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1.
Psychol Med ; 51(11): 1952-1954, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882703

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Due to the drastic surge of COVID-19 patients, many countries are considering or already graduating health professional students early to aid professional resources. We aimed to assess outbreak-related psychological distress and symptoms of acute stress reaction (ASR) in health professional students and to characterize individuals with potential need for interventions. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 1442 health professional students at Sichuan University, China. At baseline (October 2019), participants were assessed for childhood adversity, stressful life events, internet addiction, and family functioning. Using multivariable logistic regression, we examined associations of the above exposures with subsequent psychological distress and ASR in response to the outbreak. RESULTS: Three hundred and eighty-four (26.63%) participants demonstrated clinically significant psychological distress, while 160 (11.10%) met the criterion for a probable ASR. Individuals who scored high on both childhood adversity and stressful life event experiences during the past year were at increased risks of both distress (ORs 2.00-2.66) and probable ASR (ORs 2.23-3.10), respectively. Moreover, internet addiction was associated with elevated risks of distress (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.60-2.64) and probable ASR (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.50-3.10). By contrast, good family functioning was associated with decreased risks of distress (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.33-0.55) and probable ASR (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.33-0.69). All associations were independent of baseline psychological distress. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that COVID-19 related psychological distress and high symptoms burden of ASR are common among health professional students. Extended family and professional support should be considered for vulnerable individuals during these unprecedented times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/epidemiology , Students, Health Occupations/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/psychology , Adverse Childhood Experiences/statistics & numerical data , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Family Relations/psychology , Humans , Internet Addiction Disorder/epidemiology , Internet Addiction Disorder/psychology , Logistic Models , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
2.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 8(11): e22997, 2020 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862476

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: eHealth interventions are widely used in clinical trials and increasingly in care settings as well; however, their efficacy in real-world contexts remains unknown. ReMindCare is a smartphone app that has been systematically implemented in a first episode of psychosis program (FEPP) for patients with early psychosis since 2018. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of ReMindCare after 19 months of use in the clinic and varying use by individual patients. METHODS: The integration of the ReMindCare app into the FEPP started in October 2018. Patients with early psychosis self-selected to the app (ReMindCare group) or treatment as usual (TAU group). The outcome variables considered were adherence to the intervention and number of relapses, hospital admissions, and visits to urgent care units. Data from 90 patients with early psychosis were analyzed: 59 in the ReMindCare group and 31 in the TAU group. The mean age of the sample was 32.8 (SD 9.4) years, 73% (66/90) were males, 91% (83/90) were White, and 81% (74/90) were single. RESULTS: Significant differences between the ReMindCare and TAU groups were found in the number of relapses, hospitalizations, and visits to urgent care units, with each showing benefits for the app. Only 20% (12/59) of patients from the ReMindCare group had a relapse, while 58% (18/31) of the TAU patients had one or more relapses (χ2=13.7, P=.001). Moreover, ReMindCare patients had fewer visits to urgent care units (χ2=7.4, P=.006) and fewer hospitalizations than TAU patients (χ2=4.6, P=.03). The mean of days using the app was 352.2 (SD 191.2; min/max: 18-594), and the mean of engagement was 84.5 (SD 16.04). CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first eHealth intervention that has preliminarily proven its benefits in the real-world treatment of patients with early psychosis. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1111/eip.12960.


Subject(s)
Mobile Applications , Psychotic Disorders , Telemedicine , Adult , Ambulatory Care , Female , Humans , Male , Psychotic Disorders/diagnosis , Psychotic Disorders/therapy , Smartphone
3.
J Ayurveda Integr Med ; 13(1): 100397, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838952

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease, caused by a novel corona virus (SARS-CoV-2, previously known as 2019-nCoV), obtained worldwide attention. In this review, we explored the potential siddha strategies for COVID -19 infections. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the additional benefits of siddha drugs Vasantha kusumakaram mathirai, Thippili rasayanam, Adathodai manapagu and Kabasura kudineer compared to the allopathic standard treatment of care alone in COVID-19 asymptomatic, mild - moderate cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study was an open label Two arm - randomized controlled interventional clinical study. The Group I patients were assigned to Siddha add on treatment whereas Group II subjects were assigned with standard treatment alone. The sample size was 100 for each group. RESULT: The average number of days taken for reduction of symptoms showed significant results (P < 0.001) in Siddha add on compared with standard treatment. The real - time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) investigation turned negative for 78.33% in Siddha add on and 33.33% in standard treatment after 11-14 days. Similarly, CT chest, covid pattern lung involvement percentage showed highly significant reduction (P < 0.0001) in Siddha add on treatment. In addition, Neutrophil Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) ratio, showed significant reduction (P < 0.01) when analyzed by Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Renal, Liver parameters were within the normal limits in Siddha add on Group for 25 samples in post treatment. CONCLUSION: Finally, it was concluded that Siddha add on Group showed accelerated recovery for COVID - 19 patients compared to standard Group. The synergistic effect of Siddha add on with standard treatment gave more promising results in the current study of COVID -19.

4.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc ; 28(6): 1705-1711, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1826407

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Due to the lack of evidence, it was the aim of the study to investigate current possible cutbacks in orthopaedic healthcare due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic (COVID-19). METHODS: An online survey was performed of orthopaedic surgeons in the German-speaking Arthroscopy Society (Gesellschaft für Arthroskopie und Gelenkchirurgie, AGA). The survey consisted of 20 questions concerning four topics: four questions addressed the origin and surgical experience of the participant, 12 questions dealt with potential cutbacks in orthopaedic healthcare and 4 questions addressed the influence of the pandemic on the particular surgeon. RESULTS: Of 4234 contacted orthopaedic surgeons, 1399 responded. Regarding arthroscopic procedures between 10 and 30% of the participants stated that these were still being performed-with actual percentages depending on the specific joint and procedure. Only 6.2% of the participants stated that elective total joint arthroplasty was still being performed at their centre. In addition, physical rehabilitation and surgeons' postoperative follow-ups were severely affected. CONCLUSION: Orthopaedic healthcare services in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland are suffering a drastic cutback due to COVID-19. A drastic reduction in arthroscopic procedures like rotator cuff repair and cruciate ligament reconstruction and an almost total shutdown of elective total joint arthroplasty were reported. Long-term consequences cannot be predicted yet. The described disruption in orthopaedic healthcare services has to be viewed as historic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: V.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedic Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Orthopedics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Aftercare/statistics & numerical data , Arthroplasty/statistics & numerical data , Arthroscopy/statistics & numerical data , Austria/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Germany/epidemiology , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Internet , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
5.
Acta Inform Med ; 28(4): 241-247, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1811114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health chatbots are rising in popularity and capability for fighting the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19). OBJECTIVES: This study aims to review the current literature on COVID-19 related chatbots in healthcare, identify and characterize these emerging technologies and their applications for combating COVID-19, and describe related challenges. METHODS: The authors conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed literature on COVID-19, guided by the Arksey and O'Malley framework. PubMed/MEDLINE and Google Scholar were searched over a period between January and September 2020 by using the keywords "COVID* chatbot", "virtual assistant", "AI enabled platform COVID" and associated synonyms. Relevant studies' references were checked for further articles. The content of these studies was screened and thematically analyzed by the two authors. RESULTS: Out of 543 articles initially identified, 9 were eligible for inclusion. Studies describing chatbots' development and architecture (n=6) were the most common, and only 3 empirical studies on the user experience were identified. Our scoping review identified five key applications of the current health chatbots, which were: disseminating health information and knowledge; self-triage and personal risk assessment; monitoring exposure and notifications; tracking COVID-19 symptoms and health aspects; and combating misinformation and fake news. Furthermore, these technologies can accomplish the following tasks: ask and answer questions; create health records and history of use; complete forms and generate reports; and take simple actions. Nonetheless, the use of health chatbots poses many challenges both at the level of the social system (i.e., consumers' acceptability) as well as the technical system (i.e., design and usability). CONCLUSION: Using health chatbots to combat COVID-19 is a practice still in its infancy. We believe that our work will help researchers in this domain gain better understanding of this novel technology's design and applications, which are needed for continuous improvement in the health chatbots' functionalities and their usefulness to fight COVID-19.

6.
J Asthma Allergy ; 14: 101-108, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1808854

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Asthma exacerbation is among the commonest causes for pediatric emergency room visits, and respiratory viruses are frequent triggers of such exacerbations. Few studies have evaluated the consequences of the novel human coronavirus that causes the illness currently known as COVID-19, in the pediatric population. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown measures on the emergency department in the pediatric asthmatic patient. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective observational study evaluated pediatric patients treated at the Pediatric Emergency Service for wheezing episodes. Changes in the number and characteristics of these patients over the same period of 2019 as compared to 2020 during the month following the alarm declaration (March 14 to April 15) were evaluated. RESULTS: In total, data of 30 asthma patients managed in the period after the declaration of the coronavirus pandemic and of 158 asthma patients managed in the pre-COVID-19 period were included. In 2020, patient visits decreased by 82% in 2019. No statistically significant differences among age, sex, oxygen saturation, fever status, or number of severe bronchospasm episodes were found. Nebulized medication usage was reduced significantly since the alarm declaration. No significant increase in requests for complementary testing in the COVID-19 period was found. No patient requiring hospital admission was found to be PCR SARS-CoV-2 positive. Median time spent in the emergency department decreased from 180 minutes in 2019 to 85 minutes in the COVID-19 era. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic and ensuing lockdown measures have led to an extraordinary reduction in emergency visits to the pediatric service. The ongoing pandemic has also led to improvements in the approach to asthma exacerbations and wheezing, to reduce the risk of exposure to the virus, such as increased use of pressurized metered dose inhaler and decreased time in the Emergency Department.

7.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2111-2118, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793311

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of the 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) not only caused physical abnormalities, but also caused psychological distress, especially for undergraduate students who are facing the pressure of academic study and work. We aimed to explore the prevalence rate of probable anxiety and probable insomnia and to find the risk factors among a longitudinal study of undergraduate students using the approach of machine learning. METHODS: The baseline data (T1) were collected from freshmen who underwent psychological evaluation at two months after entering the university. At T2 stage (February 10th to 13th, 2020), we used a convenience cluster sampling to assess psychological state (probable anxiety was assessed by general anxiety disorder-7 and probable insomnia was assessed by insomnia severity index-7) based on a web survey. We integrated information attained at T1 stage to predict probable anxiety and probable insomnia at T2 stage using a machine learning algorithm (XGBoost). RESULTS: Finally, we included 2009 students (response rate: 80.36%). The prevalence rate of probable anxiety and probable insomnia was 12.49% and 16.87%, respectively. The XGBoost algorithm predicted 1954 out of 2009 students (translated into 97.3% accuracy) and 1932 out of 2009 students (translated into 96.2% accuracy) who suffered anxiety and insomnia symptoms, respectively. The most relevant variables in predicting probable anxiety included romantic relationship, suicidal ideation, sleep symptoms, and a history of anxiety symptoms. The most relevant variables in predicting probable insomnia included aggression, psychotic experiences, suicidal ideation, and romantic relationship. CONCLUSION: Risks for probable anxiety and probable insomnia among undergraduate students can be identified at an individual level by baseline data. Thus, timely psychological intervention for anxiety and insomnia symptoms among undergraduate students is needed considering the above factors.

8.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 16: 2511-2518, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a devastating impact on the mental health condition of the world's population. Although the direct effect of COVID-19 on the mental health status of chronic medical patients is well understood, the burden of depression and anxiety on patients with chronic medical conditions is not well studied yet. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the prevalence of depression, anxiety and associated factors among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Mettu, Ethiopia. METHODS: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from June 1 to July 30, 2020 among chronic medical patients in Mettu Karl Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Consecutive sampling technique was applied with a total of 423 samples. Quantitative data were employed by using structured questionnaires. Descriptive statistical procedures, bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions with odds ratios and 95% confidence interval (CI) were employed. The statistical significance was declared at p value < 0.05. RESULTS: The findings showed that the prevalence of depression and anxiety among chronic medical patients was 55.7% and 61.8%, respectively. Female gender (AOR = 1.66, 95% CI (1.06, 2.59)), poor social support (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI (1.10, 3.42)), widowed/divorced (AOR = 3.92, 95% CI (1.59, 9.64)), separated (AOR = 3.66, 95% CI (1.64, 8.19)), and longer duration of illness (AOR = 1.82, 95% CI (1.15, 2.89)) were significantly associated with depression, whereas earlier age at onset of illness, having more than three co-morbid diagnoses, tobacco use and poor social support were found to have significant association with anxiety among chronic medical patients amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Ethiopia. CONCLUSION: The magnitude of concurrent depression and anxiety in the current study was high. Strategies for prompt identification and treatment of depression and anxiety should be developed among medically ill patients.

9.
Indian J Palliat Care ; 26(Suppl 1): S81-S85, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1792217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIM: In the wave of COVID-19 pandemic, the whole world has come to a standstill. This led to a major setback for cancer patients jeopardizing their treatment plans. This study analyzes the coping mechanisms of running outpatient and inpatient palliative care services in these COVID-19 times - the New Normal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An observational study was conducted in the pain and palliative care unit at a tertiary care hospital, India. The data were collected from March 23, 2020, to May 22, 2020, of all patients coming to the clinic and inpatient referrals. Using manual and electronic records, demographic data was collected along with clinical data. Additional data were compiled with special attention to the patient's pain and its management. RESULTS: Despite complete lockdown and initial low patient load, we saw a progressive increase in the number of patients coming to the clinic. A total of 108 patients visited our clinic (65 male and 43 female), of which 78% of the patients were from Delhi. The median age was 43.94 years (range 6 years to 76 years). We had 33 new and 75 old registered cases coming. The main reason was new-onset pain because of noncompliance of drugs; the opioid stock finished with the patient. We saw a very high number of patients requiring strong and weak opioids. Proper personal protection and social distancing helped in preventing crossinfection. None of our staff or patients fell ill during this time. Communication skills were modified to convey feelings and empathize patients. Telemedicine using phone and video calls was used and found to be useful. CONCLUSION: We share our experience and challenges of providing palliative care in our clinic which can be modified as per the individual requirements in other setups.

10.
Cancer Invest ; 40(5): 401-405, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778718

ABSTRACT

The study is to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 in the Pediatric Oncology Units (POUs) of Pakistan. Data from 1 April 2019 to 30 June 2019 and 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020 for the first and second cohort, respectively, in order to compare the registration, abandonment rate, and delay in treatment. Six hundred and thirty-four were registered cases, 379 and 255 in the first and second cohort, respectively, which was significantly different <0.005. Seventy-seven were abandoned, 45 and 32 in the first and second cohort, respectively. Fifty-nine COVID-19 positive cases, 24, 4, 27, and 4 were admitted, referred, home isolated, and leave against medical advice (LAMA), respectively. Delayed treatment and reduction in new cases were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasms , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
11.
J Neurosurg ; : 1-7, 2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770979

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Aerosol-generating procedures, including endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES), are a major risk for physicians during the COVID-19 pandemic. Techniques for reducing aerosolization and risk of transmission of COVID-19 during these procedures would be valuable to the neurosurgical community. The authors aimed to simulate the generation of small-particle aerosols during EES and craniectomy in order to develop methods to reduce the spread of aerosolized particles, and to test the effectiveness of these methods. METHODS: This study was performed at the Anatomical Laboratory for Visuospatial Innovations in Otolaryngology and Neurosurgery at The Ohio State University. The following two scenarios were used to measure three different particle sizes (0.3, 2.5, and 10 µm) generated: 1) drilling frontotemporal bone, simulating a craniectomy; and 2) drilling sphenoid bone, simulating an endonasal approach. A suction mask device was created with the aim of reducing particle release. The presence of particles was measured without suction, with a single Frazier tip suction in the field, and with the suction mask device in addition to the Frazier suction tip. Particles were measured 12 cm from the craniectomy or endonasal drilling region. RESULTS: In the absence of any aerosol-reducing devices, the number of particles measured during craniectomy was significantly higher than that generated by endonasal drilling. This was true regardless of the particle size measured (0.3 µm, p < 0.001; 2.5 µm, p < 0.001; and 10 µm, p < 0.001). The suction mask device reduced the release of particles of all sizes measured in the craniectomy simulation (0.3 µm, p < 0.001; 2.5 µm, p < 0.001; and 10 µm, p < 0.001) and particles of 0.3 µm and 2.5 µm in the single Frazier suction simulation (0.3 µm, p = 0.031; and 2.5 µm, p = 0.026). The suction mask device further reduced the release of particles of all sizes during EES simulation (0.3 µm, p < 0.001; and 2.5 µm, p < 0.001) and particles of 0.3 µm and 2.5 µm in the single Frazier suction simulation (0.3 µm, p = 0.033; and 2.5 µm, p = 0.048). Large particles (10 µm) were not detected during EES. CONCLUSIONS: The suction mask device is a simple and effective means of reducing aerosol release during EES, and it could potentially be used during mastoidectomies. This could be a valuable tool to reduce the risk of procedure-associated viral transmission during the COVID-19 pandemic.

12.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(3): e524-e530, 2021 08 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Proadrenomedullin (proADM), a vasodilatory peptide with antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, predicts severe outcomes in adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to a greater degree than C-reactive protein and procalcitonin. We evaluated the ability of proADM to predict disease severity across a range of clinical outcomes in children with suspected CAP. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of children 3 months to 18 years with CAP in the emergency department. Disease severity was defined as mild (discharged home), mild-moderate (hospitalized but not moderate-severe or severe), moderate-severe (eg, hospitalized with supplemental oxygen, broadening of antibiotics, complicated pneumonia), and severe (eg, vasoactive infusions, chest drainage, severe sepsis). Outcomes were examined using proportional odds logistic regression within the cohort with suspected CAP and in a subset with radiographic CAP. RESULTS: Among 369 children, median proADM increased with disease severity (mild: median [IQR], 0.53 [0.43-0.73]; mild-moderate: 0.56 [0.45-0.71]; moderate-severe: 0.61 [0.47-0.77]; severe: 0.70 [0.55-1.04] nmol/L) (P = .002). ProADM was significantly associated with increased odds of developing severe outcomes (suspected CAP: OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.2-2.36; radiographic CAP: OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.36-3.38) adjusted for age, fever duration, antibiotic use, and pathogen. ProADM had an AUC of 0.64 (95% CI, .56-.72) in those with suspected CAP and an AUC of 0.77 (95% CI, .68-.87) in radiographic CAP. CONCLUSIONS: ProADM was associated with severe disease and discriminated moderately well children who developed severe disease from those who did not, particularly in radiographic CAP.


Subject(s)
Adrenomedullin , Community-Acquired Infections , Pneumonia , Biomarkers , Child , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Protein Precursors , Severity of Illness Index
13.
Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 26(1): 105-111, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1680899

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Dysgeusia and anosmia have been liked to COVID-19 infection. The aim of this study is to study the prevalence of dysgeusia and anosmia in COVID-19 patients treated at the University of Florida Health Center and establish the odds of having an olfactory and gustatory disorder with a confirmed COVID-19 infection. METHODS: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study utilizing the University of Florida Health Center patients' registry i2b2 platform to search for ICD 10 diagnoses of COVID-19 infection and taste and smell disturbances. We assessed the odds ratio for patients with dysgeusia and anosmia having a laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 infection using a logistic regression model adjusting for gender, race, age, and comorbidity conditions. P < 0.05 was deemed significant. RESULTS: Out of 889 individuals that tested positive for COVID-19, 12.88% were diagnosed with taste and smell disturbances. The odds ratio for COVID-19 for people with dysgeusia and anosmia was 39.107. After adjusting for sex, age, and race, it was 41.9, 37, and 34.2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Taste and smell disturbances in COVID-19 are not anecdotal. It is paramount that oral and maxillofacial surgeons include taste and smell disturbances in the history and physical examination as these symptoms are suspicious of active COVID-19 infection. Patients presenting with an olfactory and gustatory disorder should undergo further evaluations for COVID-19 infection and oral and maxillofacial surgeons should enhance the personal protective equipment used when treating these patients to prevent further spread of the infection and protect other healthcare members.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Olfaction Disorders , Anosmia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dysgeusia/epidemiology , Dysgeusia/etiology , Humans , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Surg Radiol Anat ; 44(1): 41-47, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626304

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Traditional anatomy education (TAE) is based on teaching by seeing and touching cadavers/plastic materials that enable three-dimensional thinking, but there was no opportunity like this in distance anatomy education (DAE). Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, many trainings planned face-to-face were carried out remotely. In this study, our aim is to evaluate students' views on the efficiency of DAE, and to increase the efficiency of DAE in the future. METHODS: The questionnaire used in the study was applied to the first grade students in the Faculty of Medicine, at the Eskisehir Osmangazi University, in 2019-2020. 239 students completed the survey. The questionnaire consisted of the demographic information, that was obtained with voluntary consent, and sections containing suggestions on DAE, and its comparison with distance education of other basic medical science courses. The survey was prepared as a Likert scale (with 1 = totally disagree to 5 = totally agree), on Google forms and sent to the students online. RESULTS: 82.4% of the students marked "totally disagree" or "disagree" for the statement of "DAE is more efficient than TAE". The total percentage of students who marked "totally disagree" or "disagree" for the statement of "I was satisfied with the theoretical education in DAE" was 58.6%, but when it came to practical education the percentage raised to 79.9%. CONCLUSIONS: According to the results the efficiency of DAE, especially in terms of practice lessons, was found to be lower than TAE. To make DAE a powerful alternative to TAE, future studies should aim to develop a new syllabus for DAE.


Subject(s)
Anatomy , COVID-19 , Education, Distance , Students, Medical , Anatomy/education , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Trials ; 22(1): 172, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622253

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that administration of dexamethasone 20 mg is superior to a 6 mg dose in adult patients with moderate or severe ARDS due to confirmed COVID-19. The secondary objective is to investigate the efficacy and safety of dexamethasone 20 mg versus dexamethasone 6 mg. The exploratory objective of this study is to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days. TRIAL DESIGN: REMED is a prospective, phase II, open-label, randomised controlled trial testing superiority of dexamethasone 20 mg vs 6 mg. The trial aims to be pragmatic, i.e. designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in conditions that are close to real-life routine clinical practice. PARTICIPANTS: The study is multi-centre and will be conducted in the intensive care units (ICUs) of ten university hospitals in the Czech Republic. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects will be eligible for the trial if they meet all of the following criteria: 1. Adult (≥18 years of age) at time of enrolment; 2. Present COVID-19 (infection confirmed by RT-PCR or antigen testing); 3. Intubation/mechanical ventilation or ongoing high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy; 4. Moderate or severe ARDS according to Berlin criteria: • Moderate - PaO2/FiO2 100-200 mmHg; • Severe - PaO2/FiO2 < 100 mmHg; 5. Admission to ICU in the last 24 hours. EXCLUSION CRITERIA: Subjects will not be eligible for the trial if they meet any of the following criteria: 1. Known allergy/hypersensitivity to dexamethasone or excipients of the investigational medicinal product (e.g. parabens, benzyl alcohol); 2. Fulfilled criteria for ARDS for ≥14 days at enrolment; 3. Pregnancy or breastfeeding; 4. Unwillingness to comply with contraception measurements from enrolment until at least 1 week after the last dose of dexamethasone (sexual abstinence is considered an adequate contraception method); 5. End-of-life decision or patient is expected to die within next 24 hours; 6. Decision not to intubate or ceilings of care in place; 7. Immunosuppression and/or immunosuppressive drugs in medical history: a) Systemic immunosuppressive drugs or chemotherapy in the past 30 days; b) Systemic corticosteroid use before hospitalization; c) Any dose of dexamethasone during the present hospital stay for COVID-19 for ≥5 days before enrolment; d) Systemic corticosteroids during present hospital stay for conditions other than COVID-19 (e.g. septic shock); 8. Current haematological or generalized solid malignancy; 9. Any contraindication for corticosteroid administration, e.g. • intractable hyperglycaemia; • active gastrointestinal bleeding; • adrenal gland disorders; • presence of superinfection diagnosed with locally established clinical and laboratory criteria without adequate antimicrobial treatment; 10. Cardiac arrest before ICU admission; 11. Participation in another interventional trial in the last 30 days. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Dexamethasone solution for injection/infusion is the investigational medicinal product as well as the comparator. The trial will assess two doses, 20 mg (investigational) vs 6 mg (comparator). Patients in the intervention group will receive dexamethasone 20 mg intravenously once daily on day 1-5, followed by dexamethasone 10 mg intravenously once daily on day 6-10. Patients in the control group will receive dexamethasone 6 mg day 1-10. All authorized medicinal products containing dexamethasone in the form of solution for i.v. injection/infusion can be used. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary endpoint: Number of ventilator-free days (VFDs) at 28 days after randomisation, defined as being alive and free from mechanical ventilation. SECONDARY ENDPOINTS: a) Mortality from any cause at 60 days after randomisation; b) Dynamics of inflammatory marker (C-Reactive Protein, CRP) change from Day 1 to Day 14; c) WHO Clinical Progression Scale at Day 14; d) Adverse events related to corticosteroids (new infections, new thrombotic complications) until Day 28 or hospital discharge; e) Independence at 90 days after randomisation assessed by Barthel Index. The long-term outcomes of this study are to assess long-term consequences on mortality and quality of life at 180 and 360 days through telephone structured interviews using the Barthel Index. RANDOMISATION: Randomisation will be carried out within the electronic case report form (eCRF) by the stratified permuted block randomisation method. Allocation sequences will be prepared by a statistician independent of the study team. Allocation to the treatment arm of an individual patient will not be available to the investigators before completion of the whole randomisation process. The following stratification factors will be applied: • Age <65 and ≥ 65; • Charlson Comorbidity index (CCI) <3 and ≥3; • CRP <150 mg/L and ≥150 mg/L • Trial centre. Patients will be randomised in a 1 : 1 ratio into one of the two treatment arms. Randomisation through the eCRF will be available 24 hours every day. BLINDING (MASKING): This is an open-label trial in which the participants and the study staff will be aware of the allocated intervention. Blinded pre-planned statistical analysis will be performed. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size is calculated to detect the difference of 3 VFDs at 28 days (primary efficacy endpoint) between the two treatment arms with a two-sided type I error of 0.05 and power of 80%. Based on data from a multi-centre randomised controlled trial in COVID-19 ARDS patients in Brazil and a multi-centre observational study from French and Belgian ICUs regarding moderate to severe ARDS related to COVID-19, investigators assumed a standard deviation of VFD at 28 days as 9. Using these assumptions, a total of 142 patients per treatment arm would be needed. After adjustment for a drop-out rate, 150 per treatment arm (300 patients per study) will be enrolled. TRIAL STATUS: This is protocol version 1.1, 15.01.2021. The trial is due to start on 2 February 2021 and recruitment is expected to be completed by December 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study protocol was registered on EudraCT No.:2020-005887-70, and on December 11, 2020 on ClinicalTrials.gov (Title: Effect of Two Different Doses of Dexamethasone in Patients With ARDS and COVID-19 (REMED)) Identifier: NCT04663555 with a last update posted on February 1, 2021. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol (version 1.1) is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the standard formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Dexamethasone/administration & dosage , Glucocorticoids/administration & dosage , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Disease Progression , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Equivalence Trials as Topic , Humans , Length of Stay , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 59-65, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621577

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several vaccines are now available under emergency use authorization in the United States and have demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19. Vaccine impact on asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is largely unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of consecutive, asymptomatic adult patients (n = 39 156) within a large US healthcare system who underwent 48 333 preprocedural SARS-CoV-2 molecular screening tests between 17 December 2020 and 8 February 2021. The primary exposure of interest was vaccination with ≥1 dose of an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. The primary outcome was relative risk (RR) of a positive SARS-CoV-2 molecular test among those asymptomatic persons who had received ≥1 dose of vaccine compared with persons who had not received vaccine during the same time period. RR was adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, patient residence relative to the hospital (local vs nonlocal), healthcare system regions, and repeated screenings among patients using mixed-effects log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Positive molecular tests in asymptomatic individuals were reported in 42 (1.4%) of 3006 tests and 1436 (3.2%) of 45 327 tests performed on vaccinated and unvaccinated patients, respectively (RR, .44; 95% CI, .33-.60; P < .0001). Compared with unvaccinated patients, risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower among those >10 days after the first dose (RR, .21; 95% CI, .12-.37; P < .0001) and >0 days after the second dose (RR, .20; 95% CI, .09-.44; P < .0001) in the adjusted analysis. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 vaccination with an mRNA-based vaccine showed a significant association with reduced risk of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured during preprocedural molecular screening. Results of this study demonstrate the impact of the vaccines on reduction in asymptomatic infections supplementing the randomized trial results on symptomatic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
17.
Burns ; 47(7): 1547-1555, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575639

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has the potential to significantly impact burns patients both directly through infective complications of an immunocompromised cohort, and indirectly through disruption of care pathways and resource limitations. The pandemic presents new challenges that must be overcome to maintain patient safety; in particular, the potential increased risks of surgical intervention, anaesthesia and ventilation. This study comprehensively reviews the measures implemented to adapt referral pathways and mitigate the risk posed by COVID-19 during the height of the pandemic, within a large Burns Centre. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was designed to assess patients treated at the Burns Centre during the UK COVID-19 pandemic peak (April-May 2020), following implementation of new safety measures. All patients were analysed for 30-day mortality. In addition, a prospective controlled cohort study was undertaken on all inpatients and a random sample of outpatients with telephone follow-up at 30 days. These patients were divided into three groups (operative inpatients, non-operative inpatients, outpatients). COVID-19 related data collected included test results, contact with proven cases, isolation status and symptoms. The implemented departmental service COVID-19 safety adaptations are described. RESULTS: Of 323 patients treated at the Burns Centre during the study period, no 30-day COVID-19 related deaths occurred (0/323). Of the 80 patients analysed in the prospective controlled cohort section of the study, 51 underwent COVID-19 testing, 3.9% (2/51) were positive. Both cases were in the operative group, however in comparison to the non-operative and outpatient groups, there was no significant increase in COVID-19 incidence in operative patients. CONCLUSIONS: We found no COVID-19 related mortality during the study period. With appropriate precautions, burns patients were not exposed to an increased COVID-19 risk. Similarly, burns patients undergoing operative management were not at a significantly increased risk of contracting COVID-19 in comparison to non-operative groups.


Subject(s)
Burns , COVID-19 , Patient Safety , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Burns/epidemiology , Burns/surgery , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , England , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Satisfaction , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
18.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(11): 1333-1339, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to contain a healthcare-associated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak, to evaluate contributory factors, and to prevent future outbreaks. DESIGN: Quasi-experimental cluster-control outbreak evaluation. METHODS: All patients and staff on the outbreak ward (case cluster), and randomly selected patients and staff on COVID-19 wards (positive control cluster) and a non-COVID-19 wards (negative control cluster) underwent reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing. Hand hygiene and personal protective equipment (PPE) compliance, detection of environmental SARS-COV-2 RNA, patient behavior, and SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody prevalence were assessed. RESULTS: In total, 145 staff and 26 patients were exposed, resulting in 24 secondary cases. Also, 4 of 14 (29%) staff and 7 of 10 (70%) patients were asymptomatic or presymptomatic. There was no difference in mean cycle threshold between asymptomatic or presymptomatic versus symptomatic individuals. None of 32 randomly selected staff from the control wards tested positive. Environmental RNA detection levels were higher on the COVID-19 ward than on the negative control ward (OR, 19.98; 95% CI, 2.63-906.38; P < .001). RNA levels on the COVID-19 ward (where there were no outbreaks) and the outbreak ward were similar (OR, 2.38; P = .18). Mean monthly hand hygiene compliance, based on 20,146 observations (over preceding year), was lower on the outbreak ward (P < .006). Compared to both control wards, the proportion of staff with detectable antibodies was higher on the outbreak ward (OR, 3.78; 95% CI, 1.01-14.25; P = .008). CONCLUSION: Staff seroconversion was more likely during a short-term outbreak than from sustained duty on a COVID-19 ward. Environmental contamination and PPE use were similar on the outbreak and control wards. Patient noncompliance, decreased hand hygiene, and asymptomatic or presymptomatic transmission were more frequent on the outbreak ward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Stroke , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Infection Control , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Ultrasound Med ; 41(1): 89-96, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung ultrasound (LUS) can accurately diagnose several pulmonary diseases, including pneumothorax, effusion, and pneumonia. LUS may be useful in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19. METHODS: This study was conducted at two United States hospitals from 3/21/2020 to 6/01/2020. Our inclusion criteria included hospitalized adults with COVID-19 (based on symptomatology and a confirmatory RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2) who received a LUS. Providers used a 12-zone LUS scanning protocol. The images were interpreted by the researchers based on a pre-developed consensus document. Patients were stratified by clinical deterioration (defined as either ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death within 28 days from the initial symptom onset) and time from symptom onset to their scan. RESULTS: N = 22 patients (N = 36 scans) were included. Eleven (50%) patients experienced clinical deterioration. Among N = 36 scans, only 3 (8%) were classified as normal. The remaining scans demonstrated B-lines (89%), consolidations (56%), pleural thickening (47%), and pleural effusion (11%). Scans from patients with clinical deterioration demonstrated higher percentages of bilateral consolidations (50 versus 15%; P = .033), anterior consolidations (47 versus 11%; P = .047), lateral consolidations (71 versus 29%; P = .030), pleural thickening (69 versus 30%; P = .045), but not B-lines (100 versus 80%; P = .11). Abnormal findings had similar prevalences between scans collected 0-6 days and 14-28 days from symptom onset. DISCUSSION: Certain LUS findings may be common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, especially for those that experience clinical deterioration. These findings may occur anytime throughout the first 28 days of illness. Future efforts should investigate the predictive utility of these findings on clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adult , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
20.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 33(8): 847-853, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574345

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to investigate the association between adherence to healthy lifestyles (as measured by the healthy lifestyle index [HLI]) and depressive symptoms among staff members at a large national medical institution in Tokyo, Japan, during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study sample consisted of 1228 staff members aged between 21 and 73 years who participated in a cross-sectional survey conducted in July 2020. We constructed the HLI by assigning one point to each healthy lifestyle factor: normal body mass index, sufficient physical activity, non-smoking status, non-to-moderate alcohol consumption, and sufficient sleep duration. The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for depressive symptoms were 1.00 (reference), 0.71, 0.66, and 0.56 for participants with HLI scores of 0 to 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. The present study suggests the role of healthy lifestyles in mental health among hospital staff working during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Healthy Lifestyle , Hospitals , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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