25.7%) was higher compared to China (12.9%, 95% CI 8-17.7%). In Wuhan, the pooled prevalence was much higher (41.3%, 95% CI 3.2-79.4%) compared to areas outside Wuhan in China (7.1%, 95% CI 4.0-10.3%). The positive rate of fecal nucleic acid testing in COVID-19 children was relatively high at 85.8% (91/106). Additionally, 71.2% (52/73) were still positive for fecal nucleic acid after respiratory tract specimens turned negative. One and two weeks after the respiratory tract specimens turned nucleic acid-negative, 45.2% (33/73) and 34.2% (25/73) patients, respectively, remained fecal nucleic acid-positive. The longest interval between the respiratory tract specimens turning negative and fecal specimens turning negative exceeded 70 days. Conclusions and relevance: gastrointestinal symptoms in pediatric COVID-19 are relatively common. Attention should be paid to the detection of fecal nucleic acids in children. Fecal nucleic acid-negative status should be considered as one of the desegregation standards.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Feces/virology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diarrhea/complications , Diarrhea/diagnosis , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Gastrointestinal Diseases/complications , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 71(2): 153-155, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729245

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) may lead to a severe inflammatory response referred to as a cytokine storm. We describe a case of severe COVID-19 infection in a recently diagnosed pediatric Crohn disease patient successfully treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) blockade. The patient presented with 5 days of fever, an erythematous maculopapular facial rash, and abdominal pain without respiratory symptoms. SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction was positive. Despite inpatient treatment for COVID-19 and a perianal abscess, the patient acutely decompensated, with worsening fever, tachycardia, fluid-refractory hypotension, elevation of liver enzymes, and transformation of the rash into purpura extending from the face to the trunk, upper and lower extremities, including the palmar and plantar surfaces of the hands and feet. Cytokine profile revealed rising levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, higher than those described in either inflammatory bowel disease or severe COVID-19 alone. The patient was treated with infliximab for TNF-α blockade to address both moderately to severely active Crohn disease and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally related to COVID-19. Within hours of infliximab treatment, fever, tachycardia, and hypotension resolved. Cytokine profile improved with normalization of TNF-α, a decrease in IL-6, and IL-8 concentrations. This case supports a role for blockade of TNF-α in the treatment of COVID-19 inflammatory cascade. The role of anti-TNF agents in patients with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children temporally related to COVID-19 requires further investigation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/complications , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , Ichthyosiform Erythroderma, Congenital/complications , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Limb Deformities, Congenital/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/antagonists & inhibitors , Abnormalities, Multiple , Adolescent , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
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