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1.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2020 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898686

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created unprecedented disruption for global healthcare systems. Offices and emergency departments (EDs) were the first responders to the pandemic, followed by medical wards and intensive care unit (ICUs). Worldwide efforts sprouted to coordinate proper response by increasing surge capacity and optimizing diagnosis and containment. Within the complex scenario of the outbreak, the medical community shared scientific research and implemented best-guess imaging strategies in order to save time and additional staff exposures. Early publications showed agreement between chest computed tomography (CT) and lung sonography: widespread ground-glass findings resembling acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) on CT of COVID-19 patients matched lung ultrasound signs and patterns. Well-established accuracy of bedside sonography for lung conditions and its advantages (such as no ionizing radiation; low-cost, real-time bedside imaging; and easier disinfection steps) prompted a wider adoption of lung ultrasound for daily assessment and monitoring of COVID-19 patients. Growing literature, webinars, online materials, and international networks are promoting lung ultrasound for the same purpose. We propose 11 lung ultrasound roles for different medical settings during the pandemic, starting from the out-of-hospital setting, where lung ultrasound has ergonomic and infection control advantages. Then we describe how medical wards and ICUs can safely integrate lung ultrasound into COVID-19 care pathways. Finally, we present outpatient use of lung ultrasound to aid follow-up of positive case contacts and of those discharged from the hospital.

2.
J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open ; 2020 Jun 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898670

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is proving to be a devastating pandemic with both tragic economic and health consequences worldwide. Point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) of the lungs has been thrust into the forefront of resources that could be used in the management of COVID-19 acute care patients. However, relatively little attention has been paid to POCUS utility in assessing the heart in COVID-19 patients. Anecdotal reports suggest encounters of likely COVID-19 induced pericardial effusions and myocardial electrical dysfunction. This article presents 2 cases of generally healthy patients who were noted to have classic COVID-19 bilateral pneumonia findings on lung ultrasound and incidentally discovered to have unsuspected left ventricular dysfunction likely resulting from myocarditis. POCUS videos are presented as illustrations of this potentially overlooked complication.

3.
Med Clin (Engl Ed) ; 156(10): 477-484, 2021 May 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence regarding the imaging findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in chest X-rays and computed tomography scans; however, their availability during this pandemic outbreak might be compromised. Currently, the role of point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) has yet to be explored. OBJECTIVES: To describe the POCUS findings of COVID-19 in patients with the disease admitted to the emergency department (ED), correlating them with vital signs, laboratory and radiologic results, therapeutic decisions, and the prognosis. METHODS: Prospective study performed in the ED of 2 academic hospitals. Patients with highly suspected or confirmed COVID-19 underwent a lung ultrasonography (lung POCUS), focused cardiac ultrasound (FOCUS), and inferior vena cava (IVC) exam. RESULTS: Between March and April 2020, 96 patients were enrolled. The mean age was 68.2 years (SD 17.5). The most common findings in the lung POCUS were an irregular pleural line (63.2%), bilateral confluence (55.2%), and isolated B-lines (53.1%), which were associated with a positive RT-PCR (odds ratio 4.327; 95% CI 1.216-15.401; p < .001), and correlated with IL-6 levels (rho = 0.622; p = .002). The IVC negatively correlated with levels of expiratory pO2 (rho = -0.539; p = .014) and inspiratory pO2 (rho = -0.527; p = 0.017), and expiratory diameter positively correlated with troponin I (rho = 0.509; p = .03). After the POCUS exam, almost 20% of the patients had an associated condition that required a change in their treatment or management. CONCLUSIONS: POCUS parameters have the potential to impact the diagnosis, management, and prognosis of patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19.


ANTECEDENTES: Existe una evidencia creciente con respecto a los hallazgos por imagen de la COVID-19, tanto en radiografías de tórax como en tomografía computarizada; sin embargo, la disponibilidad de estas técnicas durante la pandemia podría verse comprometida. OBJETIVOS: Describir los hallazgos en la ecografía en el punto de atención (POCUS) en pacientes con COVID-19 que consultaron en el servicio de urgencias (SU), correlacionándolos con signos vitales, resultados analíticos y radiológicos, decisiones terapéuticas y pronóstico. MÉTODOS: Estudio prospectivo realizado en los SU de dos hospitales académicos. Los pacientes con COVID-19 con alta sospecha o confirmada se sometieron a una ecografía pulmonar (POCUS pulmonar), una ecocardioscopia y una ecografía de la vena cava inferior (VCI). RESULTADOS: Entre marzo y abril del 2020, se reclutaron 96 pacientes. La edad media fue de 68,2 años (DE 17,5). Los hallazgos más comunes en el POCUS pulmonar fueron la línea pleural irregular (63,2%), las líneas B confluyentes bilateral (55,2%) y aisladas (53,1%), que se vincularon con una RT-PCR (odds ratio 4,327; IC 95% 1,216 a 15,401; p < 0,001), y se asoció con los niveles de interleucina-6 (IL-6) (ρ = 0,622; p = 0,002). La VCI se correlacionó negativamente con los niveles de pO2 espiratorio (ρ = − 0,539; p = 0,014) y pO2 inspiratorio (ρ = − 0,527; p = 0,017), y el diámetro espiratorio se relacionó positivamente con la troponina I (ρ = 0,509; p = 0, 03). Después del examen POCUS, casi el 20% de los pacientes tenían una condición asociada que requería un cambio en el tratamiento o manejo previo. CONCLUSIONES: Los parámetros POCUS tienen el potencial de afectar el diagnóstico, manejo y pronóstico de pacientes con sospecha o confirmación de COVID-19.

4.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(10): 1393-1404, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777843

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary complications are the most common clinical manifestations of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). From recent clinical observation, two phenotypes have emerged: a low elastance or L-type and a high elastance or H-type. Clinical presentation, pathophysiology, pulmonary mechanics, radiological and ultrasound findings of these two phenotypes are different. Consequently, the therapeutic approach also varies between the two. We propose a management algorithm that combines the respiratory rate and oxygenation index with bedside lung ultrasound examination and monitoring that could help determine earlier the requirement for intubation and other surveillance of COVID-19 patients with respiratory failure.


RéSUMé: Les complications pulmonaires du coronavirus (COVID-19) constituent ses manifestations cliniques les plus fréquentes. De récentes observations cliniques ont fait émerger deux phénotypes : le phénotype à élastance faible ou type L (low), et le phénotype à élastance élevée, ou type H (high). La présentation clinique, la physiopathologie, les mécanismes pulmonaires, ainsi que les observations radiologiques et échographiques de ces deux différents phénotypes sont différents. L'approche thérapeutique variera par conséquent selon le phénotype des patients atteints de COVID-19 souffrant d'insuffisance respiratoire.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Respiratory Insufficiency/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Acute Disease , Algorithms , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Lung/virology , Oxygen/metabolism , Pandemics , Phenotype , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Point-of-Care Systems , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Respiratory Rate/physiology
5.
BMJ Sex Reprod Health ; 48(1): 22-27, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736080

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Routine ultrasound may be used in abortion services to determine gestational age and confirm an intrauterine pregnancy. However, ultrasound adds complexity to care and results may be inconclusive, delaying abortion. We sought to determine the rate of ectopic pregnancy and the utility of routine ultrasound in its detection, in a community abortion service. METHODS: Retrospective case record review of women requesting abortion over a 5-year period (2015-2019) with an outcome of ectopic pregnancy or pregnancy of unknown location (PUL) at a service (Edinburgh, UK) conducting routine ultrasound on all women. Records were searched for symptoms at presentation, development of symptoms during clinical care, significant risk factors and routine ultrasound findings. RESULTS: Only 29/11 381 women (0.25%, 95% CI 0.18%, 0.33%) had an ectopic pregnancy or PUL (tubal=18, caesarean scar=1, heterotopic=1, PUL=9). Eleven (38%) cases had either symptoms at presentation (n=8) and/or significant risk factors for ectopic pregnancy (n=4). A further 12 women developed symptoms during their clinical care. Of the remaining six, three were PUL treated with methotrexate and three were ectopic (salpingectomy=2, methotrexate=1). In three cases, the baseline ultrasound indicated a probable early intrauterine pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Ectopic pregnancies are uncommon among women presenting for abortion. The value of routine ultrasound in excluding ectopic pregnancy in symptom-free women without significant risk factors is questionable as it may aid detection of some cases but may provide false reassurance that a pregnancy is intrauterine.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Induced , Abortion, Spontaneous , Pregnancy, Ectopic , Abortion, Induced/adverse effects , Abortion, Spontaneous/diagnostic imaging , Abortion, Spontaneous/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Pregnancy, Ectopic/diagnostic imaging , Pregnancy, Ectopic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Ultrasonography
7.
J Ultrasound Med ; 41(1): 89-96, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574799

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Lung ultrasound (LUS) can accurately diagnose several pulmonary diseases, including pneumothorax, effusion, and pneumonia. LUS may be useful in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19. METHODS: This study was conducted at two United States hospitals from 3/21/2020 to 6/01/2020. Our inclusion criteria included hospitalized adults with COVID-19 (based on symptomatology and a confirmatory RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2) who received a LUS. Providers used a 12-zone LUS scanning protocol. The images were interpreted by the researchers based on a pre-developed consensus document. Patients were stratified by clinical deterioration (defined as either ICU admission, invasive mechanical ventilation, or death within 28 days from the initial symptom onset) and time from symptom onset to their scan. RESULTS: N = 22 patients (N = 36 scans) were included. Eleven (50%) patients experienced clinical deterioration. Among N = 36 scans, only 3 (8%) were classified as normal. The remaining scans demonstrated B-lines (89%), consolidations (56%), pleural thickening (47%), and pleural effusion (11%). Scans from patients with clinical deterioration demonstrated higher percentages of bilateral consolidations (50 versus 15%; P = .033), anterior consolidations (47 versus 11%; P = .047), lateral consolidations (71 versus 29%; P = .030), pleural thickening (69 versus 30%; P = .045), but not B-lines (100 versus 80%; P = .11). Abnormal findings had similar prevalences between scans collected 0-6 days and 14-28 days from symptom onset. DISCUSSION: Certain LUS findings may be common in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, especially for those that experience clinical deterioration. These findings may occur anytime throughout the first 28 days of illness. Future efforts should investigate the predictive utility of these findings on clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pneumonia , Adult , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e4189-e4196, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasonography (LUS) is a promising pragmatic risk-stratification tool in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This study describes and compares LUS characteristics between patients with different clinical outcomes. METHODS: Prospective observational study of polymerase chain reaction-confirmed adults with COVID-19 with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection in the emergency department (ED) of Lausanne University Hospital. A trained physician recorded LUS images using a standardized protocol. Two experts reviewed images blinded to patient outcome. We describe and compare early LUS findings (≤24 hours of ED presentation) between patient groups based on their 7-day outcome (1) outpatients, (2) hospitalized, and (3) intubated/dead. Normalized LUS score was used to discriminate between groups. RESULTS: Between 6 March and 3 April 2020, we included 80 patients (17 outpatients, 42 hospitalized, and 21 intubated/dead). Seventy-three patients (91%) had abnormal LUS (70% outpatients, 95% hospitalized, and 100% intubated/dead; P = .003). The proportion of involved zones was lower in outpatients compared with other groups (median [IQR], 30% [0-40%], 44% [31-70%], 70% [50-88%]; P < .001). Predominant abnormal patterns were bilateral and there was multifocal spread thickening of the pleura with pleural line irregularities (70%), confluent B lines (60%), and pathologic B lines (50%). Posterior inferior zones were more often affected. Median normalized LUS score had a good level of discrimination between outpatients and others with area under the ROC of .80 (95% CI, .68-.92). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic LUS has potential as a reliable, cheap, and easy-to-use triage tool for the early risk stratification in patients with COVID-19 presenting to EDs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
9.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 14: 16-29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501334

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly around the world, resulting in a massive death toll. Lung infection or pneumonia is the common complication of COVID-19, and imaging techniques, especially computed tomography (CT), have played an important role in diagnosis and treatment assessment of the disease. Herein, we review the imaging characteristics and computing models that have been applied for the management of COVID-19. CT, positron emission tomography - CT (PET/CT), lung ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used for detection, treatment, and follow-up. The quantitative analysis of imaging data using artificial intelligence (AI) is also explored. Our findings indicate that typical imaging characteristics and their changes can play crucial roles in the detection and management of COVID-19. In addition, AI or other quantitative image analysis methods are urgently needed to maximize the value of imaging in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
10.
Actas Urol Esp (Engl Ed) ; 2021 Jun 10.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1474254

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This is the first national survey assessing Greek Urology residency programs. The main objective of this study is to assess the level of confidence and perception of Greek Urology residents regarding their educational program and detect areas of improvement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A 51-question survey was developed via an electronic platform and answered by 91 out of 104 Greek residents from March 2019 until May 2019. Fisher's exact test, chi-squared test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used with statistical significance set at p=.05. RESULTS: The median overall satisfaction regarding surgical training was 6/10 regardless of working schedule, working in a University Department, PGY or number of residents in clinic. Most residents have not performed any scrotal ultrasound or pressure-flow-studies; however, they are more familiar with KUB ultrasound. Double-J stent insertion and cystoscopy were common procedures for residents. Bureaucracy was reported as a major issue by 70.4% of residents. ESWL has not been performed by 80.2% of residents, 58.2% residents performed less than 10 ureteroscopies, and only the last year trainees performed more than 10 TURBT and TURP. Most residents mentioned to rarely perform basic steps in many open or laparoscopic urological procedures. Surprisingly, 59.3% of residents have not published any study in peer-reviewed journals. Regarding satisfaction, 44% rarely feel satisfied at work and 59.3% sometimes suffer from burnout. Response rate reached 87.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the results from this survey, regulatory authorities should join forces to establish a structured curriculum of clinical, surgical and research training in Urology across Europe.

11.
Eur Respir J ; 58(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lung ultrasound is feasible for assessing lung injury caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the prognostic meaning and time-line changes of lung injury assessed by lung ultrasound in COVID-19 hospitalised patients are unknown. METHODS: Prospective cohort study designed to analyse prognostic value of lung ultrasound in COVID-19 patients by using a quantitative scale (lung ultrasound Zaragoza (LUZ)-score) during the first 72 h after admission. The primary end-point was in-hospital death and/or admission to the intensive care unit. Total length of hospital stay, increase of oxygen flow and escalation of medical treatment during the first 72 h were secondary end-points. RESULTS: 130 patients were included in the final analysis; mean±sd age was 56.7±13.5 years. Median (interquartile range) time from the beginning of symptoms to admission was 6 (4-9) days. Lung injury assessed by LUZ-score did not differ during the first 72 h (21 (16-26) points at admission versus 20 (16-27) points at 72 h; p=0.183). In univariable logistic regression analysis, estimated arterial oxygen tension/inspiratory oxygen fraction ratio (PAFI) (hazard ratio 0.99, 95% CI 0.98-0.99; p=0.027) and LUZ-score >22 points (5.45, 1.42-20.90; p=0.013) were predictors for the primary end-point. CONCLUSIONS: LUZ-score is an easy, simple and fast point-of-care ultrasound tool to identify patients with severe lung injury due to COVID-19, upon admission. Baseline score is predictive of severity along the whole period of hospitalisation. The score facilitates early implementation or intensification of treatment for COVID-19 infection. LUZ-score may be combined with clinical variables (as estimated by PAFI) to further refine risk stratification.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Point-of-Care Systems , Adult , Aged , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
12.
AACE Clin Case Rep ; 7(5): 288-292, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397116

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, procalcitonin (PCT) levels have proven useful in assisting clinicians to diagnose bacterial superinfection. However, in the absence of signs of infection or at the resolution thereof, inappropriately and persistently high PCT levels may suggest and reveal the presence of other pathologies. We report a patient with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 pneumonia with initially elevated PCT levels that persisted during recovery, prompting the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). METHODS: A 43-year-old man presented with a 2-day history of fever, sneezing, sore throat, and dry cough. His PCT was 94 ng/mL (normal value, 0.00-0.10 ng/mL), and he was positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 RNA. RESULTS: Empirical antibiotic therapy was administered for 7 days, but despite a clinical improvement, serum PCT remained high (84 ng/mL). Serum calcitonin (CTN) was 2120 pg/mL (normal, ≤12 pg/mL). Cytologic examination of thyroid nodules and CTN measurement of the aspiration needle washout confirmed MTC. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral cervical lymph node dissection. Lowered CTN (986 pg/mL) and PCT (16 ng/mL) levels were observed 48 hours after surgery. A close follow-up was planned following the results of RET gene analysis. CONCLUSION: PCT can be a useful biochemical marker of MTC suspicion in patients with inflammatory conditions and persistently elevated PCT, even after resolution. In our case, high levels of PCT in a patient with coronavirus disease 2019 pneumonia without signs of bacterial infection led to MTC diagnosis.

13.
Exp Ther Med ; 21(3): 273, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389587

ABSTRACT

Few articles have been published on the subject of laryngeal ultrasonography. However, considering the increased power and accuracy of ultrasound technology, this imaging modality should be reevaluated. The present review aimed to increase the awareness of fellow specialists regarding the use of this imaging tool in healthcare units that do not benefit from onsite ear, nose and throat (ENT) service. We illustrate the ultrasonographic examination protocol for the larynx along with the relevant anatomic landmarks. We review cases with laryngeal tumoral pathology that underwent ultrasonographic examination for improved management. All findings were confirmed through computerized tomography (CT) and endoscopy performed by the ENT specialist. The ultrasound of the larynx has potential utility in diagnosis (e.g., laryngeal abnormalities, speech and swallowing abnormalities, identification of endotracheal tube placement), treatment (e.g., guidance of percutaneous tracheostomy and cricothyrotomy) and prognosis (e.g., prediction of postextubation stridor and difficult intubation). This imaging modality could be useful in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemics in reducing the exposure to invasive maneuvers producing aerosol, such as endoscopy.

14.
J Ultrasound Med ; 40(9): 1787-1794, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic, raising widespread public health concerns. Our team treated hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, where the outbreak first began, and we suspected that SARS-CoV-2 may cause testicular infection in male patients. We conducted this study to explore that observation. METHODS: We enrolled male patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and performed a bedside ultrasound (US) examination of the scrotum, focused on findings of acute inflammation such as tunica albuginea thickening, enlargement and heterogeneous echogenicity of the testis, epididymis, or both, an abscess, scrotal wall edema, and hydrocele. Then we compared the proportions of observed epididymo-orchitis in patients from different age groups and COVID-19 severity groups. RESULTS: A total of 142 patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in our study, and 32 (22.5%) patients had acute orchitis, epididymitis, or epididymo-orchitis on scrotal US imaging, according to the diagnosis criteria. The observed risk of acute scrotal infection increased with age, with the incidence reaching 53.3% in men older than 80 years. We also observed that men with severe COVID-19 had a significantly higher possibility of epididymo-orchitis compared to the nonsevere COVID-19 group (P = .037). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows US imaging evidence that SARS-CoV-2 may cause infection of the testis or epididymis, and the risk is worthy of the attention of clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Orchitis , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Orchitis/diagnostic imaging , Orchitis/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 603-609, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1351708

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly spread all over the world. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has emerged as a useful tool for diagnosing many respiratory diseases. The prognostic role of LUS in COVID-19 patients has not yet been established. METHODS: Several databases were searched on 09 April 2021. The difference in LUS score between the death and survival groups, and the relationship between LUS score and COVID-19 severity were both assessed. RESULTS: The LUS score was significantly higher in the death group compared with the survival group (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 8.21, 95% CI: 4.74-11.67, P < 0.001), which was confirmed by trial sequential analysis. Those with mild/moderate, severe and critical COVID-19 had a progressively higher LUS score (critical vs. severe: WMD = 8.78, 95% CI: 4.17-13.38; P < 0.001; critical vs. mild/moderate/severe: WMD = 10.00, 95% CI: 6.83-13.17, P < 0.001; severe vs. moderate: WMD = 5.96, 95% CI: 3.48-8.44, P < 0.001; severe vs. mild/moderate: WMD = 7.31, 95% CI: 4.45-10.17, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The LUS score was associated with mortality and severity of COVID-19. The LUS score might be a risk stratification tool for COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultrasonography
18.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; 217(3): 584-586, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320565

ABSTRACT

Reports of patients with axillary adenopathy identified on breast imaging after coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination are rising. We propose a pragmatic management approach based on clinical presentation, vaccination delivery, and imaging findings. In the settings of screening mammography, screening MRI, and diagnostic imaging workup of breast symptoms, with no imaging findings beyond unilateral axillary adenopathy ipsilateral to recent (within the past 6 weeks) vaccination, we report the adenopathy as benign with no further imaging indicated if no nodes are palpable 6 weeks after the last dose. For patients with palpable axillary adenopathy in the setting of ipsilateral recent vaccination, clinical follow-up of the axilla is recommended. In all these scenarios, axillary ultrasound is recommended if clinical concern persists 6 weeks after vaccination. In patients with a recent breast cancer diagnosis in the pre- or peritreatment setting, prompt recommended imaging is encouraged as well as vaccination (in the thigh or contralateral arm). Our recommendations align with the ACR BI-RADS Atlas and aim to reduce patient anxiety, provider burden, and costs of unnecessary evaluation of enlarged nodes in the setting of recent vaccinations and, also, to avoid further delays in vaccinations and breast cancer screening during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Breast/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Lymph Nodes/pathology , Lymphadenopathy/diagnostic imaging , Axilla/diagnostic imaging , Early Detection of Cancer , Female , Humans , Lymph Nodes/diagnostic imaging , Lymphadenopathy/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Mammography , Ultrasonography , Vaccination
19.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(7): 1743-1746, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1317987

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy is a common abnormality in patients with COVID-19. However, the exact incidence of venous thromboembolic event is unknown in anticoagulated, severe COVID-19 patients. OBJECTIVES: Systematic assessment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) using complete duplex ultrasound (CDU) in anticoagulated COVID-19 patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective study in 2 French intensive care units (ICU) where CDU is performed as a standard of care. A CDU from thigh to ankle at selected sites with Doppler waveforms and images was performed early during ICU stay in patients admitted with COVID-19. Anticoagulation dose was left to the discretion of the treating physician based on the individual risk of thrombosis. Patients were classified as treated with prophylactic anticoagulation or therapeutic anticoagulation. Pulmonary embolism was systematically searched in patients with persistent hypoxemia or secondary deterioration. RESULTS: From March 19 to April 11, 2020, 26 consecutive patients with severe COVID-19 were screened for VTE. Eight patients (31%) were treated with prophylactic anticoagulation, whereas 18 patients (69%) were treated with therapeutic anticoagulation. The overall rate of VTE in patients was 69%. The proportion of VTE was significantly higher in patients treated with prophylactic anticoagulation when compared with the other group (100% vs 56%, respectively, P = .03). Surprisingly, we found a high rate of thromboembolic events in COVID-19 patients treated with therapeutic anticoagulation, with 56% of VTE and 6 pulmonary embolisms. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest considering both systematic screening of VTE and early therapeutic anticoagulation in severe ICU COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Venous Thrombosis/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Host-Parasite Interactions , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pulmonary Embolism/blood , Pulmonary Embolism/epidemiology , Pulmonary Embolism/virology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome , Venous Thromboembolism/blood , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Venous Thromboembolism/virology , Venous Thrombosis/blood , Venous Thrombosis/epidemiology , Venous Thrombosis/virology
20.
Shock ; 56(2): 200-205, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1316852

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: We used lung ultrasonography to identify features of COVID-19 pneumonia and to evaluate the prognostic value. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed lung ultrasonography on 48 COVID-19 patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) (Wuhan, China) using a 12-zone method. The associations between lung ultrasonography score, PaO2/FiO2, APACHE II, SOFA, and PaCO2 with 28-day mortality were analyzed and the receiver operator characteristic curve was plotted. RESULTS: 25.9% areas in all scanning zones presented with B7 lines and 23.5% with B3 lines (B-pattern) on lung ultrasonography; 13% areas with confluent B lines (B-pattern), 24.9% in areas with consolidations, and 9.9% in areas with A lines. Pleural effusion was observed in 2.8% of areas. Lung ultrasonography score was negatively correlated with PaO2/FiO2 (n = 48, r = -0.498, P < 0.05) and positively correlated with APACHE II (n = 48, r = 0.435, P < 0.05). Lung ultrasonography score was independently associated with 28-day mortality. The areas under receiver operator characteristic curves of lung ultrasonography score were 0.735 (95% CI: 0.586-0.844). The sensitivity, specificity, and cutoff values were 0.833, 0.722, and 22.5, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Lung ultrasonography could be used to assess the severity of COVID-19 pneumonia, and it could also reveal the pathological signs of the disease. The lung ultrasonography score on ICU admission was independently related to the ICU 28-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography/methods , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , SARS-CoV-2
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