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1.
Int J Nurs Sci ; 7(2): 143-147, 2020 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796684

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This article summarizes the experience in the prevention and control of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19) epidemic in non-isolated areas in a general hospital. METHODS: Based on refined management theory, we professionally developed the standards for prevention and control of COVID-19 in non-isolated areas, systematically implemented various prevention and control measures, performed gridding audits, effectively communicated among teams and between medical staff and patients assisted by information techniques, and reported results for quality improvement. RESULTS: There was no hospital-acquired COVID-19 infections among staff in the hospital. The rates of mask-wearing, epidemiological history screening, and the medical supplies disinfection were all 100% in the hospital. The accuracy rate of mask-wearing of patients and their families was 73.79% and the compliance rate of their hand hygiene was 40.78%. CONCLUSION: Refined management strategies for the prevention and control of COVID-19 infection in non-isolated areas of the general hospital are effective. The accuracy rate of mask-wearing and hand hygiene compliance of patients and their families need to be further improved.

2.
Anaesthesist ; 70(8): 662-670, 2021 Aug.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575534

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the context of sepsis and septic shock, coagulopathy often occurs due to the close relationship between coagulation and inflammation. Sepsis-induced coagulopathy (SIC) is the most severe and potentially fatal form. Anticoagulants used in prophylactic or therapeutic doses are discussed to potentially exert beneficial effects in patients with sepsis and/or SIC; however, due to the lack of evidence recent guidelines are limited to recommendations for drug prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE), while treatment of SIC has not been addressed. METHODS: In order to determine the status quo of VTE prophylaxis as well as treatment of SIC in German intensive care units (ICU), we conducted a Germany-wide online survey among heads of ICUs from October 2019 to May 2020. In April 2020, the survey was supplemented by an additional block of questions on VTE prophylaxis and SIC treatment in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. RESULTS: A total of 67 senior doctors took part in the survey. The majority (n = 50; 74.6%) of the responses were from ICU under the direction of an anesthesiologist and/or a department of anesthesiology. Most of the participants worked either at a university hospital (n = 31; 47.8%) or an academic teaching hospital (n = 27; 40.3%). The survey results show a pronounced heterogeneity in clinical practice with respect to the prophylaxis of VTE as well as SIC treatment. In an exemplary case of pneumogenic sepsis, low molecular weight heparins (LMWH) were by far the most frequently mentioned group of medications (n = 51; 76.1% of the responding ITS). In the majority of cases (n = 43; 64.2%), anti-FXa activity is not monitored with the use of LMWH in prophylaxis doses. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) was listed as a strategy for VTE prophylaxis in 37.3% of the responses (n = 25). In an exemplary case of abdominal sepsis 54.5% of the participants (n = 36; multiple answers possible) stated the use of UFH or LMWH and UFH with dosage controlled by PTT is used on two participating ICUs. The anti-FXa activity under prophylactic anticoagulation with LMWH is monitored in 7 participating clinics (10.6%) in abdominal sepsis. Systematic screening for sepsis-associated coagulation disorders does not take place in most hospitals and patterns in the use of anticoagulants show significant variability between ICUs. In the case of COVID-19 patients, it is particularly noticeable that in three quarters of the participating ICUs the practice of drug-based VTE prophylaxis and SIC treatment does not differ from that of non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: The heterogeneity of answers collected in the survey suggests that a systematic approach to this topic via clinical trials is urgently needed to underline individualized patient care with the necessary evidence.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants , Blood Coagulation Disorders , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Sepsis , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , COVID-19 , Germany , Heparin/therapeutic use , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Sepsis/complications
3.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(10): 1199-1208, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hazardous drinking imposes a major public health burden worldwide, especially in low-income countries such as Mozambique. Implementation of the Screening, Brief Intervention, Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) approach to address problem drinking is recommended. However, evidence regarding the best strategies to implement SBIRT at scale is needed. METHODS: Guided by the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance model, the authors will conduct a 2-year, cluster-randomized, hybrid type-2 implementation-effectiveness trial in 12 districts in Mozambique evaluating implementation, clinical effectiveness, outcomes, and cost. Eight districts will be randomly assigned to a mobile application-based health SBIRT condition and four to SBIRT-Conventional Training and Supervision. Interventions will be delivered by clinic-based community health workers. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research will guide the authors' mixed-methods assessments throughout the study. RESULTS: The study arm showing better cost-effectiveness will be scaled up in the other arms' districts. During this 12-month scale-up phase, Ministry of Health personnel will be charged with providing training, clinical activities, and supervision in all 12 districts without research team support. The SBIRT scale-up phase is critical to identify facilitators and barriers for tracking internal and external factors in clinics that continue using the superior arm and those that switch to it. NEXT STEPS: In a multistep process with stakeholders from multiple sectors, outcomes and lessons learned from this study will inform the development of an implementation tool kit to guide SBIRT scale-up of community services addressing hazardous drinking in other low- and middle-income countries and low-resource settings in high-income countries.


Subject(s)
Substance-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Community Health Workers , Crisis Intervention , Humans , Mozambique , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Referral and Consultation
4.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 7, 2020 01 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455915

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Systematic reviews are vital to the pursuit of evidence-based medicine within healthcare. Screening titles and abstracts (T&Ab) for inclusion in a systematic review is an intensive, and often collaborative, step. The use of appropriate tools is therefore important. In this study, we identified and evaluated the usability of software tools that support T&Ab screening for systematic reviews within healthcare research. METHODS: We identified software tools using three search methods: a web-based search; a search of the online "systematic review toolbox"; and screening of references in existing literature. We included tools that were accessible and available for testing at the time of the study (December 2018), do not require specific computing infrastructure and provide basic screening functionality for systematic reviews. Key properties of each software tool were identified using a feature analysis adapted for this purpose. This analysis included a weighting developed by a group of medical researchers, therefore prioritising the most relevant features. The highest scoring tools from the feature analysis were then included in a user survey, in which we further investigated the suitability of the tools for supporting T&Ab screening amongst systematic reviewers working in medical research. RESULTS: Fifteen tools met our inclusion criteria. They vary significantly in relation to cost, scope and intended user community. Six of the identified tools (Abstrackr, Colandr, Covidence, DRAGON, EPPI-Reviewer and Rayyan) scored higher than 75% in the feature analysis and were included in the user survey. Of these, Covidence and Rayyan were the most popular with the survey respondents. Their usability scored highly across a range of metrics, with all surveyed researchers (n = 6) stating that they would be likely (or very likely) to use these tools in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Based on this study, we would recommend Covidence and Rayyan to systematic reviewers looking for suitable and easy to use tools to support T&Ab screening within healthcare research. These two tools consistently demonstrated good alignment with user requirements. We acknowledge, however, the role of some of the other tools we considered in providing more specialist features that may be of great importance to many researchers.


Subject(s)
Abstracting and Indexing/methods , Software , Systematic Reviews as Topic/methods , Biomedical Research , Delivery of Health Care , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Humans , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Med (N Y) ; 2(2): 149-163.e4, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody responses to virus reflect exposure and potential protection. METHODS: We developed a highly specific and sensitive approach to measuring antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 for population-scale immune surveillance. Antibody positivity was defined as a dual-positive response against both the receptor-binding domain and nucleocapsid proteins of SARS-CoV-2. Antibodies were measured by immunoprecipitation assays in capillary blood from 15,771 children aged 1 to 18 years living in Bavaria, Germany, and participating in a public health type 1 diabetes screening program (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04039945), in 1,916 dried blood spots from neonates in a Bavarian screening study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03316261), and in 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals. Virus positive incidence was obtained from the Bavarian health authority data. FINDINGS: Dual-antibody positivity was detected in none of the 3,887 children in 2019 (100% specificity) and 73 of 75 SARS-CoV-2-positive individuals (97.3% sensitivity). Antibody surveillance in children during 2020 resulted in frequencies of 0.08% in January to March, 0.61% in April, 0.74% in May, 1.13% in June, and 0.91% in July. Antibody prevalence from April 2020 was 6-fold higher than the incidence of authority-reported cases (156 per 100,000 children), showed marked variation between the seven Bavarian regions (p < 0.0001), and was not associated with age or sex. Transmission in children with virus-positive family members was 35%. 47% of positive children were asymptomatic. No association with type 1 diabetes autoimmunity was observed. Antibody frequency in newborns was 0.47%. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate the value of population-based screening programs for pandemic monitoring. FUNDING: The work was supported by funding from the BMBF (FKZ01KX1818).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/diagnosis , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
8.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(35): 1221-1226, 2020 Sep 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389852

ABSTRACT

Health care personnel (HCP) caring for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) might be at high risk for contracting SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Understanding the prevalence of and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among frontline HCP who care for COVID-19 patients are important for protecting both HCP and their patients. During April 3-June 19, 2020, serum specimens were collected from a convenience sample of frontline HCP who worked with COVID-19 patients at 13 geographically diverse academic medical centers in the United States, and specimens were tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Participants were asked about potential symptoms of COVID-19 experienced since February 1, 2020, previous testing for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, and their use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the past week. Among 3,248 participants, 194 (6.0%) had positive test results for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Seroprevalence by hospital ranged from 0.8% to 31.2% (median = 3.6%). Among the 194 seropositive participants, 56 (29%) reported no symptoms since February 1, 2020, 86 (44%) did not believe that they previously had COVID-19, and 133 (69%) did not report a previous COVID-19 diagnosis. Seroprevalence was lower among personnel who reported always wearing a face covering (defined in this study as a surgical mask, N95 respirator, or powered air purifying respirator [PAPR]) while caring for patients (5.6%), compared with that among those who did not (9.0%) (p = 0.012). Consistent with persons in the general population with SARS-CoV-2 infection, many frontline HCP with SARS-CoV-2 infection might be asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic during infection, and infection might be unrecognized. Enhanced screening, including frequent testing of frontline HCP, and universal use of face coverings in hospitals are two strategies that could reduce SARS-CoV-2 transmission.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Asymptomatic Diseases , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
9.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 5(1): 218, 2020 10 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387198

Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cardiac Glycosides/pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Biological Products/chemistry , Biological Products/pharmacology , Bufanolides/chemistry , Bufanolides/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Cardiac Glycosides/chemistry , Cell Survival/drug effects , Chlorocebus aethiops , Chloroquine/chemistry , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Digoxin/chemistry , Digoxin/pharmacology , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Janus Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Janus Kinases/genetics , Janus Kinases/metabolism , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/genetics , Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases/metabolism , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/genetics , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , NF-kappa B/antagonists & inhibitors , NF-kappa B/genetics , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Pandemics , Phenanthrenes/chemistry , Phenanthrenes/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/antagonists & inhibitors , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/genetics , Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
10.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 531-536, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351706

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One of the constraints in containing the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in Ecuador is limited testing capacity, especially in high-risk populations such as people living in humanitarian shelters. OBJECTIVES: The "United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees" office in Ecuador in collaboration with "Universidad de Las Américas" performed surveillance screening at shelters for women victims of gender-based violence. They had been granted access to RT-qPCR tests for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis since July 2020, a few weeks after the general population lockdown was lifted. RESULTS: From 411 people tested, 52 tests were SARS-CoV-2 positive, yielding an overall high attack rate of 12.65%. Moreover, COVID-19 outbreaks were found in nine of 11 shelters that were included in the study. While attacks rates varied among shelters, no association was found with occupancy. CONCLUSION: This study is key to clarifying the epidemiological situation in this highly vulnerable population in Latin America. It highlights the importance of mass testing beyond the symptomatic population to prevent the spread of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gender-Based Violence , COVID-19 Testing , Communicable Disease Control , Disease Outbreaks , Ecuador/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Clin Med ; 10(9)2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1335105

ABSTRACT

Despite being located close to the European epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic in Italy, Austria has managed to control the first wave. In Austria, the largest health insurance fund covers 7 million people and has 12,000 employees, including 3700 healthcare workers (HCW). For patient and staff safety, transmission control measures were implemented and mass testing of employees for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was conducted. An IgG SARS-CoV-2 rapid test on fingerstick blood was used as a screening test (ST), followed by serologic studies with 3 different immunoassays and confirmatory testing by a neutralization test (NT). Among 7858 employees, 144 had a positive ST and 88 were confirmed by a NT (1.12%, CI: 0.9-1.38%). The positive predictive value (PPV) of the ST was 69.3% (CI: 60.5-77.2). Interestingly, 40% of the NT positive serum samples were tested negative in all 3 immunoassays. Of the total sample, 2242 HCW (28.5%) were identified. Unexpectedly, there was no difference in the prevalence of NT positives in HCW compared to non-HCW (23/2242 vs. 65/5301, p = 0.53). SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence was not increased among HCW. Although HCW are at potentially increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection, transmission control measures in healthcare facilities appear sufficient to limit transmission of infection.

13.
BJOG ; 128(9): 1503-1510, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1315738

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the immediate impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cervical screening, colposcopy and treatment volumes in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective observational study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. POPULATION: People with a cervix age of 21-69 years who completed at least one cervical screening cytology test, colposcopy or treatment procedure for cervical dysplasia between January 2019 and August 2020. METHODS: Administrative databases were used to compare cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment procedure volumes before (historical comparator) and during the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic (March-August 2020). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in cervical screening cytology, colposcopy and treatment volumes; individuals with high-grade cytology awaiting colposcopy. RESULTS: During the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, the monthly average number of cervical screening cytology tests, colposcopies and treatments decreased by 63.8% (range: -92.3 to -41.0%), 39.7% (range: -75.1 to -14.3%) and 31.1% (range: -43.5 to -23.6%), respectively, when compared with the corresponding months in 2019. Between March and August 2020, on average 292 (-51.0%) fewer high-grade cytological abnormalities were detected through screening each month. As of August 2020, 1159 (29.2%) individuals with high-grade screening cytology were awaiting follow-up colposcopy. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a substantial impact on key cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario. As the pandemic continues, ongoing monitoring of service utilisation to inform system response and recovery is required. Future efforts to understand the impact of COVID-19-related disruptions on cervical cancer outcomes will be needed. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: COVID-19 has had a substantial impact on cervical screening and follow-up services in Ontario, Canada.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Colposcopy/statistics & numerical data , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy , Vaginal Smears/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Aged , Databases, Factual , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Ontario , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
14.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods ; 111: 107088, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271806

ABSTRACT

Excipients serve as vehicles, preservatives, solubilizers, and colorants for drugs, food, and cosmetics. They are considered to be inert at biological targets; however, several reports suggest that some could interact with human targets and cause unwanted effects. We investigated 40 commonly used drug excipients for cellular stress in the AsedaSciences® SYSTEMETRIC® Cell Health Screen, which was developed to estimate toxicity risk of small molecular entities (SMEs). The screen uses supervised machine learning (ML) to classify test compound cell stress phenotypes relative to a training set of on-market and withdrawn drugs. While 80% (n = 32) of the excipients did not show elevated risk in a broad, but pharmacologically relevant, concentration range (5 nM to 100 µM), we identified 20% (n = 8) with elevated risk. This group included two mercury containing preservatives, propyl gallate, methylene blue, benzethonium chloride, and cetylpyridinium chloride, all known for previously reported safety issues. All compounds were tested in parallel in an in vitro assay panel regularly used to investigate off-target effects of drug candidates. Target engagement in this assay panel confirmed risk-indicative biological activity for the same excipients, except propyl gallate, which may have a separate, interesting mechanism. We conclude that the SYSTEMETRIC Cell Health Screen, in conjunction with in vitro pharmacological profiling, can provide a fast and cost effective methodology for first line testing of SMEs, including excipients, to avoid cellular damage, particularly in the GI, where they are represented in high concentrations.


Subject(s)
Excipients , Preservatives, Pharmaceutical , Excipients/toxicity , Humans , Supervised Machine Learning
16.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253154, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278187

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cohorts of hospitalized COVID-19 patients have been studied in several countries since the beginning of the pandemic. So far, there is no complete survey of older patients in a German district that includes both outpatients and inpatients. In this retrospective observational cohort study, we aimed to investigate risk factors, mortality, and functional outcomes of all patients with COVID-19 aged 70 and older living in the district of Tübingen in the southwest of Germany. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed all 256 patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in one of the earliest affected German districts during the first wave of the disease from February to April 2020. To ensure inclusion of all infected patients, we analysed reported data from the public health department as well as the results of a comprehensive screening intervention in all nursing homes of the district (n = 1169). Furthermore, we examined clinical data of all hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n = 109). RESULTS: The all-cause mortality was 18%. Screening in nursing homes showed a point-prevalence of 4.6%. 39% of residents showed no COVID-specific symptoms according to the official definition at that time. The most important predictors of mortality were the need for inpatient treatment (odds ratio (OR): 3.95 [95%-confidence interval (CI): 2.00-7.86], p<0.001) and care needs before infection (non-hospitalized patients: OR: 3.79 [95%-CI: 1.01-14.27], p = 0.037, hospitalized patients: OR: 2.89 [95%-CI 1.21-6.92], p = 0.015). Newly emerged care needs were a relevant complication of COVID-19: 27% of previously self-sufficient patients who survived the disease were not able to return to their home environment after discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrate the importance of a differentiated view of risk groups and long-term effects within the older population. These findings should be included in the political and social debate during the ongoing pandemic to evaluate the true effect of COVID-19 on healthcare systems and individual functional status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Inpatients/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Outpatients/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Data Collection/methods , Data Collection/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
17.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 648899, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1273341

ABSTRACT

Moving within the second wave of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, dental education delivery has been profoundly affected by this crisis, so has the structure, evaluation, and future of dental education. Both pre-clinical and clinical dental education have experienced challenges ranging from fully online educational content to limited dental training for senior dental students. This crisis appears to be a tipping point that produced confusion in dental teaching especially clinical sciences. Although medical institutions immediately started to adapt to the unexpected COVID-19 crisis, dental and oral health educational services are profoundly impaired due to the dental team's propinquity to the patient and the aerosols generated during routine dental therapeutic procedures. Dental students unlike other medical students are considered to be at the highest risk due to the nature of their clinical training that includes working in the oral cavity of patients using aerosol-generating equipment. Some dental schools have taken the leadership and documented their modifications during this pandemic; however, there is a serious need for further investigation and wide range screening of the situation in the dental schools during the COVID-19 crisis. The aim of this mini-review is to present these challenges and how academic dental institutions have implemented strategies to overcome them.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252886, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269920

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Subgroups of precarious populations such as homeless people are more exposed to infection and at higher risk of developing severe forms of COVID-19 compared to the general population. Many of the recommended prevention measures, such as social distancing and self-isolation, are not feasible for a population living in shelters characterised by physical proximity and a high population density. The objective of the study was to describe SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence in homeless shelters in Brussels (Belgium), and to identify risk factors and infection control practices associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates. METHODS: A total of 1994 adults were tested by quantitative PCR tests in 52 shelters in Brussels (Belgium) between April and June, 2020, in collaboration with Doctors of the World. SARS-CoV-2 prevalence is here described site by site, and we identify risk factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates. We also investigate associations between seropositivity and reported symptoms. RESULTS: We found an overall prevalence of 4.6% for the period, and a cluster of high rates of SARS-CoV-2 positivity (20-30% in two shelters). Among homeless people, being under 40 years of age (OR (CI95%) 2.3 (1.2-4.4), p = 0.02), having access to urgent medical care (AMU) (OR(CI95%): 2.4 (1.4-4.4)], p = 0.02), and sharing a room with someone who tested positive (OR(CI95%): 5.3 (2.9-9.9), p<0.0001) were factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity rates. 93% of those who tested positive were asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: This study shows high rates of SARS-COV-2 infection positive tests in some shelters, with a high proportion of asymptomatic cases. The survey reveals how important testing and isolation measures are, together with actions taken by medical and social workers during the outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Point-of-Care Testing/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Age Factors , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Belgium/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infection Control/standards , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Young Adult
19.
West J Emerg Med ; 22(3): 565-571, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266884

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Limited data on the seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among healthcare workers (HCW) are publicly available. In this study we sought to determine the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in a population of HCWs in a pediatric emergency department (ED). METHODS: We conducted this observational cohort study from April 14-May 13, 2020 in a pediatric ED in Orange County, CA. Asymptomatic HCW ≥18 years of age were included in the study. Blood samples were obtained by fingerstick at the start of each shift. The inter-sampling interval was ≤96 hours. The primary outcome was positive seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 as determined with an antibody fast detection kit (Colloidal Gold, Superbio, Timisoara, Romania) for the SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G (IgM/IgG) antibody. RESULTS: A total of 143 HCWs participated in the study. Overall SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 10.5% (n = 15). Positive seroprevalence was classified as IgG only (4.9%), IgM+IgG (3.5%), or IgM only (2.1%). SARS-CoV-2 was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction RT-PCR in 0.7% of the overall study population (n = 1). Samples obtained on Day 1 indicated seropositivity in 4.2% of the study population (n = 6). Subsequent seroconversion occurred in 6.3% of participants (n = 9). The rate of seroconversion was linear with a rate of approximately one new case every two days, starting at Day 9 of the study. CONCLUSION: We observed a linear rate of seroconversion to SARS-CoV-2-positive status among asymptomatic HCWs who underwent daily symptom surveys and temperature screens in an environment with universal source control. Rapid antibody testing may be useful for screening for SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in high-risk populations, such as HCWs in the ED.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/blood , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
20.
Clin Ophthalmol ; 15: 2355-2365, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266608

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To review and analyse the globally established ophthalmic practice protocols during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). METHODS: A literature review using search strategy was conducted to identify appropriate publications relevant to COVID-19 and ophthalmology practice and training. The safety and feasibility of the protocols were illustrated and discussed. RESULTS: Challenges in different eye care settings at various international ophthalmology departments have identified and analysed to introduce solutions. Several clinical protocols were established and concerned for screening procedures, waiting area, clinical flow (ie, patients' registration, personal (patients and healthcare workers) protection), and equipment safety in the clinics and operation rooms. DISCUSSION: In the review of this protocol, the strategic and operational missions of the Academic Medical Centers (AMCs) are demonstrated and discussed. This is in addition to the sustainability of the established protocols for cataract surgeries and glaucoma clinics and training during and after COVID-19. CONCLUSION: All the protocols have established for temporary circumstances, such as postponing elective appointments and surgeries as well as applying the technology for regular follow-ups (transmission of image, video, and face-to-face interactions via widely available applications). Only, one protocol was stronger for the sustainability. Accordingly, recommendations are suggested for clinical sustainability during and after COVID-19.

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