Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 65
Filter
1.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5777-5782, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432408

ABSTRACT

High antibody titers have been found to correlate with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Therefore, antibody titers may be higher in older adults, whose disease is known to have a more severe course than younger ones. This study aimed to compare the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level in the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to test positive older adults with young. Patients aged ≥18 with positive RT-PCR and checked serum IgG antibodies between November 1, 2020 and January 13, 2021 were included. The IgG antibody levels and the time between RT-PCR positivity with the antibody levels were recorded. A total of 1071 patients were divided into two groups as Group 1 <60 years old (n = 902) and Group 2 ≥60 years old (n = 169). The SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers were higher in Group 2 (p = 0.001). This height was present in the first 3 months after positive RT-PCR. While the antibody titers were compared by dividing Group 2 into the three groups according to age ranges (60-69, 70-79, and ≥80 years), the antibody titer was higher in ≥80 years patients (p = 0.044). High COVID-19 IgG antibody levels may be associated with the severity of the disease. Also, the humoral immunity advantage was seen in the first 3 months in the older patients, which suggests that older adults with COVID-19 may develop reinfection in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors
2.
Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis ; 100(4): 115382, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385399

ABSTRACT

Sensitivity and specificity of serological assays are key parameters for the accurate estimation of SARS-CoV-2 sero-prevalence. The aim of this study was to compare 8 readily available IgG antibody tests using a panel of well-defined serum samples of prepandemic and pandemic origin. A cross-reaction panel included samples of patients with recent infection with either of the endemic Coronaviruses 229E, NL63, HKU1, or OC43. Additionally, samples with high antibody levels against influenza virus, adenovirus, and during acute EBV infection were included. Previous infection with endemic coronaviruses caused a significant amount of cross-reactivity in two of the assays. In contrast, the confidence intervals for the assays of Abbott, DiaSorin, Euroimmun and Roche encompassed the value of 98% for samples with a previous endemic HCoV infection. For all assays, sensitivities were between 91.3% and 98.8%. Assay performance was independent of the usage of either nucleocapsid or spike proteins.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sensitivity and Specificity , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Viral Proteins , Young Adult
3.
Virol J ; 18(1): 1, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388776

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Virus neutralization by antibodies is an important prognostic factor in many viral diseases. To easily and rapidly measure titers of neutralizing antibodies in serum or plasma, we developed pseudovirion particles composed of the spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 incorporated onto murine leukemia virus capsids and a modified minimal murine leukemia virus genome encoding firefly luciferase. This assay design is intended for use in laboratories with biocontainment level 2 and therefore circumvents the need for the biocontainment level 3 that would be required for replication-competent SARS-CoV-2 virus. To validate the pseudovirion assay, we set up comparisons with other available antibody tests including those from Abbott, Euroimmun and Siemens, using archived, known samples. RESULTS: 11 out of 12 SARS-CoV-2-infected patient serum samples showed neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2-spike pseudotyped MLV viruses, with neutralizing titers-50 (NT50) that ranged from 1:25 to 1:1,417. Five historical samples from patients hospitalized for severe influenza infection in 2016 tested negative in the neutralization assay (NT50 < 25). Three serum samples with high neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2/MLV pseudoviruses showed no detectable neutralizing activity (NT50 < 25) against SARS-CoV-1/MLV pseudovirions. We also compared the semiquantitative Siemens SARS-CoV-2 IgG test, which measures binding of IgG to recombinantly expressed receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein with the neutralization titers obtained in the pseudovirion assay and the results show high concordance between the two tests (R2 = 0.9344). CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 spike/MLV pseudovirions provide a practical means of assessing neutralizing activity of antibodies in serum or plasma from infected patients under laboratory conditions consistent with biocontainment level 2. This assay offers promise also in evaluating immunogenicity of spike glycoprotein-based candidate vaccines in the near future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Leukemia/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Virion/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Mice
4.
Lab Med ; 52(5): e137-e146, 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387950

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe a cross-institutional approach to verify the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay and to document the kinetics of the serological response. METHODS: We conducted analytical performance evaluation studies using the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay on 5 Abbott ARCHITECT i2000 automated analyzers at 2 academic medical centers. RESULTS: Within-run and between-run coefficients of variance (CVs) for the antibody assay did not exceed 5.6% and 8.6%, respectively, for each institution. Quantitative and qualitative results agreed for lithium heparin plasma, EDTA-plasma and serum specimen types. Results for all SARS-CoV-2 IgG-positive and -negative specimens were concordant among analyzers except for 1 specimen at 1 institution. Qualitative and quantitative agreement was observed for specimens exchanged between institutions. All patients had detectable antibodies by day 10 from symptom onset and maintained seropositivity throughout specimen procurement. CONCLUSIONS: The analytical performance characteristics of the Abbott ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 antibody assay within and between 2 academic medical center clinical laboratories were acceptable for widespread clinical-laboratory use.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoassay/standards , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Academic Medical Centers , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sensitivity and Specificity , Virginia
5.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 333-336, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1380102

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the infection rate of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among different populations in Wuhan, China. This cross-sectional survey-based study examined the results of SARS-CoV-2-specific serological tests and RT-PCR tests for 4,454 community residents and 4,614 healthcare workers performed from May 15 to May 29, 2020. The healthcare workers were classified as administrative and logistical staff (n = 1,378), non-first-line healthcare workers (n = 2,630), or first-line healthcare workers (n = 606) according to their frequency of contact with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients. The positive rates of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM, and RNA were 2.9%, 0.4%, and 0.1% for the community residents and 3.3%, 0.6%, and 0.2% for the healthcare workers, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the rates of the two groups. Spearman's correlation analysis showed that the frequency of contact with COVID-19 patients negatively correlated with the positive rates of RT-PCR (rs = -0.036, P = 0.016), but did not significantly correlate with the positive rates of IgM (rs = -0.006, P = 0.698) or IgG (rs = 0.017, P = 0.239). There was no statistically significant difference between the SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM, or RNA positive rates of the community residents and those of the healthcare workers. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was lower for the first-line healthcare workers than for the non-first-line healthcare workers and the administrative and logistical staff.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Serology/methods
6.
J Perinat Med ; 49(6): 709-716, 2021 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327988

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic poses special challenges for the society and especially the medical staff. Even if a rather mild course is assumed among pregnant women the measures to prevent transmission of the infection are of outstanding importance. METHODS: To screen asymptomatic pregnant women during admission to our university maternal hospital we focused on anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA antibody responses. Hundred and fifty one women admitted to the hospital for childbirth or caesarean delivery were included. In case of suspicious anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody levels an RT-PCR was performed to confirm an ongoing infection with SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: A total of 89% showed negative results for anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgA antibodies, whereas 3% were borderline and 7% positive (both labeled as suspicious). In only one patient with suspicious serology we detected SARS-CoV-2-RNA in the following RT-PCR. 2% presented anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgG antibodies, all being positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2-IgA. The observed positive rate of our study collective of 10.6% seemed much higher than the expected one (1.3%) based on the reports of the Robert Koch Institute and the specifications given by the test's manufacturer. The expected positive predictive value (PPV) was 4.3-6.7 times higher than the observed one. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this is the first report of anti-SARS-CoV-2-antibody levels in the peripartum period of asymptomatic women. As the positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 serology poorly correlated with the confirmatory RT-PCR and the fact that mainly the detection of the virus by PCR correlates with the patient's infectiousness we suggest to rather perform a SARS-CoV-2-PCR-based admission screening in perinatal centers to prevent the spread of the disease.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Young Adult
7.
Infection ; 49(5): 1039-1043, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274987

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The CoSHeP study provides novel data on SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion rates in healthcare professionals (HP) at risk at the University Hospital Bonn, a maximum healthcare provider in a region of 900.000 inhabitants. METHODS: Single-center, longitudinal observational study investigating rate of SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroconversion in HP at 2 time-points. SARS-CoV-2 IgG was measured with Roche Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay. RESULTS: Overall, 150 HP were included. Median age was 35 (range: 19-68). Main operational areas were intensive care unit (53%, n = 80), emergency room (31%, n = 46), and infectious disease department (16%, n = 24). SARS-CoV-2-IgG was detected in 5 participants (3%) at inclusion in May/June 2020, and in another 11 participants at follow-up (December 2020/ January 2021). Of the 16 seropositive participants, 14 had already known their SARS-CoV-2 infection because they had performed a PCR-test previously triggered by symptoms. Trailing chains of infection by self-assessment, 31% (n = 5) of infections were acquired through private contacts, 25% (n = 4) most likely through semi-private contacts during work. 13% (n = 2) were assumed to result through contact with contagious patients, further trailing was unsuccessful in 31% (n = 5). All five participants positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG at inclusion remained positive with a median of 7 months after infection. DISCUSSION: Frontline HP caring for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 are at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Noteworthy, based upon identified chains of infection most of the infections were acquired in private environment and semi-private contacts during work. The low rate of infection through infectious patients reveals that professional hygiene standards are effective in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infections in HP. Persisting SARS-CoV-2-IgG might indicate longer lasting immunity supporting prioritization of negative HP for vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Delivery of Health Care , Health Personnel , Humans , Seroconversion
8.
Neurol Sci ; 42(9): 3527-3530, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274855

ABSTRACT

Neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 are increasingly being recognised and can arise as a result of direct viral invasion, para-infectious or postinfectious immune mechanisms. We report a delayed presentation of COVID-19 postinfectious immune-mediated encephalitis and status epilepticus occurring in a 47-year-old woman 4 weeks after SARS-CoV-2 pulmonary disease. SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgM antibodies were detected in her cerebrospinal fluid with features of encephalitis evident in both magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and electroencephalogram. She made a complete recovery following treatment with high-dose intravenous corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins. Diagnosis of COVID-19 postinfectious encephalitis may prove challenging in patients presenting many weeks following the initial infection. A high index of clinical suspicion and testing intrathecal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies are key to its diagnosis. Early immunotherapy is likely to result in a good outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Encephalitis , Electroencephalography , Encephalitis/complications , Female , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Indian J Med Res ; 153(5&6): 658-664, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278593

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) continues to be a devastating pandemic. This study was aimed at performance assessment of SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG ELISAs, and investigation of their utility for patient diagnosis and sero-epidemiologic investigations. Methods: Serum/plasma samples from COVID-19 patients or asymptomatic contacts (n=180) and healthy donors (n=90) were tested in parallel using two commercial IgM ELISAs (Erbalisa and Inbios), and four IgG ELISAs (Kavach, Euroimmun, Erbalisa and Inbios) along with an indigenous ß-propiolactone inactivated virus-based ELISA (IRSHA-IgG-ELISA). Plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) was used as reference test. Results: Among 180 COVID-19 patients, 125 tested positive by PRNT. Inbios-IgM-ELISA showed sensitivity (Se)/specificity (Sp)/positive predictive value (PPV)/negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.6/97.8/98.4/94.4 per cent in relation to PRNT, and performed better than Erbalisa-IgM-ELISA (Se: 48%, Sp: 95.6%, PPV: 95.2%, NPV: 65.2%). During the first week of disease, only 47.4 per cent of the COVID-19 patients tested IgM positive by Inbios-IgM-ELISA, detection improving at two weeks and beyond (~86-100%). Among IgG tests, Inbios-IgG-ELISA ranked first in terms of sensitivity (83.2%), followed by IRSHA (64.8%), Euroimmun (64%), Erbalisa (57.6%) and Kavach (56%) tests. For all IgG tests, sensitivity improved during the third (73.9-95.7%) and fourth week (100%) of illness. The specificity (96.7-100%) and PPV (96.2-100%) of all IgG tests were high; NPV ranged between 71.9 and 87.1 per cent with Inbios-IgG-ELISA scoring highest. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that IgM detection by the current, most sensitive ELISAs cannot replace molecular diagnosis, but may aid as a supplement test. The available IgG tests are suitable for serosurveys for the assessment of previous virus exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Neutralization Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity
10.
ACS Nano ; 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1270651

ABSTRACT

Rapid and inexpensive immunodiagnostic assays to monitor severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroconversion are essential for conducting large-scale COVID-19 epidemiological surveillance and profiling humoral responses against SARS-CoV-2 infections or immunizations. Herein, a colorimetic serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 IgGs in patients' plasma was developed using short antigenic epitopes conjugated to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Four immunodominant linear B-cell epitopes, located on the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins of SARS-CoV-2, were characterized for their IgG binding affinity and used as highly specific biological motifs on the nanoparticle to recognize target antibodies. Specific bivalent binding between SARS-CoV-2 antibodies and epitope-functionalized AuNPs trigger nanoparticle aggregation, which manifests as a distinct optical transition in the AuNPs' plasmon characteristics within 30 min of antibody introduction. Co-immobilization of two epitopes improved the assay sensitivity relative to single-epitope AuNPs with a limit of detection of 3.2 nM, commensurate with IgG levels in convalescent COVID-19-infected patients. A passivation strategy was further pursued to preserve the sensing response in human plasma medium. When tested against 35 clinical plasma samples of varying illness severity, the optimized nanosensor assay can successfully identify SARS-CoV-2 infection with 100% specificity and 83% sensitivity. As the epitopes are conserved within the circulating COVID-19 variants, the proposed platform holds great potential to serve as a cost-effective and highly specific alternative to classical immunoassays employing recombinant viral proteins. These epitope-enabled nanosensors further expand the serodiagnostic toolbox for COVID-19 epidemiological study, humoral response monitoring, or vaccine efficiency assessment.

11.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 23(1): 166, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266501

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To investigate whether methotrexate treatment may affect the susceptibility to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). METHODS: Clinical assessment of symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 RNA, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in an initial case series of four families and confirmatory case series of seven families, within which one family member developed coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and exposed another family member receiving methotrexate treatment; experimental part with methotrexate treatment of mice and organoids followed by the assessment of mRNA and protein expression of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2. RESULTS: In the initial case series, three of four women on a joint ski trip developed COVID-19, while the fourth woman, under treatment with methotrexate, remained virus-free. Two of the three diseased women infected their husbands, while the third husband treated with methotrexate remained virus-free. In addition, 7 other families were identified in a follow-up case series, in which one member developed COVID-19, while the other, receiving methotrexate, remained healthy. Experimentally, when mice were treated with methotrexate, ACE2 expression significantly decreased in the lung, in the intestinal epithelium, and in intestinal organoids. CONCLUSION: These clinical and experimental data indicate that methotrexate has certain protective effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection via downregulating ACE2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Humans , Methotrexate , Mice , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
12.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e049876, 2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266384

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in secondary schools after their reopening in May 2020. DESIGN: Repeated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study after the reopening of schools and 4 months later. SETTING: Secondary school in Dresden, Germany. PARTICIPANTS: 1538 students grades 8-12 and 507 teachers from 13 schools. INTERVENTIONS: Serial blood sampling and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody assessment. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in study population. Number of undetected cases. RESULTS: 1538 students and 507 teachers were initially enrolled, and 1334 students and 445 teachers completed both study visits. The seroprevalence for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 0.6% in May/June and the same in September/October. Even in schools with reported COVID-19 cases before the lockdown of 13 March, no clusters could be identified. Of 12 persons with positive serology five had a known history of confirmed COVID-19; 23 out of 24 participants with a household history of COVID-91 were seronegative. CONCLUSIONS: Schools do not play a crucial role in driving the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in a low-prevalence setting. Transmission in families occurs very infrequently, and the number of unreported cases is low in this age group. These observations do not support school closures as a strategy fighting the pandemic in a low-prevalence setting. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00022455.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Communicable Disease Control , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Schools , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Students
13.
Clin Biochem ; 95: 77-80, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265657

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Commercially available serological assays for SARS-CoV-2 detect antibodies to either the nucleocapsid or spike protein. Here we compare the performance of the Beckman-Coulter SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG assay to that of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid IgG and Roche Anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid total antibody assays. In addition, we document the trend in nucleocapsid and spike antibodies in sequential samples collected from convalescent plasma donors. METHODS: Plasma or serum samples from 20 individual SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR-positive inpatients (n = 172), 20 individual convalescent donors with a previous RT-PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 20), were deemed positive SARS-CoV-2 samples. RT-PCR-negative inpatients (n = 24), and 109 pre-SARS-CoV-2 samples were determined to be SARS-CoV-2 negative. Samples were assayed by the Abbott, Roche, and Beckman assays. RESULTS: All three assays demonstrated 100% specificity. Abbott, Beckman, and Roche platforms had sensitivities of 98%, 93%, and 90% respectively, with the difference in sensitivity attributed primarily to samples from immunocompromised patients. After the exclusion of samples immunocompromised patients, all assays exhibited ≥ 95% sensitivity. In sequential samples collected from the same individuals, the Roche nucleocapsid antibody assay demonstrated continually increasing signal intensity, with maximal values observed at the last time point examined. In contrast, the Beckman spike IgG antibody signal peaked between 14 and 28 days post positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR and steadily declined in subsequent samples. Subsequent collections 51-200 days (median of 139 days) post positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR from five inpatients and five convalescent donors revealed that spike and nucleocapsid antibodies remained detectable for several months after confirmed infection. CONCLUSIONS: The three assays are sensitive and specific for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Nucleocapsid and spike antibodies were detectable for up to 200 days post-positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR but demonstrated markedly different trends in signal intensity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/blood , Nucleocapsid/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Humans , Immunoassay/methods , Longitudinal Studies , Nucleocapsid/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Ann Lab Med ; 41(6): 568-576, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is generally diagnosed by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR or serological assays. The SARS-CoV-2 viral load decreases a few days after symptom onset. Thus, the RT-PCR sensitivity peaks at three days after symptom onset (approximately 80%). We evaluated the performance of the ARCHITECT® SARS-CoV-2 IgG assay (henceforth termed IgG assay; Abbott Laboratories, Lake County, IL, USA), and the combination of RT-PCR and the IgG assay for COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: In this retrospective study, 206 samples from 70 COVID-19 cases at two hospitals in Tokyo that were positive using RT-PCR were used to analyze the diagnostic sensitivity. RT-PCR-negative (N=166), COVID-19-unrelated (N=418), and Japanese Red Cross Society (N=100) samples were used to evaluate specificity. RESULTS: Sensitivity increased daily after symptom onset and exceeded 84.4% after 10 days. Specificity ranged from 98.2% to 100% for samples from the three case groups. Seroconversion was confirmed from 9 to 20 days after symptom onset in 18 out of 32 COVID-19 cases with multiple samples and from another case with a positive result in the IgG assay for the first available sample. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of RT-PCR and IgG assay improves the robustness of laboratory diagnostics by compensating for the limitations of each method.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , RNA, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sensitivity and Specificity
15.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0243676, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264208

ABSTRACT

Since March 2020, the United States has lost over 580,000 lives to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which causes COVID-19. A growing body of literature describes population-level SARS-CoV-2 exposure, but studies of antibody seroprevalence within school systems are critically lacking, hampering evidence-based discussions on school reopenings. The Lake Central School Corporation (LCSC), a public school system in suburban Indiana, USA, assessed SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in its staff and identified correlations between seropositivity and subjective histories and demographics. This study is a cross-sectional, population-based analysis of the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in LCSC staff measured in July 2020. We tested for seroprevalence with the Abbott Alinity™ SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody test. The primary outcome was the total seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2, and secondary outcomes included trends of antibody presence in relation to baseline attributes. 753 participants representative of the staff at large were enrolled. 22 participants (2.9%, 95% CI: 1.8% - 4.4%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Correcting for test performance parameters, the seroprevalence is estimated at 1.7% (90% Credible Interval: 0.27% - 3.3%). Multivariable logistic regression including mask wearing, travel history, symptom history, and contact history revealed a 48-fold increase in the odds of seropositivity if an individual previously tested positive for COVID-19 (OR: 48, 95% CI: 4-600). Amongst individuals with no previous positive test, exposure to a person diagnosed with COVID-19 increased the odds of seropositivity by 7-fold (OR: 7.2, 95% CI: 2.6-19). Assuming the presence of antibodies is associated with immunity against SARS-CoV-2 infection, these results demonstrate a broad lack of herd immunity amongst the school corporation's staff irrespective of employment role or location. Protective measures like contact tracing, face coverings, and social distancing are therefore vital to maintaining the safety of both students and staff as the school year progresses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , School Teachers , Schools , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Midwestern United States/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Young Adult
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 5777-5782, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245505

ABSTRACT

High antibody titers have been found to correlate with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease. Therefore, antibody titers may be higher in older adults, whose disease is known to have a more severe course than younger ones. This study aimed to compare the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody level in the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to test positive older adults with young. Patients aged ≥18 with positive RT-PCR and checked serum IgG antibodies between November 1, 2020 and January 13, 2021 were included. The IgG antibody levels and the time between RT-PCR positivity with the antibody levels were recorded. A total of 1071 patients were divided into two groups as Group 1 <60 years old (n = 902) and Group 2 ≥60 years old (n = 169). The SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers were higher in Group 2 (p = 0.001). This height was present in the first 3 months after positive RT-PCR. While the antibody titers were compared by dividing Group 2 into the three groups according to age ranges (60-69, 70-79, and ≥80 years), the antibody titer was higher in ≥80 years patients (p = 0.044). High COVID-19 IgG antibody levels may be associated with the severity of the disease. Also, the humoral immunity advantage was seen in the first 3 months in the older patients, which suggests that older adults with COVID-19 may develop reinfection in the long term.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Seroconversion , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Time Factors
17.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 643275, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241180

ABSTRACT

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in China in December 2019, causing an ongoing, rapidly spreading global pandemic. Worldwide, vaccination is now expected to provide containment of the novel virus, resulting in an antibody-mediated immunity. To verify this, serological antibody assays qualitatively as well as quantitatively depicting the amount of generated antibodies are of great importance. Currently available test methods are either laboratory based or do not have the ability to indicate an estimation about the immune response. To overcome this, a novel and rapid serological magnetic immunodetection (MID) point-of-care (PoC) assay was developed, with sensitivity and specificity comparable to laboratory-based DiaSorin Liaison SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG assay. To specifically enrich human antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in immunofiltration columns (IFCs) from patient sera, a SARS-CoV-2 S1 antigen was transiently produced in plants, purified and immobilized on the IFC. Then, an IgG-specific secondary antibody could bind to the retained antibodies, which was finally labeled using superparamagnetic nanoparticles. Based on frequency magnetic mixing technology (FMMD), the magnetic particles enriched in IFC were detected using a portable FMMD device. The obtained measurement signal correlates with the amount of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in the sera, which could be demonstrated by titer determination. In this study, a MID-based assay could be developed, giving qualitative as well as semiquantitative results of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels in patient's sera within 21 min of assay time with a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 92%, based on the analysis of 170 sera from hospitalized patients that were tested using an Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-certified chemiluminescence assay.

18.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 225(3): 303.e1-303.e17, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237586

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Pregnant and lactating women were excluded from initial coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine trials; thus, data to guide vaccine decision making are lacking. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccination in pregnant and lactating women compared with: (1) nonpregnant controls and (2) natural coronavirus disease 2019 infection in pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 131 reproductive-age vaccine recipients (84 pregnant, 31 lactating, and 16 nonpregnant women) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study at 2 academic medical centers. Titers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike and receptor-binding domain immunoglobulin G, immunoglobulin A, and immunoglobulin M were quantified in participant sera (n=131) and breastmilk (n=31) at baseline, at the second vaccine dose, at 2 to 6 weeks after the second vaccine, and at delivery by Luminex. Umbilical cord sera (n=10) titers were assessed at delivery. Titers were compared with those of pregnant women 4 to 12 weeks from the natural infection (n=37) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A pseudovirus neutralization assay was used to quantify neutralizing antibody titers for the subset of women who delivered during the study period. Postvaccination symptoms were assessed via questionnaire. Kruskal-Wallis tests and a mixed-effects model, with correction for multiple comparisons, were used to assess differences among groups. RESULTS: Vaccine-induced antibody titers were equivalent in pregnant and lactating compared with nonpregnant women (pregnant, median, 5.59; interquartile range, 4.68-5.89; lactating, median, 5.74; interquartile range, 5.06-6.22; nonpregnant, median, 5.62; interquartile range, 4.77-5.98, P=.24). All titers were significantly higher than those induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during pregnancy (P<.0001). Vaccine-generated antibodies were present in all umbilical cord blood and breastmilk samples. Neutralizing antibody titers were lower in umbilical cord than maternal sera, although this finding did not achieve statistical significance (maternal sera, median, 104.7; interquartile range, 61.2-188.2; cord sera, median, 52.3; interquartile range, 11.7-69.6; P=.05). The second vaccine dose (boost dose) increased severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific immunoglobulin G, but not immunoglobulin A, in maternal blood and breastmilk. No differences were noted in reactogenicity across the groups. CONCLUSION: Coronavirus disease 2019 messenger RNA vaccines generated robust humoral immunity in pregnant and lactating women, with immunogenicity and reactogenicity similar to that observed in nonpregnant women. Vaccine-induced immune responses were statistically significantly greater than the response to natural infection. Immune transfer to neonates occurred via placenta and breastmilk.

19.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(11): 3335-3342, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1237499

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 among the population has occurred quite recently, there is a lack of evidence on the long-term duration of antibody response, especially in children. It is therefore crucial to clarify this aspect, considering its implications in the development of successful surveillance strategies, therapies, and vaccinations. The aim of this study was to assess the antibody response in a children group after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and to compare it with that of their parents affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. We enrolled 12 children and their parents, both groups being affected by COVID-19 in April 2020. In the children's group, we collected real-time RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) values and gene characterization of first nasal-throat swab at the time of diagnosis (T0); 30 days after the diagnosis (T30), we performed blood tests to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG. Finally, 180 days after the diagnosis (T180), we measured anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in both children and parents. In children, antibody levels declined significantly at 180 days (T180) after first measurement (T30). There were no significant differences in IgG level related to age, sex, and clinical manifestations. We found a significant correlation between IgG titers at T30 and Ct value of gene N. Children showed a lower level of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 at T180 compared to their parents.Conclusion: Antibody responses in children waned 180 days after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and at the same time, their parents showed a different antibody response to the virus. These results highlight that serological tests should be used with caution in surveillance strategies among the general population. What is known: • Currently is not known how long antibody response will be maintained or if it protects from reinfection. • Recent reports in adults suggest that antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 declined several months after infection, but data are missing in pediatric age. What is new: • We showed that antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 wane several months after infection also in children with quantitative differences in antibody levels between children and adults. • In this context, serological tests should be used with caution in surveillance strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Child , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M
20.
J Hematol Oncol ; 14(1): 81, 2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Safety and immunogenicity of BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine are unknown in hematological patients; both were evaluated prospectively in 42 patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and 50 with myeloproliferative malignancies (MPM) (20 chronic myeloid leukemias and 30 myeloproliferative neoplasms), all of them on active anti-cancer treatment, in comparison with 36 elderly controls not suffering from cancer. Subjects serologically and/or molecularly (by nasal/throat swab) positives at basal for SARS-CoV-2 were excluded. Primary endpoint was to compare titers of neutralizing anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and seroprotection rates among the cohorts at 3 and 5 weeks from first dose. METHODS: Titration was done using LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG test, a quantitative chemiluminescent immunoassay approved by FDA on the basis of robust evidences of concordance (94.4%) between the test at cutoff of 15 AU/mL and the Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test 90% at 1:40 ratio. Cutoff of 15 AU/mL was assumed to discriminate responders to vaccination with a protective titer. Cohorts were compared using Fisher' exact test and the Mann-Whitney test as appropriated. Geometric mean concentrations (GMCs), geometric mean ratios and response rates after 1st and 2nd dose were compared in each cohort by Wilcoxon and McNemar tests, respectively. RESULTS: At 5 weeks, GMC of IgG in elderly controls was 353.3 AU/mL versus 106.7 in MM (p = 0.003) and 172.9 in MPM patients (p = 0.049). Seroprotection rate at cutoff of 15 AU/mL was 100% in controls compared to 78.6% in MM (p = 0.003) and 88% in MPM patients (p = 0.038). In terms of logarithm of IgG titer, in a generalized multivariate linear model, no gender effect was observed (p = 0.913), while there was a significant trend toward lower titers by increasing age (p < 0.001) and in disease cohorts with respect to controls (MM: p < 0.001 and MPM: p < 0.001). An ongoing treatment without daratumumab was associated with higher likelihood of response in MM patients (p = 0.003). No swabs resulted positive on each time point. No safety concerns were observed. CONCLUSIONS: BNT162b2 has demonstrated to be immunogenic at different extent among the cohorts. Response was 88% and robust in MPM patients. MM patients responded significantly less, particularly those on anti-CD38-based treatment. These latter patients should be advised to maintain masks and social distancing regardless of vaccination status, and their cohabiting family members need to be vaccinated in order to reduce the risk of contagion from the family. Additional boosters and titer monitoring could be considered. Trial registration Study was formally approved by the IRCCS Central Ethical Committee of Regione Lazio in January 2021 (Prot. N-1463/21).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Multiple Myeloma/complications , Myeloproliferative Disorders/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Myeloma/immunology , Myeloproliferative Disorders/immunology , Preliminary Data , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL