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1.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2020 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898677

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus has wide community spread. The aim of this study was to describe patient characteristics and to identify factors associated with COVID-19 among emergency department patients under investigation for COVID-19 who were admitted to the hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study from eight emergency departments within a nine-hospital health system. Patients with COVID-19 testing around the time of hospital admission were included. The primary outcome measure was COVID-19 test result. Patient characteristics were described and a multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with a positive COVID-19 test. Results: During the study period from March 1, 2020 to April 8, 2020, 2,182 admitted patients had a test resulted for COVID-19. Of these patients, 786 (36%) had a positive test result. For COVID positive patients, 63 (8.1%) died during hospitalization. COVID-19 positive patients had lower pulse oximetry (0.91 [95%CI], [0.88-0.94]), higher temperatures (1.36 [1.26-1.47]), and lower leukocyte counts than negative patients (0.78 [0.75-0.82]). Chronic lung disease (OR 0.68, [0.52-0.90]) and histories of alcohol (0.64 [0.42-0.99]) or substance abuse (0.39 [0.25-0.62]) were less likely to be associated with a positive COVID-19 result. Conclusion: We observed a high percentage of positive results among an admitted emergency department cohort under investigation for COVID-19. Patient factors may be useful in early differentiation of patients with COVID-19 from similarly presenting respiratory illnesses although no single factor will serve this purpose. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Am Surg ; : 3134821998684, 2021 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1892040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Improvements in health care innovations have resulted in an enhanced ability to extend patient viability. As a consequence, resources are being increasingly utilized at an unsustainable level. As we implement novel treatments, identifying futility should be a focus. The "death diamond" (DD) is a unique thrombelastography (TEG) tracing that is indicative of failure of the coagulation system, with a mortality rate exceeding 90%. The purpose of this study was to determine if the DD was a consistent marker of poor survival in a multicenter study population. We hypothesize that the DD, while an infrequent occurrence, predicts poor survival and can be used to stratify patients in whom resuscitation efforts are futile. METHODS: A retrospective multi-institutional study of trauma patients presenting with TEG DDs between 8/2008 and 12/2018 at four American College of Surgeons trauma centers was completed. Demographics, injury mechanisms, TEG results, management, and survival were examined. RESULTS: A total of 50 trauma patients presented with DD tracings, with a 94% (n = 47) mortality rate. Twenty-six (52%) patients received a repeat TEG with 10 patients re-demonstrating the DD tracing. There was 100% mortality in patients with serial DD tracings. The median use of total blood products was 18 units (interquartile range 6, 34.25) per patient. DISCUSSION: The DD is highly predictive of trauma-associated mortality. This multicenter study highlights that serial DDs may represent a possible biomarker of futility.

3.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S45-S47, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792228

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected all the aspects of life of mankind, posing unique challenges for health-care services. In order to contain the spread of the virus, a countrywide mass lockdown has been imposed in India. Although the lockdown has modified the epidemic trajectory, it has affected the lives of many non-COVID patients. Patients in need of care could not approach hospitals. METHODS: This retrospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Onco-Anaesthesia and Palliative Medicine at a tertiary care center in India. The yearly data of patient flow for the year 2019 was compared with that during the lockdown. RESULTS: The single-day average of out-patients, in-patients, and other department consultation requests requiring palliative care decreased drastically during the lockdown in comparison to the previous year. The single-day average of teleconsultations increased more than double during the lockdown. CONCLUSION: Although lockdown decreases the spread of the epidemic, it increases the suffering of other patients who require medical care. Various steps have to be adopted in the regular working pattern of hospitals to cater to the needs of the patients requiring care, without increasing the risk of contracting COVID-19.

4.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S86-S89, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792219

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand the trend of prevalence of symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, some studies have been conducted outside India, but for Indian patients, there is no such study available. Therefore, this study was designed to analyze the trends of symptoms in Indian patients during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients (73 males, 24 females, and 3 transgenders) admitted under institutional isolation at a tertiary care center in India using a self-designed survey-based questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of results done based on age and sex. RESULTS: COVID incidence recorded is high in male (73%) as compared to female (24%), yet female patients have a higher prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. CONCLUSION: Male patients are more as far as COVID incidence is concerned, while female patients show high prevalence of symptoms as compared to male patients. Patients presenting with COVID-positive report suffer a significant burden of symptoms, and timely recognition of symptoms and their management can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19.

5.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 24(10): 914-918, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) has declared SARS-CoV-2 as pandemic. Patients with COVID-19 present mainly with respiratory symptoms. Prone position has been traditionally used in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) to improve oxygenation and prevent barotrauma in ventilated patients. Awake proning is being used as an investigational therapy in COVID to defer invasive ventilation, improve oxygenation, and outcomes. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case study to look for benefits of awake proning with oxygen therapy in non-intubated COVID patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case study of 15 COVID patients admitted from June 15 to July 1, 2020 to HDU in our hospital was conducted. Cooperative patients who were hemodynamically stable and SpO2 < 90% on presentation were included. Oxygen was administered through facemask, non-rebreathing mask and noninvasive ventilation to patients as per requirement. Patients were encouraged to maintain prone position and target time was 10-12 hours/day. SpO2 and P/f ratio in supine and prone position was observed till discharge. Primary target was SpO2 > 95% and P/f > 200 mm Hg. Other COVID therapies were used according to institutional protocol. RESULTS: The mean SpO2 on room air on admission was 80%. In day 1 to 3, the mean P/f ratio in supine position was 98.8 ± 29.7 mm Hg which improved to 136.6 ± 38.8 mm Hg after proning (p = 0.005). The difference was significant from day 1 to 10. Two patients were intubated. The mean duration of stay was 11 days. CONCLUSION: Awake prone positioning showed marked improvement in P/f ratio and SpO2 in COVID-19 patients with improvement in clinical symptoms with reduced rate of intubation. HIGHLIGHTS: Prone position ventilation improves oxygenation by reducing V/Q mismatch.Awake prone positioning has been used along with high-flow oxygen therapy in recent pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 virus for management of mild to moderate cases. HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE: Singh P, Jain P, Deewan H. Awake Prone Positioning in COVID-19 Patients. Indian J Crit Care Med 2020;24(10):914-918.

6.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3360-3368, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: COVID-19-related acute neurological phenotypes are being increasingly recognised, with neurological complications reported in more than 30% of hospitalised patients. However, multicentric studies providing a population-based perspective are lacking. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective multicentric study at five hospitals in Northern Portugal, representing 45.1% of all hospitalised patients in this region, between 1 March and 30 June 2020. RESULTS: Among 1261 hospitalised COVID-19 patients, 457 (36.2%) presented neurological manifestations, corresponding to a rate of 357 per 1000 in the North Region. Patients with neurologic manifestations were younger (68.0 vs. 71.2 years, p = 0.002), and the most frequent neurological symptoms were headache (13.4%), delirium (10.1%), and impairment of consciousness (9.7%). Acute well-defined central nervous system (CNS) involvement was found in 19.1% of patients, corresponding to a rate of 217 per 1000 hospitalised patients in the whole region. Assuming that all patients with severe neurological events were hospitalised, we extrapolated our results to all COVID-19 patients in the region, estimating that 116 will have a severe neurological event, corresponding to a rate of nine per 1000 (95% CI = 7-11). Overall case fatality in patients presenting neurological manifestations was 19.8%, increasing to 32.6% among those with acute well-defined CNS involvement. CONCLUSIONS: We characterised the population of hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Northern Portugal and found that neurological symptoms are common and associated with a high degree of disability at discharge. CNS involvement with criteria for in-hospital admission was observed in a significant proportion of patients. This knowledge provides the tools for adequate health planning and for improving COVID-19 multidisciplinary patient care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Portugal/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4208-e4213, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe adult respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, occurred in Wuhan, and rapidly spread throughout China. This study aimed to clarify the characteristics of patients with refractory COVID-19. METHODS: In this retrospective single-center study, we included 155 consecutive patients with confirmed COVID-19 in Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University from 1 January to 5 February. The cases were divided into general and refractory COVID-19 groups according to the clinical efficacy of treatment after hospitalization, and the differences between groups were compared. RESULTS: Compared with patients with general COVID-19 (45.2%), those with refractory disease were older, were more likely to be male, and had more underlying comorbid conditions, a lower incidence of fever, higher maximum temperatures among patients with fever, higher incidences of shortness of breath and anorexia, more severe disease assessment at admission, higher neutrophil, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and C-reactive protein levels, lower platelet counts and albumin levels, and higher incidences of bilateral pneumonia and pleural effusion (P < .05). Patients with refractory COVID-19 were more likely to receive oxygen, mechanical ventilation, expectorant, and adjunctive treatment, including corticosteroids, antiviral drugs, and immune enhancers (P < .05). Considering the factors of disease severity at admission, mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit transfer, patients with refractory COVID-19 were also more likely to be male, have manifestations of anorexia on admission, and receive oxygen, expectorant, and adjunctive agents (P < .05). CONCLUSION: In nearly 50% of patients with COVID-19 obvious clinical and radiological remission was not achieved within 10 days after hospitalization. Male, anorexia, and no fever at admission was predictive of poor treatment efficacy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Fever , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Drugs Real World Outcomes ; 8(3): 417-425, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients are admitted to intensive care units so they can be comprehensively managed and provided with services not covered in general hospital wards, with the aim to increase their chances of survival. These procedures include invasive mechanical ventilation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with survival in critically ill patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit of a tertiary-level hospital in Colombia. METHODS: This was a retrospective follow-up study of a cohort of adult patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit in San José de Buga Hospital, between 2017 and 2018. Sociodemographic, clinical, and pharmacological variables were identified. Using Cox regression, variables associated with survival and complications were identified. RESULTS: A total of 357 patients were analyzed. The average age was 64.8 ± 18.9 years, and 52.9% were male. The most frequent diagnoses were sepsis/septic shock (38.4%) and trauma (17.4%). The main factors associated with shorter survival were advanced age (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.96-0.99), a diagnosis of septic shock (HR 0.29; 95% CI 0.18-0.48) or diabetes mellitus at admission (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.33-0.98), a healthcare-associated infection (HR 0.51; 95% CI 0.33-0.80), and the need for vasopressors (HR 0.36; 95% CI 0.22-0.59). The administration of systemic corticosteroids was associated with a higher probability of survival (HR 1.93; 95% CI 1.15-3.25). CONCLUSIONS: The use of systemic corticosteroids was associated with a greater probability of survival in critically ill patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit. The identification of the variables associated with a higher risk of dying should allow care protocols to be improved, thereby extending the life expectancy of these patients.

9.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 479(7): 1417-1425, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1511052

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare disparities are well documented across multiple subspecialties in orthopaedics. The widespread implementation of telemedicine risks worsening these disparities if not carefully executed, despite original assumptions that telemedicine improves overall access to care. Telemedicine also poses unique challenges such as potential language or technological barriers that may alter previously described patterns in orthopaedic disparities. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: Are the proportions of patients who use telemedicine across orthopaedic services different among (1) racial and ethnic minorities, (2) non-English speakers, and (3) patients insured through Medicaid during a 10-week period after the implementation of telemedicine in our healthcare system compared with in-person visits during a similar time period in 2019? METHODS: This was a retrospective comparative study using electronic medical record data to compare new patients establishing orthopaedic care via outpatient telemedicine at two academic urban medical centers between March 2020 and May 2020 with new orthopaedic patients during the same 10-week period in 2019. A total of 11,056 patients were included for analysis, with 1760 in the virtual group and 9296 in the control group. Unadjusted analyses demonstrated patients in the virtual group were younger (median age 57 years versus 59 years; p < 0.001), but there were no differences with regard to gender (56% female versus 56% female; p = 0.66). We used self-reported race or ethnicity as our primary independent variable, with primary language and insurance status considered secondarily. Unadjusted and multivariable adjusted analyses were performed for our primary and secondary predictors using logistic regression. We also assessed interactions between race or ethnicity, primary language, and insurance type. RESULTS: After adjusting for age, gender, subspecialty, insurance, and median household income, we found that patients who were Hispanic (odds ratio 0.59 [95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.91]; p = 0.02) or Asian were less likely (OR 0.73 [95% CI 0.53 to 0.99]; p = 0.04) to be seen through telemedicine than were patients who were white. After controlling for confounding variables, we also found that speakers of languages other than English or Spanish were less likely to have a telemedicine visit than were people whose primary language was English (OR 0.34 [95% CI 0.18 to 0.65]; p = 0.001), and that patients insured through Medicaid were less likely to be seen via telemedicine than were patients who were privately insured (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.69 to 0.98]; p = 0.03). CONCLUSION: Despite initial promises that telemedicine would help to bridge gaps in healthcare, our results demonstrate disparities in orthopaedic telemedicine use based on race or ethnicity, language, and insurance type. The telemedicine group was slightly younger, which we do not believe undermines the findings. As healthcare moves toward increased telemedicine use, we suggest several approaches to ensure that patients of certain racial, ethnic, or language groups do not experience disparate barriers to care. These might include individual patient- or provider-level approaches like expanded telemedicine schedules to accommodate weekends and evenings, institutional investment in culturally conscious outreach materials such as advertisements on community transport systems, or government-level provisions such as reimbursement for telephone-only encounters. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level III, therapeutic study.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Health Plan Implementation , Healthcare Disparities/ethnology , Humans , Insurance Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Language , Male , Medicaid , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/methods , United States
10.
Vox Sang ; 116(9): 983-989, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462885

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) caused a sudden and unexpected increase in the number of hospital admissions and deaths worldwide. The impact of social distancing on blood stocks was significant. Data on the use of blood products by patients with COVID-19 are scarce. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted by analysing the medical records of 3014 hospitalized COVID-19 patients in 16 Brazilian hospitals. Individual data related to clinical, laboratory and transfusion characteristics and outcomes of these patients were collected. Patients characteristics association with mortality and transfusion need were tested independently by logistic regression models. RESULTS: Patients mean age was 57·6 years. In 2298 (76·2%) patients, there was an underlying clinical comorbidity. A total of 1657 (55%) patients required admission to intensive care unit (ICU), and 943 (31%) patients required ventilatory support and orotracheal intubation (OTI). There was a total of 471 (15·6%) deaths among all patients. 325 patients (10·7%) required blood transfusion; 3187 blood products were transfused: 1364 red blood cells in 303 patients, 1092 platelet units in 78 patients, 303 fresh frozen plasma in 49 patients and 423 cryoprecipitates in 21 patients. The mortality among patients who received transfusion was substantially higher than that among the total study population. CONCLUSION: Need for transfusion was low in COVID-19 patients, but significantly higher in patients admitted to ICU and in those who needed OTI. Knowledge of the transfusion profile of these patients allows better strategies for maintaining the blood stocks of hospitals during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Blood Transfusion , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Ghana Med J ; 54(4 Suppl): 46-51, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436194

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was diagnosed in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and, in Ghana, in March 2020. As of 30th July 2020, Ghana had recorded 35,142 cases. COVID-19 which can be transmitted by both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals usually manifest as pneumonia with symptoms like fever, cough, dyspnoea and fatigue. The current non-availability of a vaccine or drug for COVID-19 management calls for early detection and isolation of affected individuals. Chest imaging has become an integral part of patient management with chest radiography serving as a primary imaging modality in many centres. METHODS: The study was a retrospective study conducted at Ga East Municipal Hospital (GEMH). Chest radiographs of patients with mild to moderate disease managed at GEMH were evaluated. The age, gender, symptom status, comorbidities and chest x-ray findings of the patients were documented. RESULTS: 11.4 % of the patients had some form of respiratory abnormality on chest radiography with 88.9% showing COVID-19 pneumonia features. 93.8% showed ground glass opacities (GGO), with 3.1% each showing consolidation (CN) only and CN with GGO. There was a significant association between COVID-19 radiographic features and patient's age, symptom status and comorbidities but not with gender. CONCLUSION: Most radiographs were normal with only 11% showing COVID-19-like abnormality. There was a significant association between age, symptom status and comorbidities with the presence of COVID-19 like features but not for gender. There was no association between the extent of the lung changes and patient characteristics. FUNDING: None declared.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Hospitals, Urban , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Symptom Assessment/methods , Young Adult
12.
Clin Rheumatol ; 40(10): 4179-4189, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a new clinical condition characterized by signs of inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction due to cytokine storm associated with SARS-CoV-2. The clinical spectrum of MIS-C ranges from mild to severe, and even to mortal multisystem involvement. To guide clinicians, we evaluated detailed demographic characteristics, clinical features, laboratory findings, and outcomes of MIS-C cases. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with MIS-C who were managed in the Department of Pediatric Infectious Disease in the Selcuk University Faculty of Medicine, Konya, Turkey. MIS-C patients were divided into three clinical severity groups (mild, moderate, and severe) and separated into three age groups (< 5 years, 5-10 years, > 10 years). We compared the characteristics of MIS-C cases according to the severity of the disease and by age groups. RESULT: Thirty-six children with MIS-C were evaluated (52.8% male, median age of 7.8 years). A clinical spectrum overlapping with Kawasaki disease (KD) was the most common presentation (69.4%) in all age groups. The most common clinical symptoms were fever (100%), mucocutaneous rash (69.4%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (66.6%). There was no statistically significant difference in echocardiographic abnormality between KD-like and the other clinical spectra (p > 0.05). All life-threatening rhythm disturbances were observed in severe cases. No patients died. CONCLUSION: It is important to increase the awareness of physicians about the MIS-C disease, which can present with different combinations of different systemic findings, so that patients can be diagnosed and treated in a timely manner. Key Points • A single tertiary centre study shows that children with MIS-C can present with different clinic spectra other than Kawasaki diseases. • Electrocardiographic and echocardiographic evaluation is important in early diagnosis of children with MIS-C. • Pro-BNP can be used as a screening test in the emergency room for children with prolonged and unexplained fever for determine early cardiac involvement of MIS-C. • The lack of require biological agents and favourable outcomes in children with MIS-C may be related with administration of steroid therapy with IVIG in early stage of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Turkey/epidemiology
13.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 611460, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389196

ABSTRACT

Background: The data on long-term outcomes of patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in China are merely available. Methods: A retrospective study included 73 patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 and treated with ECMO in 21 intensive care units in Hubei, China. Data on demographic information, clinical features, laboratory tests, ECMO durations, complications, and living status were collected. Results: The 73 ECMO-treated patients had a median age of 62 (range 33-78) years and 42 (63.6%) were males. Before ECMO initiation, patients had severe respiratory failure on mechanical ventilation with a median PO2/FiO2 of 71.9 [interquartile range (IQR), 58.6-87.0] mmHg and a median PCO2 of 62 [IQR, 43-84] mmHg on arterial blood analyses. The median duration from symptom onset to invasive mechanical ventilation, and to ECMO initiation was19 [IQR, 15-25] days, and 23 [IQR, 19-31] days. Before and after ECMO initiation, the proportions of patients receiving prone position ventilation were 58.9 and 69.9%, respectively. The median duration of ECMO support was 18.5 [IQR 12-30] days. During the treatments with ECMO, major hemorrhages occurred in 31 (42.5%) patients, and oxygenators were replaced in 21 (28.8%) patients. Since ECMO initiation, the 30-day mortality and 60-day mortality were 63.0 and 80.8%, respectively. Conclusions: In Hubei, China, the ECMO-treated patients infected by SARS-CoV-2 were of a broad age range and with severe hypoxemia. The durations of ECMO support, accompanied with increased complications, were relatively long. The long-term mortality in these patients was considerably high.

14.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 293-298, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380101

ABSTRACT

The prognostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) needs to be clarified. In this retrospective study, COVID-19 patients treated at Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 7 to February 8, 2020 with measurements of serum IL-6 levels within 1 week after admission were included. Data regarding demographics, clinical characteristics, laboratory tests, complications, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Sixty-six patients diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in this study (31 patients were females). They were divided into a normal group (serum IL-6 <10 pg/mL, n = 35) and an abnormal group (serum IL-6 <10 pg/mL, n = 31). Compared with the normal group, the incidence of critical cases (P <0.001), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (P = 0.001), acute cardiac injury (P = 0.002), cardiac insufficiency (P = 0.039), mechanical ventilation rate (P = 0.002), and mortality (P = 0.021) was significantly increased in the abnormal group. Serum IL-6 concentration was an independent predictor of fatal outcome (P = 0.04). The optimal cutoff value of serum IL-6 concentration for predicting fatal outcomes was 26.09 pg/mL (P <0.001). In COVID-19, elevated serum IL-6 levels were associated with critical illness, use of mechanical ventilation, and complications, including heart injury and ARDS, and could predict a fatal outcome. Early detection of serum IL-6 levels after admission should be necessary in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Prognosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/mortality , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 422-427, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364095

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and deaths from opportunistic infections in Guatemala. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people with HIV at a referral clinic (Clinica Familiar Luis Angel García, CFLAG), as well as the disruption of services at a diagnostic laboratory hub (DLH) which provides diagnosis for opportunistic infections to a network of 13 HIV healthcare facilities. Comparative analysis was undertaken using the months March-August from two different time periods: (i) pre-COVID-19 (2017-2019); and (ii) during the COVID-19 period (2020). RESULTS: During the COVID-19 period, 7360 HIV tests were performed at Clinica Familiar Luis Angel García, compared with an average of 16,218 tests in the pre-COVID-19 period; a reduction of 54.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 53.8-55.4%],Deaths from opportunistic infections at 90 days were 10.7% higher in 2020 compared with 2019 (27.3% vs 16.6%; P = 0.05). Clinical samples sent to the DLH for diagnosis of opportunistic infections decreased by 43.7% in 2020 (95% CI 41.0-46.2%). CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic is having a substantial impact on HIV care in Guatemala. Diagnostic services for HIV have been severely affected and deaths from opportunistic infections have increased. The lessons learnt must guide the introduction of strategies to reduce the impact of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Guatemala/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Int J Clin Pract ; 75(3): e13632, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1343867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The profiles of liver function abnormalities in COVID-19 patients need to be clarified. METHODS: In this retrospective study, consecutive COVID-19 patients over 60 years old in Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University from January 1 to February 6 were included. Data of demographics, clinical characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory tests, medications and outcomes were collected and analysed. Sequential alterations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were monitored. RESULTS: A total of 330 patients were included and classified into two groups with normal (n = 234) or elevated ALT (n = 96). There were fewer females (40.6% vs 54.7%, P = .020) and more critical cases (30.2% vs 19.2%, P = .026) in patients with elevated ALT compared with the normal group. Higher levels of bacterial infection indices (eg, white blood cell count, neutrophil count, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin) were observed in the elevated group. Spearman correlation showed that both ALT and AST levels were positively correlated with those indices of bacterial infection. No obvious effects of medications on ALT abnormalities were found. In patients with elevated ALT, most ALT elevations were mild and transient. 59.4% of the patients had ALT concentrations of 41-100 U/L, while only a few patients (5.2%) had high serum ALT concentrations above 300 U/L. ALT elevations occurred at 13 (10-17) days and recovered at 28 (18-35) days from disease onset. For most patients, the elevation of serum ALT levels occurred at 6-20 days after disease onset and reached their peak values within a similar time frame. The recovery of serum ALT levels to normal frequently occurred at 16-20 days or 31-35 days after disease onset. CONCLUSIONS: Liver function abnormalities were observed in 29.1% of elderly people COVID-19 patients, which were slightly and transient in most cases. Liver function abnormalities in COVID-19 may be correlated with bacterial infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Diseases , Aged , Female , Humans , Liver , Liver Function Tests , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1743-1746, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy is a common abnormality in patients with COVID-19. However, the exact incidence of venous thromboembolic event is unknown in anticoagulated, severe COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: Systematic assessment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) using complete duplex ultrasound (CDU) in anticoagulated COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in 2 French intensive care units (ICU) where CDU is performed as a standard of care. A CDU from thigh to ankle at selected sites with Doppler waveforms and images was performed early during ICU stay in patients admitted with COVID-19. Anticoagulation dose was left to the discretion of the treating physician based on the individual risk of thrombosis. Patients were classified as treated with prophylactic anticoagulation or therapeutic anticoagulation. Pulmonary embolism was systematically searched in patients with persistent hypoxemia or secondary deterioration. RESULTS: From March 19 to April 11, 2020, 26 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 were screened for VTE. Eight patients (31%) were treated with prophylactic anticoagulation, whereas 18 patients (69%) were treated with therapeutic anticoagulation. The overall rate of VTE in patients was 69%. The proportion of VTE was significantly higher in patients treated with prophylactic anticoagulation when compared with the other group (100% vs 56%, respectively, P = .03). Surprisingly, we found a high rate of thromboembolic events in COVID-19 patients treated with therapeutic anticoagulation, with 56% of VTE and 6 pulmonary embolisms. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest considering both systematic screening of VTE and early therapeutic anticoagulation in severe ICU COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/virology
18.
Ann Surg ; 274(2): 234-239, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 respiratory failure. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Tracheostomy has an essential role in managing COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. However, limited data are available on how tracheostomy affects COVID-19 outcomes, and uncertainty surrounding risk of infectious transmission has led to divergent recommendations and practices. METHODS: It is a multicenter, retrospective study; data were collected on all tracheostomies performed in COVID-19 patients at 7 hospitals in 5 tertiary academic medical systems from February 1, 2020 to September 4, 2020. RESULT: Tracheotomy was performed in 118 patients with median time from intubation to tracheostomy of 22 days (Q1-Q3: 18-25). All tracheostomies were performed employing measures to minimize aerosol generation, 78.0% by percutaneous technique, and 95.8% at bedside in negative pressure rooms. Seventy-eight (66.1%) patients were weaned from the ventilator and 18 (15.3%) patients died from causes unrelated to tracheostomy. No major procedural complications occurred. Early tracheostomy (≤14 days) was associated with decreased ventilator days; median ventilator days (Q1-Q3) among patients weaned from the ventilator in the early, middle and late groups were 21 (21-31), 34 (26.5-42), and 37 (32-41) days, respectively with P = 0.030. Compared to surgical tracheostomy, percutaneous technique was associated with faster weaning for patients weaned off the ventilator [median (Q1-Q3): 34 (29-39) vs 39 (34-51) days, P = 0.038]; decreased ventilator-associated pneumonia (58.7% vs 80.8%, P = 0.039); and among patients who were discharged, shorter intensive care unit duration [median (Q1-Q3): 33 (27-42) vs 47 (33-64) days, P = 0.009]; and shorter hospital length of stay [median (Q1-Q3): 46 (33-59) vs 59.5 (48-80) days, P = 0.001]. CONCLUSION: Early, percutaneous tracheostomy was associated with improved outcomes compared to surgical tracheostomy in a multi-institutional series of ventilated patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Aged , Cross Infection/transmission , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tracheotomy/methods , United States
19.
Int J Infect Dis ; 106: 71-77, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279592

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Remdesivir is the current recommended anti-viral treatment in moderate-to-severe COVID-19. However, data on impact of timing of therapy, efficacy, and safety are limited. We evaluated the impact of timing of remdesivir initiation (symptom onset to remdesivir treatment [SORT] interval) on in-hospital all-cause mortality in patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19. METHODS: This retrospective study was conducted between June 25 and October 3, 2020, at a tertiary care dedicated COVID center in India. Patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 (moderate: SpO2 <94%; severe: SpO2 <90%) were included. The main outcome was impact of SORT interval on in-hospital all-cause mortality. Subgroups were formed and analyzed based on SORT interval. RESULTS: Of 350 patients treated with remdesivir, 346 were included in the final analysis. Overall, 76 (22.0%) patients died (moderate: 3 [2.8%], severe: 73 [30.8%]). All-cause mortality was significantly lower in patients with SORT interval ≤9 days (n = 260) vs SORT interval >9 days (n = 86; 18.1% vs 33.7%; p = 0.004). The odds of death were significantly lower in patients with SORT interval ≤9 days vs >9 days (odds ratio = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.25-0.75; p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Remdesivir initiation ≤9 days from symptom onset was associated with mortality benefit, defining a treatment window and reinforcing the need for appropriately-timed remdesivir in moderate-to-severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
20.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 31(2): 020710, 2021 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has posed several challenges to clinical laboratories across the globe. Amidst the outbreak, errors occurring in the preanalytical phase of sample collection, transport and processing, can further lead to undesirable clinical consequences. Thus, this study was designed with the following objectives: (i) to determine and compare the blood specimen rejection rate of a clinical laboratory and (ii) to characterise and compare the types of preanalytical errors between the pre-pandemic and the pandemic phases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study was carried out in a trauma-care hospital, presently converted to COVID-19 care centre. Data was collected from (i) pre-pandemic phase: 1st October 2019 to 23rd March 2020 and (ii) pandemic phase: 24th March to 31st October 2020. Blood specimen rejection rate was calculated as the proportion of blood collection tubes with preanalytical errors out of the total number received, expressed as percentage. RESULTS: Total of 107,716 blood specimens were screened of which 43,396 (40.3%) were received during the pandemic. The blood specimen rejection rate during the pandemic was significantly higher than the pre-pandemic phase (3.0% versus 1.1%; P < 0.001). Clotted samples were the commonest source of preanalytical errors in both phases. There was a significant increase in the improperly labelled samples (P < 0.001) and samples with insufficient volume (P < 0.001), whereas, a significant decline in samples with inadequate sample-anticoagulant ratio and haemolysed samples (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In the ongoing pandemic, preanalytical errors and resultant blood specimen rejection rate in the clinical laboratory have significantly increased due to changed logistics. The study highlights the need for corrective steps at various levels to reduce preanalytical errors in order to optimise patient care and resource utilisation.


Subject(s)
Blood Specimen Collection/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pre-Analytical Phase , Blood Specimen Collection/instrumentation , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Diagnostic Errors , Humans , Laboratories, Hospital/standards , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
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