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1.
Am J Med Case Rep ; 8(10): 337-340, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1989678

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) is currently a public health emergency and has been listed by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a pandemic. It has commonly been associated with pulmonary manifestations and there is a growing body of evidence of multisystem involvement of the virus. As evidenced by various case reports and cohort studies, COVID-19-associated coagulopathy has been a common manifestation amongst the critically ill and has been associated with increased mortality. The presence of venous thromboembolic events in patients who are critically ill due to COVID-19 has prompted the adoption of anticoagulation regimens aimed at preventing thromboembolic phenomena. Coagulation abnormalities have also been implicated in the progression and the severity of COVID-19 related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). There is strong evidence that D-dimer levels help predict which patients are at risk of thromboembolic events, progression to ARDS, DIC, immune dysregulation and mortality. We will review the utility of D-dimer as screening tool and in the risk stratification of COVID-19 patients prone to developing thromboembolic events, DIC, immune dysregulation and death. To date, the studies that have been published show the presence of elevated D-dimer levels in both the adult and pediatric populations and the measured level correlates with disease severity. Studies have also shown the relative increase of D-dimer levels in non-survivors compared to survivors. The elevation of D-dimer levels has shown to guide clinical decision making, namely the initiation of therapeutic anticoagulation and mortality benefit in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia compared to severe non COVID-19 pneumonia. Although the current body of literature suggested the use of D-dimer as a risk stratification tool and as a test to augment clinical judgement regarding the initiation of anticoagulation, randomized control trials are needed to fully understand the relationship between COVID-19 infection and the efficacy of D-dimer assays in clinical decision making.

2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(14)2020 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934087

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI/ARDS) are characterized by an inflammatory response, alveolar edema, and hypoxemia. ARDS occurs most often in the settings of pneumonia, sepsis, aspiration of gastric contents, or severe trauma. The prevalence of ARDS is approximately 10% in patients of intensive care. There is no effective remedy with mortality high at 30-40%. Most functional proteins are dynamic and stringently governed by ubiquitin proteasomal degradation. Protein ubiquitination is reversible, the covalently attached monoubiquitin or polyubiquitin moieties within the targeted protein can be removed by a group of enzymes called deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). Deubiquitination plays an important role in the pathobiology of ALI/ARDS as it regulates proteins critical in engagement of the alveolo-capillary barrier and in the inflammatory response. In this review, we provide an overview of how DUBs emerge in pathogen-induced pulmonary inflammation and related aspects in ALI/ARDS. Better understanding of deubiquitination-relatedsignaling may lead to novel therapeutic approaches by targeting specific elements of the deubiquitination pathways.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Deubiquitinating Enzymes/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Animals , Humans , Pneumonia/metabolism , Signal Transduction/physiology , Ubiquitin/metabolism , Ubiquitination/physiology
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(9)2020 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934078

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) initiates the cytokine/chemokine storm-mediated lung injury. The SARS-CoV unique domain (SUD) with three macrodomains (N, M, and C), showing the G-quadruplex binding activity, was examined the possible role in SARS pathogenesis in this study. The chemokine profile analysis indicated that SARS-CoV SUD significantly up-regulated the expression of CXCL10, CCL5 and interleukin (IL)-1ß in human lung epithelial cells and in the lung tissues of the mice intratracheally instilled with the recombinant plasmids. Among the SUD subdomains, SUD-MC substantially activated AP-1-mediated CXCL10 expression in vitro. In the wild type mice, SARS-CoV SUD-MC triggered the pulmonary infiltration of macrophages and monocytes, inducing CXCL10-mediated inflammatory responses and severe diffuse alveolar damage symptoms. Moreover, SUD-MC actuated NOD-, LRR- and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-dependent pulmonary inflammation, as confirmed by the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor and the NLRP3-/- mouse model. This study demonstrated that SARS-CoV SUD modulated NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent CXCL10-mediated pulmonary inflammation, providing the potential therapeutic targets for developing the antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Chemokine CXCL10/metabolism , Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , SARS Virus/metabolism , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Cell Line , Chemokine CXCL10/genetics , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Knockout , Monocytes/immunology , Monocytes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/deficiency , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Pneumonia/pathology , Pneumonia/virology , Promoter Regions, Genetic , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Up-Regulation , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e524-e530, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proadrenomedullin (proADM), a vasodilatory peptide with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, predicts severe outcomes in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to a greater degree than C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. We evaluated the ability of proADM to predict disease severity across a range of clinical outcomes in children with suspected CAP. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of children 3 months to 18 years with CAP in the emergency department. Disease severity was defined as mild (discharged home), mild-moderate (hospitalized but not moderate-severe or severe), moderate-severe (eg, hospitalized with supplemental oxygen, broadening of antibiotics, complicated pneumonia), and severe (eg, vasoactive infusions, chest drainage, severe sepsis). Outcomes were examined using proportional odds logistic regression within the cohort with suspected CAP and in a subset with radiographic CAP. RESULTS: Among 369 children, median proADM increased with disease severity (mild: median [IQR], 0.53 [0.43-0.73]; mild-moderate: 0.56 [0.45-0.71]; moderate-severe: 0.61 [0.47-0.77]; severe: 0.70 [0.55-1.04] nmol/L) (P = .002). ProADM was significantly associated with increased odds of developing severe outcomes (suspected CAP: OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.2-2.36; radiographic CAP: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36-3.38) adjusted for age, fever duration, antibiotic use, and pathogen. ProADM had an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI, .56-.72) in those with suspected CAP and an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, .68-.87) in radiographic CAP. CONCLUSIONS: ProADM was associated with severe disease and discriminated moderately well children who developed severe disease from those who did not, particularly in radiographic CAP.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Biomarkers , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Protein Precursors , Severity of Illness Index
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 8(2)2020 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726034

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, the outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has led to a serious pandemic in China and other countries worldwide. So far, more than 460,000 confirmed cases were diagnosed in nearly 190 countries, causing globally over 20,000 deaths. Currently, the epidemic is still spreading and there is no effective means to prevent the infection. Vaccines are proved to be the most effective and economical means to prevent and control infectious diseases. Several countries, companies, and institutions announced their programs and progress on vaccine development against the virus. While most of the vaccines are under design and preparation, there are some that have entered efficacy evaluation in animals and initial clinical trials. This review mainly focused on the progress and our prospects on field of vaccine development against SARS-CoV-2.

6.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(11): 2419-2422, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1682642

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a respiratory tract infection caused by the new coronavirus SARS-COV2 that can be complicated by acute distress respiratory syndrome and multiorgan failure. In light of the high rate of mortality associated with COVID-19, pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies to prevent the infection are currently being tested. Among non-pharmacological preventive measures, vaccines represent one of the main resources for public health. It has been suggested that Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine may protect individuals against infection from COVID-19 virus, and two clinical trials addressing this question are underway. Here, we report the case of a 32-year-old woman, vaccinated with BCG when she was 1 year old, who was diagnosed with apical tuberculous pneumonia of the right lung along with COVID 19 pneumonia.

7.
Curr Pharm Biotechnol ; 23(2): 307-315, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633212

ABSTRACT

Exposure to environmental toxicants such as Arsenic (As) can result in As-induced alterations in immune regulators. Consequently, people who are more prone to viral infections like influenza A or B, H1N1, SARS CoV (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus), and SARS CoV2 may develop a susceptibility to immune responses in their lungs because our previous reports delineated the ability of QIAPI 1®, a melanin precursor, to dissociate water molecules with simultaneous therapeutic efficacy against central nervous system (CNS) diseases, retinopathy, and As-induced renal toxicity. Considering the commonalitie of lung pathology of SARS CoV and As-induced toxicity, the aim of this study is to decipher the efficacy of QIAPI 1® against pentavalent As-induced lung toxicity by examining the pulmonary pathology. Hematoxylin & Eosin (H&E) staining was used for ascertaining the lung pathology in Wistar rat models. Animals were divided into 3 groups: control group, group treated with pentavalent As, and a group treated with pentavalent As and QIAPI 1®. There were no significant changes in lung histopathology in the control group as indicated by intact morphology. The As-treated group revealed damage to the histoarchitecture with pulmonary edema, interstitial fibrosis, diffuse alveolar damage, Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)-lesions, formation of hyaline membrane, multinucleated giant pneumocytes, atypical pneumocytes, inflammatory cell infiltration, and interstitial edema. The group treated with As and QIAPI 1® significantly associated with mitigated histological signs of lung inflammation induced by Arsenic. Therefore, QIAPI 1® can be recommended as antagonistic to Asinduced lung toxicity. In conclusion, this model could be preferred as a hypothetical model to examine the efficacy of QIAPI 1® in SARS CoV2-induced pulmonary damage. Future studies are warranted to delineate the efficacy of QIAPI 1® against SARS CoV and SARS CoV2 lung pathology.


Subject(s)
Arsenic , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Animals , Arsenic/toxicity , Humans , Lung , Rats , Rats, Wistar , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev ; 42(1): 59-63, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621694

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Inflammatory pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of pneumonia. Frequent sauna sessions may reduce the risk of respiratory tract infections including pneumonia independent of inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the independent and joint associations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and frequency of sauna bathing (FSB) with risk of pneumonia in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: Serum hsCRP as an inflammatory marker was measured using an immunometric assay and FSB was assessed by self-reported sauna bathing habits at baseline in 2264 men aged 42-61 yr. Serum hsCRP was categorized as normal and high (≤3 and >3 mg/L, respectively) and FSB as low and high (defined as ≤1 and 2-7 sessions/wk, respectively). Multivariable-adjusted HRs (CIs) were calculated for incident pneumonia. RESULTS: A total of 528 cases of pneumonia occurred during a median follow-up of 26.6 yr. Comparing high versus normal hsCRP, the multivariable-adjusted risk for pneumonia was HR = 1.30 (95% CI, 1.04-1.62). The corresponding risk was HR = 0.79 (95% CI, 0.66-0.95) comparing high versus low FSB. Compared with men with normal hsCRP and low FSB, high hsCRP and low FSB was associated with an increased risk of pneumonia in multivariable analysis (HR = 1.67: 95% CI, 1.21-2.29), with no evidence of an association for high hsCRP and high FSB and pneumonia (HR = 0.94: 95% CI, 0.69-1.29). CONCLUSIONS: In a general middle-aged to older male Caucasian population, frequent sauna baths attenuated the increased risk of pneumonia due to inflammation.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia , Steam Bath , Baths , C-Reactive Protein , Humans , Inflammation , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/etiology , Pneumonia/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Steam Bath/adverse effects
9.
Int J Gen Med ; 14: 2407-2412, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581589

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The management of COVID-19 patients requires efficiency and accuracy in methods of detection, identification, monitoring, and treatment feasible in every hospital. Aside from clinical presentations and laboratory markers, chest x-ray imaging could also detect pneumonia caused by COVID-19. It is also a fast, simple, cheap, and safe modality used for the management of COVID-19 patients. Established scoring systems of COVID-19 chest x-ray imaging include Radiographic Assessment of Lung Edema (RALE) and Brixia classification. A modified scoring system has been adopted from BRIXIA and RALE scoring systems and has been made to adjust the scoring system needs at Dr. Soetomo General Hospital, Indonesia. This study aims to determine the value of scoring systems through chest x-ray imaging in evaluating the severity of COVID-19. METHODS: Data were collected from May to June of 2020 who underwent chest x-ray evaluation. Each image is then scored using three types of classifications: modified score, RALE score, and Brixia score. The scores are then analyzed and compared with the clinical conditions and laboratory markers to determine their value in evaluating the severity of COVID-19 infection in patients. RESULTS: A total of 115 patients were males (51.1%) and 110 were females (48.9%). All three scoring systems are significantly correlated with the clinical severity of the disease, with the strengths of correlation in order from the strongest to weakest as Brixia score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.232), RALE score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.209), and Dr. Soetomo General Hospital score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.194). All three scoring systems correlate significantly with each other. Dr. Soetomo General Hospital score correlates more towards Brixia score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.865) than RALE score (p<0.01, correlation coefficient 0.855). Brixia to RALE score correlates with a coefficient of 0.857 (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: The modified scoring system can help determine the severity of the disease progression in COVID-19 patients especially in areas with shortages of facilities and specialists.

10.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 295-301, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575822

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of developing a hypercoagulable state due to haemostatic changes directly related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection or to the consequence of the cytokine storm. Anticoagulation is now recommended to reduce the thrombotic risk. Ilio-psoas haematoma (IPH) is a potentially lethal condition that can arise during the hospitalization, especially in intensive care units (ICUs) and frequently reported as a complication of anticoagulation treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report a case series of seven subjects with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia complicated by Ilio-psoas haematomas (IPHs) at our COVID-Hospital in Rome, Italy. RESULTS: Over the observation period, 925 subjects with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were admitted to our COVID-hospital. Among them, we found seven spontaneous IPHs with an incidence of 7.6 cases per 1000 hospitalization. All the reported cases had a severe manifestation of COVID-19 pneumonia, with at least one comorbidity and 5/7 were on treatment with low weight molecular heparin for micro or macro pulmonary thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: Given the indications to prescribe anticoagulant therapy in COVID-19 and the lack of solid evidences on the optimal dose and duration, it is important to be aware of the iliopsoas haematoma as a potentially serious complication in COVID-19 inpatients. KEY MESSAGE Critically ill patients with COVID-19 are at increased risk of hypercoagulability state and anticoagulation therapy is recommended. Ilio-psoas haematoma (IPH) is found to be a complication of anticoagulation regimen especially in severe COVID-19 cases. An incidence of 7.6 cases per 1000 admission of IPHs was reported. Hypoesthesia of the lower limbs, pain triggered by femoral rotation, hypovolaemia and anaemia are the most common symptoms and signs of IPHs that should alert physician.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications , Hematoma/epidemiology , Psoas Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Hematoma/chemically induced , Hematoma/diagnosis , Hematoma/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Muscular Diseases , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/etiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Treatment Outcome
11.
Med Clin (Barc) ; 157(3): 99-105, 2021 08 13.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575444

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Compare the accuracy of PSI, CURB-65, MuLBSTA and COVID-GRAM prognostic scores to predict mortality, the need for invasive mechanical ventilation in patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 and assess the coexistence of bacterial respiratory tract infection during admission. METHODS: Retrospective observational study that included hospitalized adults with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 from 15/03 to 15/05/2020. We excluded immunocompromised patients, nursing home residents and those admitted in the previous 14 days for another reasons. Analysis of ROC curves was performed, calculating the area under the curve for the different scales, as well as sensitivity, specificity and predictive values. RESULTS: A total of 208 patients were enrolled, aged 63±17 years, 57,7% were men; 38 patients were admitted to ICU (23,5%), of these patients 33 required invasive mechanical ventilation (86,8%), with an overall mortality of 12,5%. Area under the ROC curves for mortality of the scores were: PSI 0,82 (95% CI: 0,73-0,91), CURB-65 0,82 (0,73-0,91), MuLBSTA 0,72 (0,62-0,81) and COVID-GRAM 0,86 (0,70-1). Area under the curve for needing invasive mechanical ventilation was: PSI 0,73 (95% CI: 0,64-0,82), CURB-65 0,66 (0,55-0,77), MuLBSTA 0,78 (0,69-0,86) and COVID-GRAM 0,76 (0,67-0,85), respectively. Patients with bacterial co-infections of the respiratory tract were 20 (9,6%), the most frequent strains being Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, the COVID-GRAM score was the most accurate to identify patients with higher mortality with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2; however, none of these scores accurately predicts the need for invasive mechanical ventilation with ICU admission. The 10% of patients admitted presented bacterial respiratory co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/pathology , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
12.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(5): 2256-2262, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566691

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Biochemical markers are needed to show lung involvement in COVID-19 disease. Galectin-3 is known to play a key role in the inflammation and fibrosis process. We aimed to evaluate the predictive role of galectin-3 levels for pneumonia in patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods: Total of 176 patients with COVID-19, confirmed with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, admitted to the Erzurum Regional Training and Research Hospital was analyzed. The study was designed as a cross sectional. The baseline data of laboratory examinations, including galectin-3 were collected at the time of diagnosis. CT images evaluated by a single radiologist according to the recommendation of the Radiological Society of North America Expert Consensus Document for pulmonary involvement. The severity of COVID-19 pneumonia was assessed using the total severity score. Results: The mean galectin-3 level in patients with typical pneumonia was found to be significantly higher than those patients with atypical (p < 0.01) and indeterminate appearance (p < 0.01) and patients without pneumonia (p < 0.01). The severity of lung involvement was significantly associated with Galectin-3 levels (p < 0.01 r: 0.76). Stepwise logistic regression model showed that the levels of ferritin (odds ratio [OR] = 0.05, p: 0.08) and galectin-3 (OR = 0.1, p < 0.01) were significantly and independently associated with typical pneumoniain COVID-19 patients. When COVID-19 patients were evaluated in terms of typical pneumonia, we determined a cut-off value of 18.9 ng/mL for galectin-3 via ROC analysis (87% sensitivity; 73% specificity; area under curve (AUC): 0.89; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Galectin-3 was found as a diagnostic tool for COVID-19 associated typical pneumonia and as an indicator of both pneumonia and its severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Galectins/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Proteins , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Predictive Value of Tests
13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4208-e4213, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe adult respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with refractory COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we included 155 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 1 January to 5 February. The cases were divided into general and refractory COVID-19 groups according to the clinical efficacy of treatment after hospitalization, and the differences between groups were compared. RESULTS: Compared with patients with general COVID-19 (45.2%), those with refractory disease were older, were more likely to be male, and had more underlying comorbid conditions, a lower incidence of fever, higher maximum temperatures among patients with fever, higher incidences of shortness of breath and anorexia, more severe disease assessment at admission, higher neutrophil, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels, lower platelet counts and albumin levels, and higher incidences of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion (P < .05). Patients with refractory COVID-19 were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment, including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and immune enhancers (P < .05). Considering the factors of disease severity at admission, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit transfer, patients with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to be male, have manifestations of anorexia on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant, and adjunctive agents (P < .05). CONCLUSION: In nearly 50% of patients with COVID-19 obvious clinical and radiological remission was not achieved within 10 days after hospitalization. Male, anorexia, and no fever at admission was predictive of poor treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4154-e4165, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559099

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Children and older adults with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) display a distinct spectrum of disease severity yet the risk factors aren't well understood. We sought to examine the expression pattern of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the cell-entry receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and the role of lung progenitor cells in children and older patients. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical features in a cohort of 299 patients with COVID-19. The expression and distribution of ACE2 and lung progenitor cells were systematically examined using a combination of public single-cell RNA-seq data sets, lung biopsies, and ex vivo infection of lung tissues with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus in children and older adults. We also followed up patients who had recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: Compared with children, older patients (>50 years.) were more likely to develop into serious pneumonia with reduced lymphocytes and aberrant inflammatory response (P = .001). The expression level of ACE2 and lung progenitor cell markers were generally decreased in older patients. Notably, ACE2 positive cells were mainly distributed in the alveolar region, including SFTPC positive cells, but rarely in airway regions in the older adults (P < .01). The follow-up of discharged patients revealed a prolonged recovery from pneumonia in the older (P < .025). CONCLUSIONS: Compared to children, ACE2 positive cells are generally decreased in older adults and mainly presented in the lower pulmonary tract. The lung progenitor cells are also decreased. These risk factors may impact disease severity and recovery from pneumonia caused by SARS-Cov-2 infection in older patients.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , COVID-19 , Stem Cells , Aged , Child , Humans , Lung/cytology , Middle Aged , RNA-Seq , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index
15.
CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets ; 20(5): 473-477, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526730

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome that presents with severe symptoms which can lead to dangerous and lethal conditions if not diagnosed and treated properly. SARS-- CoV-2 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus that can occur in severe cases with acute pneumonia, ARDS, sepsis and septic shock. In these cases, ICU admission is necessary. CASE SUMMARY: A 59-year-old Caucasian man with septic shock and bilateral interstitial pneumonia from SARS-CoV-2 and schizotypal personality disorder presented with catatonic behaviour manifested by soporous state, response to intense painful stimuli with the opening of the eyes, execution of simple verbal commands, maintenance of the same position, catalepsy, immobility, rigidity and mutism. At the same time, there were symptoms of septic shock and catatonic symptoms, causing greater difficulty in the correct formulation of the diagnosis. During the course of his hospitalization, he was treated with asenapine 20 mg/day. The catatonia responded rapidly and significantly to the asenapine. DISCUSSION: To date, the pathophysiology of catatonia is unclear, and few guidelines are available for the treatment of catatonia. In the literature, studies have reported the efficacy of benzodiazepines such as lorazepam and diazepam, GABAA agonists such as zolpidem, NMDA receptor antagonists such as memantine, antidepressant SSRIs such as fluoxetine and paroxetine, and antipsychotics such as olanzapine, clozapine and aripiprazole. We demonstrate that the antipsychotic asenapine is also effective in treating catatonic symptoms in psychiatric disorders. CONCLUSION: Asenapine produced a rapid and significant reduction in catatonic symptoms in our patient with schizotypal personality disorder.


Subject(s)
Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Catatonia/drug therapy , Catatonia/etiology , Depressive Disorder, Major/complications , Dibenzocycloheptenes/therapeutic use , Schizotypal Personality Disorder/complications , Shock, Septic/complications , Shock, Septic/etiology , Catatonia/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pain/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/complications
17.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(5): 627-632, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501243

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the predictive computed tomography (CT) and clinical features for diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: The CT and clinical data including were analyzed using univariate analysis and multinomial logistic regression, followed by receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. RESULTS: The factors including size of ground grass opacity (GGO), GGO with reticular and/or interlobular septal thickening, vascular enlargement, "tree-in-bud" opacity, centrilobular nodules, and stuffy or runny nose were associated with the 2 groups of viral pneumonia, as determined by univariate analysis (P < 0.05). Only GGO with reticular and/or interlobular septal thickening, centrilobular nodules, and stuffy or runny nose remained independent risk factors in multinomial logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the area under curve of the obtained logistic regression model was 0.893. CONCLUSION: Computed tomography and clinical features including GGO with reticular and/or interlobular septal thickening, absence of centrilobular nodules, and absence of stuffy or runny nose are potential patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Mucosal Immunol ; 14(6): 1224-1234, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387186

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological evidence establishes obesity as an independent risk factor for increased susceptibility and severity to viral respiratory pneumonias associated with H1N1 influenza and SARS-CoV-2 pandemics. Given the global obesity prevalence, a better understanding of the mechanisms behind obese susceptibility to infection is imperative. Altered immune cell metabolism and function are often perceived as a key causative factor of dysregulated inflammation. However, the contribution of adipocytes, the dominantly altered cell type in obesity with broad inflammatory properties, to infectious disease pathogenesis remains largely ignored. Thus, skewing of adipocyte-intrinsic cellular metabolism may lead to the development of pathogenic inflammatory adipocytes, which shape the overall immune responses by contributing to either premature immunosenescence, delayed hyperinflammation, or cytokine storm in infections. In this review, we discuss the underappreciated contribution of adipocyte cellular metabolism and adipocyte-produced mediators on immune system modulation and how such interplay may modify disease susceptibility and pathogenesis of influenza and SARS-CoV-2 infections in obese individuals.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/metabolism , Influenza, Human/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adipocytes/pathology , Adipocytes/virology , COVID-19/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/metabolism , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Influenza, Human/pathology
19.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): ahead of print, 2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389954

ABSTRACT

Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is a clinical entity characterized by positional dyspnoea (platypnea) and arterial desaturation (orthodeoxia) that occurs when sitting or standing up and usually resolves by lying down. POS may result from some cardiopulmonary disorders or from other miscellaneous aetiologies. We report a case of POS in a patient after fibrotic evolution of SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia associated with pulmonary embolism. The patient did not have any evidence of an intracardiac/intrapulmonary shunt.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Dyspnea/etiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dyspnea/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
20.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 22, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389801
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